Done, your profile is created.Finish your profile by filling in the following fields
Forgot Password Earn Money,Free Notes
Password sent to your Email Id, Please Check your Mail
Updating Cart........ Please Wait........
Ad-Hoc Routing Protocols.
It is a type of MHWNs.
Nodes in the network are mobile in general.
The wireless hosts in such networks, communicate with each other without the existing of a fixed infrastructure and without a central control.
A mobile ad-hoc network can be connected to other fixed networks or to the Internet.
Most of the Ad-Hoc networks use the allocated frequencies for the Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band.
Advantages and Applications.
Cellular VS AdHoc Networks.
Technical Challenges and Issues.
AdHoc Wireless Media Access Protocols.
AdHoc Routing Protocols.
Providing Quality of Service in AdHoc Networks.Introduction (1):
Multihop Wireless Networks (MHWNs):
It is defined as a collection of nodes that communicate with each
other wirelessly by using radio signals with a shared common
Path, chain or route
There are several names for MHWNs; it could be called packet
radio network, AdHoc network or mobile network.
The nodes here could be named stations or radio transmitters
AdHoc Wireless Sensor
Networks NetworksIntroduction (3):
It is a type of MHWNs.
Nodes in the network are mobile in general.
The wireless hosts in such networks, communicate with each
other without the existing of a fixed infrastructure and without a
A mobile adhoc network can be connected to other fixed
networks or to the Internet.
Most of the AdHoc networks use the allocated frequencies for
the Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band.Advantages and Applications (1):
Adhoc networks have several advantages over the traditional
Adhoc networks can have more flexibility.
It is better in mobility.
It can be turn up and turn down in a very short time.
It can be more economical.
It considered a robust network because of its nonhierarchical
distributed control and management mechanisms.Advantages and Applications (2):
There are lots of applications for AdHoc networks, like:
Group of people with laptops and they want to exchange files and
data without having an access point.
Sharing the internet
Connected to the internetAdvantages and Applications (2):
Incase if we need to exchange information and the network's
infrastructure has been destroyed.
It is suitable for military communications at battlefield where
there is no network infrastructure.Cellular VS AdHoc Networks:
Cellular AdHoc Networks
Infrastructure networks. Infrastructureless networks.
Fixed, prelocated cell sites and No base station, and rapid
base station. deployment.
Static backbone network topology. Highly dynamic network topologies.
Relatively caring environment and Hostile environment and irregular
stable connectivity. connectivity.
Detailed planning before base AdHoc network automatically
station can be installed. forms and adapts to changes.
High setup costs. Costeffective.
Large setup time. Less setup time. Technical Challenges and Issues (1):
There are several challenges that AdHoc network faces such as:
• Limited wireless range.
• Hidden terminals.
• Packet losses.
• Routes changes.
• Devices heterogeneity.
• Battery power constraints.Technical Challenges and Issues (2):
The main challenges face the AdHoc networks are the following:
Energy conservation: Nodes in AdHoc networks are equipped
with limited batteries.
Unstructured and/or timevarying network topology: Because of
the nodes mobility, that makes the network topology usually
unstructured and makes the optimizing process a difficult task.
Scalability: In some cases, there will be a huge number of nodes.Technical Challenges and Issues (3):
Lowquality communications: In general, wireless networks are
less reliable than the wired networks. In addition to that, the
quality of the network can be affected by the environmental
Resourceconstrained computation: The resources in AdHoc
networks such as energy and network bandwidth are available in
limited amounts.Technical Challenges and Issues (4):
In addition to that, AdHoc networks inherit some of the issues
which are faced by the traditional wireless networks, like:
There are no known boundaries for the maximum range that
nodes will be able to receive network frames.
The wireless channel is weak, unreliable, and unprotected from
The wireless channel has timevarying and asymmetric
Hiddennode and exposednode problems may occur.Technical Challenges and Issues (5):
ReceiverTechnical Challenges and Issues (6):
Transmitter Exposed Node
ReceiverAdHoc Wireless Media Access Protocols (1):
Why do we need for a media access protocol
The medium is shared by all of the nodes.
If we give the node the freedom to send at any time, then that
could result in a contention.
We can't have a central controller to manage the transmission
process, because every node can move at any time.
Therefore, we will choose from the medium access control (MAC)
protocols in order to use the shred medium in the most efficient
way.AdHoc Wireless Media Access Protocols (2):
SenderInitiated ReceiverInitiated AdHoc Wireless Media Access Protocols (3):
SenderInitiated MAC Protocols:
3AdHoc Wireless Media Access Protocols (4):
ReceiverInitiated MAC Protocols:
2AdHoc Wireless Media Access Protocols (5):
Existing AdHoc MAC Protocols:
1. Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (MACA):
It was proposed as a solution for both hidden terminal and
exposed node problems.
It has the ability to control the transmitter power for each
It uses a threeway handshake, RTSCTSData.
Collisions could occur in MCSA, because there is no carrier
sensing in it.AdHoc Wireless Media Access Protocols (6):
ReceiverAdHoc Wireless Media Access Protocols (7):
2. MACABI (By Invitation):
MACSBI is considered as ReceiverInitiated MAC Protocol.
In MACABI, there is no way that the receiver will know whether
the transmitter has a data to transmit or not, which will affect
the communication performance, because of the waiting time
for the RTR messages.
MACABI is less likely to have a control packets collision because
it uses half as many control packets as MACA.AdHoc Wireless Media Access Protocols (8):
3. PowerAware MultiAccess Protocol with Signaling (PAMAS):
PAMAS is based on the MACA protocol with an extra separated
signaling channel where RTSCTS handshake occurs.
It reduces the power consumption by turning off all nodes that
are not actively transmitting or receiving.
In PAMAS, each node has the ability to shout down its
There are two conditions where the node has to turn off its
• If it doesn't have data to transmit.
• If one of its neighbors is transmitting data and another is
receiving.AdHoc Wireless Media Access Protocols (9):
4. Dual Busy Tone Multiple Access (DBTMA):
It has been proposed to solve the hidden terminal problem.
In BTMA, when node is receiving data, it sends a busy tone
signal to its neighbors. After the hidden terminals sense the busy
tone they refrain from transmitting.
The DBTMA (Dual Busy Tone Multiple Access) is a customization
of BTMA for the AdHoc networks.
In DBTMA, there are two out of band busy tones, one use to
signify transmit busy and the other use to signify receive busy.AdHoc Wireless Media Access Protocols (10):
Dual Busy Tone Multiple Access (DBTMA) Process
ReceiverAdHoc Routing Protocols (1):
There are lots of routing protocols which have been developed for
AdHoc networks. When these protocols have been developed, it
has been taken in the consideration the limitations of this type of
Table Driven / OnDemand
Proactive Driven / ReactiveAdHoc Routing Protocols (2):
1. TableDriven Approaches:
Tabledriven routing protocols try to keep the last updated and
stable routing information from each node to the rest of the
nodes in the network.
In this type of routing protocol, each node should maintain at
least one table to store the routing information.
In case of any change in the network topology, the nodes will
propagate the route updates throughout the network in order to
maintain a stable network view.AdHoc Routing Protocols (3):
1.1. Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV):
The main feature in this protocol is the avoidance of the routing
Each node here maintains a routing table of all destinations
within the nonpartitioned network and the number of hops to
A sequence numbering system is used in order to be able to
distinguish between the old and bad routes from the new ones.
Updates in the routing table are sent periodically to keep the
routing table uptodate and consistent.AdHoc Routing Protocols (4):
The broadcasts of the new route will contain:
• Destination address.
• Number of hops to the destination.
• Sequence number of the information received regarding the
• New sequence number unique to the broadcast.
Each route is labeled with a sequence number and the route
with the highest sequence number will be used.
If there are two updates have the same sequence number, then
the route with the smaller hop count will be used.AdHoc Routing Protocols (5):
1.2. Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP):
Each routing node in WRP communicates the distance and
secondtolast hop information for all destinations in the
The WRP is classified as one of the pathfinding algorithms, but
here the counttoinfinity problem has been avoided by making
each node check the consistency of the predecessor information
reported by its neighbors.
In WRP, each nodes learns about its neighbors from the
acknowledgments and the other messages it's receives.AdHoc Routing Protocols (6):
In case if the node does not have any data to send, it should
send a HELLO message in a specified periodic time to make sure
that the connectivity information is properly reflected.
New Node Existing NodeAdHoc Routing Protocols (7):
Each node here should maintain four tables:
• Distance table: contains the number of hops from the node to
all possible destinations.
• Routing table: specifies the next hop.
• Linkcost table: tells about the delay for each link.
• Message retransmission list table: contains information such as
the sequence number of the update message, the
retransmission counter, the list of all the sent updates,… etc.AdHoc Routing Protocols (8):
Each node sends a periodic update messages to its neighbors to
ensure that the routing information is accurate.
The update message indicates:
• The destination.
• The distance to the destination.
• The predecessor of the destination.
• List of all nodes who should acknowledge the update.
The update message is sent either after the node is finished
from processing the updates which it has received from its
neighbors or if there is any change detected in any link.AdHoc Routing Protocols (9):
1.3. Cluster Switch Gateway Routing (CSGR):
Nodes in CSGR are grouped in clusters and each cluster has a
cluster head which can control a group of AdHoc hosts.
Each time a cluster head moves away, a new cluster head is
By using the least cluster change (LCC) algorithm, the cluster
head will be changed either if two cluster heads come into
contact or if the node moves away from all other cluster heads.
CSGR is based on the DSDV, but with a little difference that CSGR
uses a hierarchical clusterheadtogateway routing approach.AdHoc Routing Protocols (10):AdHoc Routing Protocols (11):
Each node in CSGR maintains two tables:
• Cluster member table: where it stores information about the
destination cluster head for all nodes in the networks, and it is
broadcast this table periodically using the DSDV protocol.
• Routing table: is used to determine the next hop to reach the
When routing packets, a node will use the previous two tables to
select the nearest cluster head along the route to the
destination.AdHoc Routing Protocols (12):
2. SourceInitiated OnDemand Approaches:
Here, the routing protocols create routes only when requested
by the source node.
A route discovery process is initiated by the source node.
This process is considered done either after:
• finding a route to the destination.
• after examined all the possible route permutations.
Once the route is established, it will be maintained by some
form of route maintenance procedure until either the
destination becomes inaccessible or the route is no longer
desired.AdHoc Routing Protocols (13):
2.1. AdHoc OnDemand Distance Vector Routing (AODV):
The AODV routing protocol is based on the DSDV algorithm.
It can minimize the number of required broadcasts by creating
routes on an ondemand basis.
It is considered as a pure ondemand route acquisition system.AdHoc Routing Protocols (13):
The source node does the discovery process by broadcasting a
route request (RREQ) packet to its neighbors, which in their turn
forward the request to their neighbors, and their neighbors do
the same thing, and so on, until either the destination or an
intermediate node with a route to the destination is located.
The RREQ is identified by using the broadcast ID and the node's
The source node adds the last sequence number it has for the
destination into the RREQ packet.
The intermediate nodes reply to the RREQ only if they have a
route to the destination with a sequence number equal or
greater than the one included in the RREQ.AdHoc Routing Protocols (14):
2.2. Dynamic Source Routing (DSR):
The DSR protocol is based on the concept of source routing,
where each node is required to maintain route caches that
contain the source routes of which the mobile is aware.
There are two phases in this protocol:
• The route discovery phase.
• The route maintenance phase.
When node has data to send, it first checks its route cache to see
if it already has an unexpired route to the destination.AdHoc Routing Protocols (15):
Propagation of the route request messages:
N1 N2 N1 N2N5
N1 –N3N4AdHoc Routing Protocols (16):
Propagation of the route replay with the route record :
N1 N2N5N8 N1 N2N5N8
N1 N2N5N8AdHoc Routing Protocols (17):
2.3. Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA):
TORA is a sourceinitiated, loopfree, distributed routing
algorithm based on the concept of link reversal.
This protocol performs three basic functions: route creation,
route maintenance, and route erasure.
During the phases of creating and maintaining the route, nodes
will use a "height" metric to establish a DAG (directed acyclic
graph) rooted at the destination.AdHoc Routing Protocols (18):
Route maintenance process in TORA:
N1 N4 N7
N5 N6AdHoc Routing Protocols (19):
TORA has five elements:
• The logical time of link failure.
• The unique ID of the node that defined the new reference level.
• The reflection indicator bit.
• The propagation ordering parameter.
• The unique ID of the node.
The invalid routes would be erased in the route erasure phase,
and that is done by flooding a broadcast "clear packet" (CLR)
throughout the network.AdHoc Routing Protocols (20):
3. Location Aided Routing (LAR):
One of the LAR protocol concepts, that it uses the location
information (e.g. by utilizing the GPS) to enhance the
performance of the AdHoc network.
There are two defined zones in LAR:
• The expected zone.
• The request zone.AdHoc Routing Protocols (21):
Concepts of request zone and expected zone in LAR :AdHoc Routing Protocols (22):
There are several reasons make the location based routing suffer
and fail to operate in the real field, such as:
• The GPS is not yet available worldwide.
• The positional information from the GPS could come with
• Some devices do not have GPS receivers.AdHoc Routing Protocols (23):
4. Power Aware Routing (PAR):
In this protocol, battery life is the metric for selecting the route.AdHoc Routing Protocols (24):
5. Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP):
The ZRP is a hybrid routing protocol.
The routing zone in ZRP is similar to the routing zone in CSGR,
but in ZRP, every node acts as a cluster head and a member of
other clusters, and zones can be overlapped.
The ZRP can be subdivided into three subprotocols:
• the proactive (tabledriven) Intrazone Routing Protocol (IARP).
• the reactive Interzone Routing Protocol (IERP).
• the Bordercast Resolution Protocol (BRP).AdHoc Routing Protocols (25):
The IARP can be implemented using link state or distance vector
The IARP depends on the discovery protocol to detect the
neighbors, and the link connectivity to them.
The IERP depends on the border nodes to search for routing
information to nodes located outside its current zone by
performing ondemand routing.AdHoc Routing Protocols (26):
6. Source Tree Adaptive Routing (STAR):
The STAR protocol is a proactive routing protocol.
In STAR, each node maintains its own source tree.
Each node in STAR knows about its adjacent links and the source
trees of its neighbors, and after it aggregates the adjacent links
with the source trees, it will get a partial topology graph.
Each node derives the routing table from running a route
selection algorithm on its own source tree, and from the routing
table it can know what the successor to any destination is.Providing Quality of Service in AdHoc Networks (1):
The QoS is defined as a set of measurable prespecified service
requirements need to be met by the network while transferring
packets from source to destination.
It could be defined as an agreement or a guarantee that the
network will provide a set of measurable service performance
such as endtoend delay, delay variance (jitter), available
bandwidth, probability of packet loss, cost of transport, total
network throughput, etc.Providing Quality of Service in AdHoc Networks (2):
There are lots of problems in AdHoc network when providing QoS
1. Routing problem: It can be defined as the process of finding a
loop free route from the source to the destination which should
also support the requested level of QoS.
2. Maintenance problem: It can be described as how to make sure
that the network will continue support the agreed level of QoS
in case if any change happened in the network topology.
3. Variable resource problem: It deals with the changes in the
available resources and how to react to these changes.