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Introduction to Quality Management (QM)

Introduction to Quality Management (QM) 35
Chapter 5 Introduction to Quality Management (QM) DPT333/3 MOHD ZAIZU BIN ILYAS Introduction to Quality Management (QM) Learning Objectives At the end of this course, you are expected to have an ability to Describe, Explain And Illustrate Definition of Quality, Quality management and its pioneers, Total quality, Two views of quality, Key elements of total quality, Customer satisfaction, retention and loyalty. Quality  “Quality is in the eye of the beholder” why  People deal with quality in daily lives. Eg: Shopping, eating in restaurant, buying motorbikes, buying cars, a house, TV, PC, etc  Perceived quality is a major factor people consider in market place. Definitions Quality: Fitness for use the ability of a good or service to meet customer needs Quality Management: systematic policies, methods, and procedures used to ensure that goods and services are produced with appropriate levels of quality meeting customer needs History of Quality Management  194050 ◦ During World War II the need for production efficiency required the dissemination of statistical quality control techniques ◦ Gradually quality control migrated to manufacturing industries ◦ Two US consultants, J. Juran and W. Edwards Deming, introduce statistical quality control to Japanese (importantly their target audience was executives)  197090 ◦ Japanese electronics and automobiles have world class quality and make fast inroads to US market. ◦ Total Quality Management (TQM) History of Quality Management  19902000 ◦ Quality Costing ◦ MarketDriven Strategy  2000present ◦ Quality an important priority among US car manufacturers and in US Health Care Industry ◦ Sixsigma Understanding Quality Also: Multiple Definitions for Quality ◦ perfection ◦ consistency ◦ eliminating waste ◦ speed of delivery ◦ compliance with policies and procedures ◦ providing a good, usable product ◦ doing it right the first time ◦ delighting or pleasing customers ◦ total customer service and satisfaction Quality  Consider you are eating in a restaurant; ◦ How will you judge the quality of the restaurant Most people apply such criteria below; •Service •Response time •Food preparation •Environment •Price •Selection / food varieties. •Tasty Total Quality  Also known as Total Quality Management (TQM).  The culture of an organization where continuous improvement is integrated into all activities with the objective of improving the quality of all Business Processes. TQ tools  Total quality tools include process charts, pareto analysis, cause and effect diagrams, histograms, run diagrams, check sheets and statistical process control.  You will learn later in the next chapter 2 Views of Quality Traditional view of Quality Total Quality Philosophy Measured process Measured process performance performance in defective in defective parts per million parts per hundred produced produced Inspection of products Emphasis on Continual Improvement of product, processes, people. Employee as passive Employees empowered to think, workers, follow orders given. make recommendations for CI. Brains not wanted. 9 Key elements of TQ 1. Strategically based 2. Customer focus 3. Obsession with Quality 4. Scientific Approach 5. Long term commitment 6. Teamwork 7. Continual Process Improvement 8. Education and Training 9. Freedom through Control 1. Strategically based  Organizations contains at least vision, mission and broad objectives.  Strategic plan designed to give sustainable competitive advantage.  Toward achieving worldleading quality and improve forever. 2. Customer focus  “Customer is the driver”  Applied to both customers: ◦ Internal Customer ◦ External customer 3. Obsession with Quality  Organization must become obsessed with meeting or exceeding quality.  “How can we do this better”  “Good enough is never enough” 4. Scientific Approach  Hard data are used to in establishing benchmarks, monitoring performance, and making improvements. 5. Long term commitment  Management innovations after attending short term seminars often FAIL in their initial attempts to adopt quality approach.  Because they often look TQ as another management innovation rather than as a whole new way of culture. 6. Teamwork  Partnership is not a pretense, it is a common struggle for the customers, not separate struggles for power.  Also applies to relationship with suppliers, regulating agencies, and local communities. 7. Continual Process Improvement  Fundamental of Total Quality goal is; Quality of products / services.  To continually improve the quality of the product, it is necessary to continually improve systems. 8. Education and Training  Fundamental to TQ  Represent the best way to improve people.  In an organization, every should constantly learning.  Encouraged by management  Know how to work hard and smart. 9. Freedom through Control  Increase the ownership feel about the decision made.  Mistake: Management see employee involvement as a loss of management control. Customer Satisfaction 1. Customer Satisfaction 2. Understanding CustomerDefined Quality Identifying customer needs (Internal external) 1. Communicating with customers 2. Customer Feedback for Design Improvement 3. Customer Satisfaction process Customer Satisfaction  Customer defines Quality, employee produce it.  In a TQ setting, External Customers (Buyers/purchasers) define quality, and Internal Customer (staff) produce it. Who is a CUSTOMER  Figure 5.1: History: Traditional view of supplier and customer relationship Supplier Supplier Supplier Supplier Company and its processes Customer Customer Customer Customer Who is a CUSTOMER  Fig5.2: Contemporary view of customer supplier relationship Supplier Supplier Supplier Supplier Customer Customer Customer Supplier Supplier Supplier Customer Customer Supplier Supplier Customer Customer Customer Customer Customer defined value  Product/service must have attributes customers want.  Factors important to customers: ◦ Products/service quality ◦ Service provided by organization ◦ Organization’s personnel ◦ Organization’s image ◦ Selling price ◦ Overall cost of product. Customer Satisfaction, Retention, and Loyalty MAJOR TOPICS  Understanding Who Is a Customer  Understanding CustomerDefined Quality  Identifying External Customer Needs  Identifying Internal Customer Needs  Communicating with Customers  Using Customer Feedback to Make Design Improvements Customer Satisfaction, Retention, and Loyalty  Customer Satisfaction Process  CustomerDefined Value  Customer Value Analysis  Customer Retention  Establishing a Customer Focus  Recognizing the CustomerDriven Organization  Value Perception and Customer Loyalty  Customer Loyalty Model  Customer Loyalty versus Customer Profitability  Customers as Innovation Partners Customer Satisfaction, Retention, and Loyalty  Historically customers were considered who used a company’s products and suppliers were outsiders who provided the materials needed to produce the products.  A more contemporary view every organization has both internal and external customers. Customer Satisfaction, Retention, and Loyalty  An external customer one referred to in the traditional definition.  An internal customer any employee whose work depends on that of employees whose work precedes his or hers. Customer Satisfaction, Retention, and Loyalty  In a total quality setting, customers define quality.  Customer satisfaction must be the HIGHEST PRIORITY. ◦ Can be achieved by producing highquality products that meet or exceed expectations. ◦ Must be renewed with each purchase. ◦ The key to establishing a customer focus is to put employees in touch with customers so that customer needs are understood. Customer Satisfaction, Retention, and Loyalty  Scholtes’ sixstep strategy for identifying customer needs: 1. speculate about results, 2. develop an informationgathering plan, 3. gather information, 4. analyze the results, 5. check the validity of conclusions 6. take action. Customer Satisfaction, Retention, and Loyalty  Customer needs are NOT STATIC.  So constant contact with customers is important in a total quality setting.  Should be inperson or by telephone, written surveys. Customer Satisfaction, Retention, and Loyalty  Quality function deployment (QFD) is a mechanism for putting into operation the concept of building in quality. It makes customer feedback a normal part of the product development process, thereby improving customer satisfaction. Figure 5.3 General organization of a QFD matrix. Figure 5.4: Completed QFD matrix. Customer Satisfaction, Retention, and Loyalty  Measuring customer satisfaction alone is not enough.  Organizations should measure customer retention.  Organizations should go beyond satisfying customers to creating value for them in every suppliercustomer interaction. TQ