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Principles and Working of DC and AC machines

Principles and Working of DC and AC machines 11
Principles and Working of DC and AC machines BITS Pilani Dr Jagadish Nayak Dubai Campus BITS Pilani Dubai Campus Constructional features DC Machines DC Generator BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC Machines  A generator consists of a stationary portion called the stator and the rotating portion called the rotor.  A magnetic field is produced when a direct current is applied to windings of the coil in the stator. These coils are called field windings.  The rotor contains the commutator and the conductors across which emf is induced. This part is called armature. BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC Machines  The stator has two poles one labeled N and the other S. The field windings are situated on the poles.  The rotor consists of an iron core that has slots which house the armature conductors and a commutator and the brushes.  The figure shows the connections of the coils to the commutator BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC Machines  A uniform magnetic field is produced in the small air gaps between the poles and the rotor when current is passed through the field windings. This induces an emf across the coil and looks like as shown below.  When the armature windings are connected to the commutator according to the connections shown earlier , the individual emf gets rectified and all of them add up together. BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC Machines  The net effect of the coil connections to the commutator shows a brush voltage which appears as below BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC Machines Generated voltage: The generated voltage is given by: N n v p g a 60 Where N Numberof armatureconductors a Numberof parallel pathsbetweenthebrushes pNumber of poles Magnetic flux per pole n speedof therotorinrpm BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC Machines BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC Machines Generator with a load:  The generated emf v is the voltage across the g armature terminals ( the brushes) when no load is connected to those terminals.  If there is some electrical load connected to the armature, the resulting load voltage will be different from the no load voltage. Now it will depend on the resistance R associated with the armature due to a resitance of the windings and the brush contacts. BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC Machines Example :  An 8kW, 200V dc generator has a full load current of 40nA at 1200rpm. Given the armature resistance is Ra=0.5Ω, armature is modeled as shown below, where RL is a resistive load. Determine the full load voltage for this generator at 900 rpm. BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC Machines If the flux per pole φ is kept constant , then the generated voltage is directly proportional to armature speed n.Thus if the field current is kept constant and the flux per pole is kept constant then at 900 rpm the no load voltage is BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC Machines Therefore under full load condition of 40 A at 900rpm the full load voltage is, by KVL BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC Machines Generator symbol: i is the field current and i denotes the armature f a current. BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC Machines  The rotor of a dc generator turning at n rpm induces an emf ( no load armature voltage) of vKn g • Where K = Np/60a is a constant determined by the construction of the generator. BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC Machines  The plot of no load voltage v vs the field current i looks g f like:  These curves are called magnetization curves of the generator. BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC Machines Generator field excitation: FIELD EXCITATION When a dc voltage is applied to the field windings of a dc generator, current flows through the windings and sets up a steady magnetic field. This is called FIELD EXCITATION. This excitation voltage can be produced by the generator itself or it can be supplied by an outside source, such as a battery. BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC Machines If it is supplied by an outside source then it is called separately excited generator as shown below. A generator that supplies its own field excitation is called a SELFEXCITED GENERATOR. BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC Machines CLASSIFICATION OF GENERATORS  Selfexcited generators are classed according to the type of field connection they use.  There are three general types of field connections SERIESWOUND, SHUNTWOUND (parallel), and COMPOUNDWOUND.  Compoundwound generators are further classified as cumulativecompound and differentialcompound. BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC Machines SeriesWound Generator or Series connected generator  In the serieswound generator, the field windings are connected in series with the armature.  Current that flows in the armature flows through the external circuit and through the field windings.  The external circuit connected to the generator is called the load circuit. BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC Machines Series Connected generators  The field current is equal to the armature current, the field winding has very few turns and relatively low resistance. BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC Machines ShuntWound Generators  In a shuntwound generator, the field coils consist of many turns of small wire and relatively high field resistance.  They are connected in parallel with the load. In other words, they are connected across the output voltage of the armature. BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC Machines Shunt Connected generators BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC Machines CompoundWound Generators Compoundwound generators have a seriesfield winding in addition to a shuntfield winding. The shunt and series windings are wound on the same pole pieces. BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC Machines GENERATOR BUILD UP: For for a separately excited generator turning at n rpm, the value of the field current determines the value of generated voltage and the following magnetization curve can be used to find it. BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC Machines  Consider a shunt connected generator where a rheostat and switch is included in the circuit..  When the switch is open ie when i =0 there will be a f small generated emf due to residual magnetism .  When the switch is closed, there will be a voltage applied across the series combination of field winding and the control rheostat.  This will produce a nonzero field current and hence increases the flux, thereby resulting in an increase in the generated emf. BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC Machines This repetitive process of increasing generated voltage and field current is known as generator build up. The intersection point on the graph shown before shows generator build up has ceased. BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC MOTORS: Rotating Machines BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC MOTORS: Consider a conducting loop through which i is the current flowing. The slip rings and brushes are also present though not shown here. The end view of the loop is shown in the figure b, where the current in the upper conductor is directed into the page (shown by cross X) and the current in the lower conductor is directed out of the page.(shown by dot.) By the Right hand rule or by using unit vectors the force on the upper conductor is F= Bil in the downward direction. BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC MOTORS: Similrly on the lower conductor the force of same magnitude acts in the upward direction. Since the line of action of the two forces is not the same, a torque is developed which is Fd= Blirsinδ, where δ is the angle formed by the yz plane and the plane of the loop and is called the torque angle or power angle. For N turns in a coil and 2 conductors the torque becomes T = 2NBlir sinδ = NBAisinδ, where A = 2rlis the area of the coil. BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC MOTORS: The torque is max when δ= 90deg when sinδ=1 This torque tends to rotate the loop in the clockwise direction. Due to the loop rotating clockwise , the emf is induced which tends to produce a current in the direction opposite to the applied current. This is the principle on which the dc motor works. BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC MOTORS: Armature model for the dc motor: BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC MOTORS: The figure shows the armature portion of the motor. R is the armature resistance v is the applied or the line a L voltage of the motor. WKT v = Kφn, where K is a constant, φ is the flux per g pole and n is the rptor (armature) speed. For a dc motor, from the circuit by KVL we have V =R i + v L a a g And since v = Kφn then g V = R i + Kφn L a a Hence speed ( in rpm ) of the motor is This is known as the speed equation of a dc motor. BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC MOTORS: The torque developed by the dc motor is determined by the armature current and the magnetic flux density and hence the field flux (flux per pole). Therefore Torque can be written as BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC MOTORS: A 220 volt dc shunt motor has a speed of 1200 rpm and an armature current of 6A at no load. Given that the armature resistance is 0.5 Ω, determine the motor speed when the armature current is 40A at full load. BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus DC MOTORS: The motor speed at full load written as n differs from the FL speed at no load n . NL A measure of change in speed is the speed regulation of the motor, which is defined as Therefore BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus
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