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The Science of Robots

The Science of Robots 11
ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS MODULE 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Ashitava Ghosal 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering Centre for Product Design and Manufacture Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India Email: asitavamecheng.iisc.ernet.in NPTEL, 2010 . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 1 / 28. .1 CONTENTS . . .2 LECTURE 1 . Introduction to Robotics Types and Classification of Robots The Science of Robots The Technology of Robots . .3 MODULE 1 – ADDITIONAL MATERIAL . References and Suggested Reading . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 2 / 28OUTLINE . .1 CONTENTS . . .2 LECTURE 1 . Introduction to Robotics Types and Classification of Robots The Science of Robots The Technology of Robots . .3 MODULE 1 – ADDITIONAL MATERIAL . References and Suggested Reading . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 3 / 28CONTENTS OF LECTURE Introduction Brief history. Types and classification of robots. Science of robotics. Technology of robotics. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 4 / 28CONTENTS OF LECTURE Introduction Brief history. Types and classification of robots. Science of robotics. Technology of robotics. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 4 / 28CONTENTS OF LECTURE Introduction Brief history. Types and classification of robots. Science of robotics. Technology of robotics. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 4 / 28CONTENTS OF LECTURE Introduction Brief history. Types and classification of robots. Science of robotics. Technology of robotics. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 4 / 28INTRODUCTION Origin of the word robot in 1923 — translation of Czech play R. U. R (Rossum’s Universal Robot, 1921) by Karel Capek (Capek, 1975). From Czech word ‘robota’ meaning slave labour Designed to replace human beings, and depicted as very efficient and lacking emotion – even now this description is prevalent. Robots rebel against their human masters and destroy the entire human race except one man so that he can continue making robots Unfortunately, the formula gets lost in the destruction. Asimov (Asimov 1970) in story ‘Roundabout’ coins robotics in his three laws of robotics — Robots are portrayed as harmless and in control of humans First modern industrial robot patent in 1954 by George C. Devol (US Patent No. 2,988,237) for Universal Automation or Unimation. First robot manufactured by Unimation, Inc. (Founded by J. Engelberger and George C. Devol) called Unimate was purchased by General Motors for their Trenton, New Jersey automobile plant, and used for diecast handling and spot welding. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 5 / 28INTRODUCTION Origin of the word robot in 1923 — translation of Czech play R. U. R (Rossum’s Universal Robot, 1921) by Karel Capek (Capek, 1975). From Czech word ‘robota’ meaning slave labour Designed to replace human beings, and depicted as very efficient and lacking emotion – even now this description is prevalent. Robots rebel against their human masters and destroy the entire human race except one man so that he can continue making robots Unfortunately, the formula gets lost in the destruction. Asimov (Asimov 1970) in story ‘Roundabout’ coins robotics in his three laws of robotics — Robots are portrayed as harmless and in control of humans First modern industrial robot patent in 1954 by George C. Devol (US Patent No. 2,988,237) for Universal Automation or Unimation. First robot manufactured by Unimation, Inc. (Founded by J. Engelberger and George C. Devol) called Unimate was purchased by General Motors for their Trenton, New Jersey automobile plant, and used for diecast handling and spot welding. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 5 / 28INTRODUCTION Origin of the word robot in 1923 — translation of Czech play R. U. R (Rossum’s Universal Robot, 1921) by Karel Capek (Capek, 1975). From Czech word ‘robota’ meaning slave labour Designed to replace human beings, and depicted as very efficient and lacking emotion – even now this description is prevalent. Robots rebel against their human masters and destroy the entire human race except one man so that he can continue making robots Unfortunately, the formula gets lost in the destruction. Asimov (Asimov 1970) in story ‘Roundabout’ coins robotics in his three laws of robotics — Robots are portrayed as harmless and in control of humans First modern industrial robot patent in 1954 by George C. Devol (US Patent No. 2,988,237) for Universal Automation or Unimation. First robot manufactured by Unimation, Inc. (Founded by J. Engelberger and George C. Devol) called Unimate was purchased by General Motors for their Trenton, New Jersey automobile plant, and used for diecast handling and spot welding. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 5 / 28INTRODUCTION Origin of the word robot in 1923 — translation of Czech play R. U. R (Rossum’s Universal Robot, 1921) by Karel Capek (Capek, 1975). From Czech word ‘robota’ meaning slave labour Designed to replace human beings, and depicted as very efficient and lacking emotion – even now this description is prevalent. Robots rebel against their human masters and destroy the entire human race except one man so that he can continue making robots Unfortunately, the formula gets lost in the destruction. Asimov (Asimov 1970) in story ‘Roundabout’ coins robotics in his three laws of robotics — Robots are portrayed as harmless and in control of humans First modern industrial robot patent in 1954 by George C. Devol (US Patent No. 2,988,237) for Universal Automation or Unimation. First robot manufactured by Unimation, Inc. (Founded by J. Engelberger and George C. Devol) called Unimate was purchased by General Motors for their Trenton, New Jersey automobile plant, and used for diecast handling and spot welding. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 5 / 28INTRODUCTION Origin of the word robot in 1923 — translation of Czech play R. U. R (Rossum’s Universal Robot, 1921) by Karel Capek (Capek, 1975). From Czech word ‘robota’ meaning slave labour Designed to replace human beings, and depicted as very efficient and lacking emotion – even now this description is prevalent. Robots rebel against their human masters and destroy the entire human race except one man so that he can continue making robots Unfortunately, the formula gets lost in the destruction. Asimov (Asimov 1970) in story ‘Roundabout’ coins robotics in his three laws of robotics — Robots are portrayed as harmless and in control of humans First modern industrial robot patent in 1954 by George C. Devol (US Patent No. 2,988,237) for Universal Automation or Unimation. First robot manufactured by Unimation, Inc. (Founded by J. Engelberger and George C. Devol) called Unimate was purchased by General Motors for their Trenton, New Jersey automobile plant, and used for diecast handling and spot welding. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 5 / 28INTRODUCTION Origin of the word robot in 1923 — translation of Czech play R. U. R (Rossum’s Universal Robot, 1921) by Karel Capek (Capek, 1975). From Czech word ‘robota’ meaning slave labour Designed to replace human beings, and depicted as very efficient and lacking emotion – even now this description is prevalent. Robots rebel against their human masters and destroy the entire human race except one man so that he can continue making robots Unfortunately, the formula gets lost in the destruction. Asimov (Asimov 1970) in story ‘Roundabout’ coins robotics in his three laws of robotics — Robots are portrayed as harmless and in control of humans First modern industrial robot patent in 1954 by George C. Devol (US Patent No. 2,988,237) for Universal Automation or Unimation. First robot manufactured by Unimation, Inc. (Founded by J. Engelberger and George C. Devol) called Unimate was purchased by General Motors for their Trenton, New Jersey automobile plant, and used for diecast handling and spot welding. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 5 / 28INTRODUCTION Space Shuttle Arm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadarm PUMA 560 Robot MARS Rover http://www.dlr.de/en/ http://vlabs.iitkgp.ernet.in/MRLab/experiment1.html Robotic Surgery System – Can be remotely operated via Internet Industrial Robots from Fanuc Robotics, Japan da Vinci Surgical Robot (Patient Cart) http://www.fanucindia.com/ http://www.intuitivesurgical.com/ A popular kit for making robots http://world.honda.com/ASIMO/history/ http://mindstorms.lego.com/enus/Default.aspx Figure 1: Some modern robots . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 6 / 28INTRODUCTION DEFINITION No clear definition of a “robot” The Robot Institute of America (1969) defines robot as “.... a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks”. Currently the term “robots” are used more broadly as an “intelligent agent, physical or virtual, capable of doing a task autonomously or with guidance”. Robot – An electromechanical machine with sensors, electronics and guided by computers. Key concept is reprogrammable and the extent of programming — distinguishes a robot from CNC machine tools. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 7 / 28INTRODUCTION DEFINITION No clear definition of a “robot” The Robot Institute of America (1969) defines robot as “.... a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks”. Currently the term “robots” are used more broadly as an “intelligent agent, physical or virtual, capable of doing a task autonomously or with guidance”. Robot – An electromechanical machine with sensors, electronics and guided by computers. Key concept is reprogrammable and the extent of programming — distinguishes a robot from CNC machine tools. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 7 / 28INTRODUCTION DEFINITION No clear definition of a “robot” The Robot Institute of America (1969) defines robot as “.... a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks”. Currently the term “robots” are used more broadly as an “intelligent agent, physical or virtual, capable of doing a task autonomously or with guidance”. Robot – An electromechanical machine with sensors, electronics and guided by computers. Key concept is reprogrammable and the extent of programming — distinguishes a robot from CNC machine tools. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 7 / 28INTRODUCTION DEFINITION No clear definition of a “robot” The Robot Institute of America (1969) defines robot as “.... a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks”. Currently the term “robots” are used more broadly as an “intelligent agent, physical or virtual, capable of doing a task autonomously or with guidance”. Robot – An electromechanical machine with sensors, electronics and guided by computers. Key concept is reprogrammable and the extent of programming — distinguishes a robot from CNC machine tools. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 7 / 28INTRODUCTION DEFINITION No clear definition of a “robot” The Robot Institute of America (1969) defines robot as “.... a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks”. Currently the term “robots” are used more broadly as an “intelligent agent, physical or virtual, capable of doing a task autonomously or with guidance”. Robot – An electromechanical machine with sensors, electronics and guided by computers. Key concept is reprogrammable and the extent of programming — distinguishes a robot from CNC machine tools. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 7 / 28INTRODUCTION Advances in robotics has closely followed the explosive development of computers and electronics. According to Wikipedia article, Devol used his patent on magnetic recording devices for the “brains” of his Unimate. First computer, ENIAC, was developed at University of Pennsylvania in 1946 and the first transistor device was built by Shockley and Pearson 1 in Bell Labs in late 1940’s . Another key ingredient, concept of feedback control — first textbook on feedback control is by Prof. Norbert Wiener of MIT in 1948. Feedback allows execution of a programmed (desired) motion by a robot (and a large number of devices) with the required accuracy. 1 First patent for a transistor was by physicist Julius Edgar Lilienfeld of Canada in 1925. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 8 / 28INTRODUCTION Advances in robotics has closely followed the explosive development of computers and electronics. According to Wikipedia article, Devol used his patent on magnetic recording devices for the “brains” of his Unimate. First computer, ENIAC, was developed at University of Pennsylvania in 1946 and the first transistor device was built by Shockley and Pearson 1 in Bell Labs in late 1940’s . Another key ingredient, concept of feedback control — first textbook on feedback control is by Prof. Norbert Wiener of MIT in 1948. Feedback allows execution of a programmed (desired) motion by a robot (and a large number of devices) with the required accuracy. 1 First patent for a transistor was by physicist Julius Edgar Lilienfeld of Canada in 1925. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 8 / 28INTRODUCTION Advances in robotics has closely followed the explosive development of computers and electronics. According to Wikipedia article, Devol used his patent on magnetic recording devices for the “brains” of his Unimate. First computer, ENIAC, was developed at University of Pennsylvania in 1946 and the first transistor device was built by Shockley and Pearson 1 in Bell Labs in late 1940’s . Another key ingredient, concept of feedback control — first textbook on feedback control is by Prof. Norbert Wiener of MIT in 1948. Feedback allows execution of a programmed (desired) motion by a robot (and a large number of devices) with the required accuracy. 1 First patent for a transistor was by physicist Julius Edgar Lilienfeld of Canada in 1925. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 8 / 28INTRODUCTION Advances in robotics has closely followed the explosive development of computers and electronics. According to Wikipedia article, Devol used his patent on magnetic recording devices for the “brains” of his Unimate. First computer, ENIAC, was developed at University of Pennsylvania in 1946 and the first transistor device was built by Shockley and Pearson 1 in Bell Labs in late 1940’s . Another key ingredient, concept of feedback control — first textbook on feedback control is by Prof. Norbert Wiener of MIT in 1948. Feedback allows execution of a programmed (desired) motion by a robot (and a large number of devices) with the required accuracy. 1 First patent for a transistor was by physicist Julius Edgar Lilienfeld of Canada in 1925. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 8 / 28INTRODUCTION Advances in robotics has closely followed the explosive development of computers and electronics. According to Wikipedia article, Devol used his patent on magnetic recording devices for the “brains” of his Unimate. First computer, ENIAC, was developed at University of Pennsylvania in 1946 and the first transistor device was built by Shockley and Pearson 1 in Bell Labs in late 1940’s . Another key ingredient, concept of feedback control — first textbook on feedback control is by Prof. Norbert Wiener of MIT in 1948. Feedback allows execution of a programmed (desired) motion by a robot (and a large number of devices) with the required accuracy. 1 First patent for a transistor was by physicist Julius Edgar Lilienfeld of Canada in 1925. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 8 / 28INTRODUCTION Initial robot usage was primarily in industrial application such as part/material handling, welding and painting and few in handling of hazardous material. Most initial robots operated in teachplayback mode, and mostly used to replace ‘repetitive’ and ‘backbreaking’ tasks. Growth and usage of robots slowed significantly in late 1980’s and early 1990’s due to “lack of intelligence” and “ability to adapt” to changing environment – Robots were essentially blind, deaf and dumb Last 15 years or so, sophisticated sensors and programming allow robots to act much more “intelligently”, autonomously and react to changes in environments faster. Presentday robots Used in cluttered workspaces in homes and factories, Interact safely with humans in close proximity, Operate autonomously in hazardous environments, Used in entertainment and in improving quality of life. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 9 / 28INTRODUCTION Initial robot usage was primarily in industrial application such as part/material handling, welding and painting and few in handling of hazardous material. Most initial robots operated in teachplayback mode, and mostly used to replace ‘repetitive’ and ‘backbreaking’ tasks. Growth and usage of robots slowed significantly in late 1980’s and early 1990’s due to “lack of intelligence” and “ability to adapt” to changing environment – Robots were essentially blind, deaf and dumb Last 15 years or so, sophisticated sensors and programming allow robots to act much more “intelligently”, autonomously and react to changes in environments faster. Presentday robots Used in cluttered workspaces in homes and factories, Interact safely with humans in close proximity, Operate autonomously in hazardous environments, Used in entertainment and in improving quality of life. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 9 / 28INTRODUCTION Initial robot usage was primarily in industrial application such as part/material handling, welding and painting and few in handling of hazardous material. Most initial robots operated in teachplayback mode, and mostly used to replace ‘repetitive’ and ‘backbreaking’ tasks. Growth and usage of robots slowed significantly in late 1980’s and early 1990’s due to “lack of intelligence” and “ability to adapt” to changing environment – Robots were essentially blind, deaf and dumb Last 15 years or so, sophisticated sensors and programming allow robots to act much more “intelligently”, autonomously and react to changes in environments faster. Presentday robots Used in cluttered workspaces in homes and factories, Interact safely with humans in close proximity, Operate autonomously in hazardous environments, Used in entertainment and in improving quality of life. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 9 / 28INTRODUCTION Initial robot usage was primarily in industrial application such as part/material handling, welding and painting and few in handling of hazardous material. Most initial robots operated in teachplayback mode, and mostly used to replace ‘repetitive’ and ‘backbreaking’ tasks. Growth and usage of robots slowed significantly in late 1980’s and early 1990’s due to “lack of intelligence” and “ability to adapt” to changing environment – Robots were essentially blind, deaf and dumb Last 15 years or so, sophisticated sensors and programming allow robots to act much more “intelligently”, autonomously and react to changes in environments faster. Presentday robots Used in cluttered workspaces in homes and factories, Interact safely with humans in close proximity, Operate autonomously in hazardous environments, Used in entertainment and in improving quality of life. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 9 / 28INTRODUCTION Initial robot usage was primarily in industrial application such as part/material handling, welding and painting and few in handling of hazardous material. Most initial robots operated in teachplayback mode, and mostly used to replace ‘repetitive’ and ‘backbreaking’ tasks. Growth and usage of robots slowed significantly in late 1980’s and early 1990’s due to “lack of intelligence” and “ability to adapt” to changing environment – Robots were essentially blind, deaf and dumb Last 15 years or so, sophisticated sensors and programming allow robots to act much more “intelligently”, autonomously and react to changes in environments faster. Presentday robots Used in cluttered workspaces in homes and factories, Interact safely with humans in close proximity, Operate autonomously in hazardous environments, Used in entertainment and in improving quality of life. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 9 / 28INTRODUCTION SAMPLING OF ROBOT APPLICATION Industrial robots: Fanuc ArcMate 120iB/10L welding robot and material handling robots. Many other examples in this website. Hazardous environment: Radioactive environment and use of robots for cleanup in Three mile island, Chernobyl and recently in Fukushima, Japan, using PackBot robots, for measurement of radiation and taking pictures. Deep sea: Discovery of Titanic by submersible Alvin and underwater robots Argo, 1985, Jason Junior, 1986. Space: Shuttle Remote Manipulator System is used to deploy and retrieve satellite and other equipment. Electronic assembly and pharmaceutical manufacturing in clean rooms: Human presence introduces dirt and is hazardous to the product (See example of electronics assembly using robots) . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 10 / 28INTRODUCTION SAMPLING OF ROBOT APPLICATION Industrial robots: Fanuc ArcMate 120iB/10L welding robot and material handling robots. Many other examples in this website. Hazardous environment: Radioactive environment and use of robots for cleanup in Three mile island, Chernobyl and recently in Fukushima, Japan, using PackBot robots, for measurement of radiation and taking pictures. Deep sea: Discovery of Titanic by submersible Alvin and underwater robots Argo, 1985, Jason Junior, 1986. Space: Shuttle Remote Manipulator System is used to deploy and retrieve satellite and other equipment. Electronic assembly and pharmaceutical manufacturing in clean rooms: Human presence introduces dirt and is hazardous to the product (See example of electronics assembly using robots) . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 10 / 28INTRODUCTION SAMPLING OF ROBOT APPLICATION (CONTD.) Autonomous mobile robots/vehicles: Mars Exploration Rover Mission, and DARPA Grand Challenge (2008) Robotic surgery using da Vinci robot. Micro and nano robots at Carnegie Mellon KTH, Sweden. Other miscellaneous robots: Robocup Soccer 2010, and dancing Sony robots, robotic fish, NASA Robonaut humanoid space robot from this website. Japanese humanoid robot capable of feeling pain and facial expressions can be seen at this website. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 11 / 28INTRODUCTION SAMPLING OF ROBOT APPLICATION (CONTD.) Autonomous mobile robots/vehicles: Mars Exploration Rover Mission, and DARPA Grand Challenge (2008) Robotic surgery using da Vinci robot. Micro and nano robots at Carnegie Mellon KTH, Sweden. Other miscellaneous robots: Robocup Soccer 2010, and dancing Sony robots, robotic fish, NASA Robonaut humanoid space robot from this website. Japanese humanoid robot capable of feeling pain and facial expressions can be seen at this website. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 11 / 28INTRODUCTION SAMPLING OF ROBOT APPLICATION (CONTD.) Autonomous mobile robots/vehicles: Mars Exploration Rover Mission, and DARPA Grand Challenge (2008) Robotic surgery using da Vinci robot. Micro and nano robots at Carnegie Mellon KTH, Sweden. Other miscellaneous robots: Robocup Soccer 2010, and dancing Sony robots, robotic fish, NASA Robonaut humanoid space robot from this website. Japanese humanoid robot capable of feeling pain and facial expressions can be seen at this website. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 11 / 28INTRODUCTION SAMPLING OF ROBOT APPLICATION (CONTD.) Autonomous mobile robots/vehicles: Mars Exploration Rover Mission, and DARPA Grand Challenge (2008) Robotic surgery using da Vinci robot. Micro and nano robots at Carnegie Mellon KTH, Sweden. Other miscellaneous robots: Robocup Soccer 2010, and dancing Sony robots, robotic fish, NASA Robonaut humanoid space robot from this website. Japanese humanoid robot capable of feeling pain and facial expressions can be seen at this website. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 11 / 28INTRODUCTION IMPORTANT DATES IN HISTORY OF ROBOTS 1770 – Mechanismdriven lifelike machines that can draw, play instruments, and clocks made in Germany and Switzerland. 1830 – Cam programmable lathe invented. 1923 – Karel Capek’s play R.U.R. 1942 – Asimov coins the word ‘robotics’ and gives his three laws of robotics. 1946 – ENIAC, the first electronic computer, developed at the University of Pennsylvania. 1947 – The first servo electricpowered teleoperated robot at MIT. 1948 – Book on feedback control, Cybernetics, written by Prof. Norbert Weiner of MIT. 1948 – Transistor invented at Bell Laboratories. 1952 – IBM’s first commercial computer, IBM 701, marketed. 1954 – First programmable robot patented and designed by Devol. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 12 / 28INTRODUCTION IMPORTANT DATES IN HISTORY OF ROBOTS (CONTD.) 1955 – Paper by J. Denavit and R. S. Hartenberg (1955) provides a notation to describe links and joints in a manipulator. 1959 – Unimation Inc. founded by Engelberger; CNC lathe demonstrated at MIT. 1961 – General Motors buys and installs the first Unimate at a plant in New Jersey to tend a die casting machine. 1968 – Shakey, first mobile robot with vision capability, made at SRI. 1970 – The Stanford Arm designed with electrical actuators and controlled by a computer. 1973 – Cincinnati Milacron’s (T3) electrically actuated, minicomputer controlled industrial robot. 1976 – Viking II lands on Mars and an arm scoops Martian soil for analysis. 1978 – Unimation develops PUMA, which can still be seen in many research labs. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 13 / 28INTRODUCTION IMPORTANT DATES IN HISTORY OF ROBOTS (CONTD.) 1981 – Robot Manipulators by R. Paul, one of the first textbooks on robotics. 1982 – First educational robots introduced by Microbot and Rhino. 1983 – Adept Technology, maker of SCARA robot, started. 1995 – Intuitive Surgical formed to design and market surgical robots. 1997 – Sojourner robot sends back pictures of Mars; the Honda P3 humanoid robot, started in 1986, unveiled. 2000 – Honda demonstrates Asimo humanoid robot capable of walking. 2001 – Sony releases second generation Aibo robot dog. 2004 – Spirit and Opportunity explore Mars surface and detect evidence of past water. 2007 – Humanoid robot Aiko capable of demonstrating feeling of pain. 2009 – Microrobots and emerging field of nanorobots marrying biology with engineering. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 14 / 28OUTLINE . .1 CONTENTS . . .2 LECTURE 1 . Introduction to Robotics Types and Classification of Robots The Science of Robots The Technology of Robots . .3 MODULE 1 – ADDITIONAL MATERIAL . References and Suggested Reading . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 15 / 28TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS Various ways of classifying a robot Fixed or mobile. Serial or parallel. According to degree of freedom (DOF). Rigid or flexible. Control – pointtopoint, autonomy and “intelligence”. Most older industrial robots – fixed base and consisting of links connected by actuated joints. Many modern robots can move on factory floors, uneven terrains or even walk, swim and fly (see Module 9 for wheeled mobile robots) . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 16 / 28TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS Various ways of classifying a robot Fixed or mobile. Serial or parallel. According to degree of freedom (DOF). Rigid or flexible. Control – pointtopoint, autonomy and “intelligence”. Most older industrial robots – fixed base and consisting of links connected by actuated joints. Many modern robots can move on factory floors, uneven terrains or even walk, swim and fly (see Module 9 for wheeled mobile robots) . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 16 / 28TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS Various ways of classifying a robot Fixed or mobile. Serial or parallel. According to degree of freedom (DOF). Rigid or flexible. Control – pointtopoint, autonomy and “intelligence”. Most older industrial robots – fixed base and consisting of links connected by actuated joints. Many modern robots can move on factory floors, uneven terrains or even walk, swim and fly (see Module 9 for wheeled mobile robots) . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 16 / 28TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS (CONTD.) SERIAL VS. PARALLEL Top Platform Forearm Spherical Joint Waist Shoulder Prismatic Joint Actuator Motion U Joint Extensible Leg Three rotations at Wrist Fixed Base PUMA 560 Serial Robot Figure 3: Parallel robot – GoughStewart Figure 2: PUMA 560 serial robot platform Serial robot – a fixed base, links and joints connected sequentially and ending in a endeffector (see Module 3). Parallel robot – More than one loop, no natural endeffector (see Module 4). . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 17 / 28TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS (CONTD.) DOF Degree of freedom (DOF) determines capability of a robot and the number of actuated joints (see Module 3, Lecture 1). 6 (DOF) required for arbitrary task in three dimensional space Painting and welding can be done by 5 DOF (fixed base) robot. Electronics assembly usually done by 4 DOF SCARA robot. For extra flexibility and working volume, a 5 or 6 DOF robot is mounted on a 2 or 3 DOF gantry or a wheeled mobile robot. Redundant robot with more than 6 DOF for avoiding obstacles, more flexibility etc. First three joints (in fixed robots) are classified as Cartesian, spherical, cylindrical or anthropomorphic. Cartesian, spherical and cylindrical – motion described by Cartesian, spherical or cylindrical coordinates. Anthropomorphic – human arm like. SCARA – Selective Compliance Adaptive Robot Arm – used in electronic assembly. Last three joints in fixed base serial robots form a wrist – orients the endeffector. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 18 / 28TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS (CONTD.) DOF Degree of freedom (DOF) determines capability of a robot and the number of actuated joints (see Module 3, Lecture 1). 6 (DOF) required for arbitrary task in three dimensional space Painting and welding can be done by 5 DOF (fixed base) robot. Electronics assembly usually done by 4 DOF SCARA robot. For extra flexibility and working volume, a 5 or 6 DOF robot is mounted on a 2 or 3 DOF gantry or a wheeled mobile robot. Redundant robot with more than 6 DOF for avoiding obstacles, more flexibility etc. First three joints (in fixed robots) are classified as Cartesian, spherical, cylindrical or anthropomorphic. Cartesian, spherical and cylindrical – motion described by Cartesian, spherical or cylindrical coordinates. Anthropomorphic – human arm like. SCARA – Selective Compliance Adaptive Robot Arm – used in electronic assembly. Last three joints in fixed base serial robots form a wrist – orients the endeffector. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 18 / 28TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS (CONTD.) DOF Degree of freedom (DOF) determines capability of a robot and the number of actuated joints (see Module 3, Lecture 1). 6 (DOF) required for arbitrary task in three dimensional space Painting and welding can be done by 5 DOF (fixed base) robot. Electronics assembly usually done by 4 DOF SCARA robot. For extra flexibility and working volume, a 5 or 6 DOF robot is mounted on a 2 or 3 DOF gantry or a wheeled mobile robot. Redundant robot with more than 6 DOF for avoiding obstacles, more flexibility etc. First three joints (in fixed robots) are classified as Cartesian, spherical, cylindrical or anthropomorphic. Cartesian, spherical and cylindrical – motion described by Cartesian, spherical or cylindrical coordinates. Anthropomorphic – human arm like. SCARA – Selective Compliance Adaptive Robot Arm – used in electronic assembly. Last three joints in fixed base serial robots form a wrist – orients the endeffector. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 18 / 28TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS (CONTD.) RIGID VS. FLEXIBLE Figure 4: PUMA 700 series industrial robot Figure 5: Space shuttle robot arm Most industrial robots are built heavy and rigid – for required accuracy. Minimising weight for space applications – links and joints are flexible (See Module 8). . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 19 / 28TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS (CONTD.) CONTROL AND MODE OF OPERATION Most older industrial robots were teach and playback Robot is taken (manually) through the tasks and positions recorded. During actual operation, the robot plays back the taught sequence. Very time consuming to teach and robot cannot react to any changes in the environment. Computer controlled – inputs are given from a computer often after being tried out in an offline programming system. Sensor driven – Sensors are used to avoid obstacles and take decisions. Intelligent – Robot can ‘learn’ about the environment using artificial intelligence (AI) and perform efficiently. Motion planning and control is discussed in Module 7. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 20 / 28TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS (CONTD.) CONTROL AND MODE OF OPERATION Most older industrial robots were teach and playback Robot is taken (manually) through the tasks and positions recorded. During actual operation, the robot plays back the taught sequence. Very time consuming to teach and robot cannot react to any changes in the environment. Computer controlled – inputs are given from a computer often after being tried out in an offline programming system. Sensor driven – Sensors are used to avoid obstacles and take decisions. Intelligent – Robot can ‘learn’ about the environment using artificial intelligence (AI) and perform efficiently. Motion planning and control is discussed in Module 7. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 20 / 28TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS (CONTD.) CONTROL AND MODE OF OPERATION Most older industrial robots were teach and playback Robot is taken (manually) through the tasks and positions recorded. During actual operation, the robot plays back the taught sequence. Very time consuming to teach and robot cannot react to any changes in the environment. Computer controlled – inputs are given from a computer often after being tried out in an offline programming system. Sensor driven – Sensors are used to avoid obstacles and take decisions. Intelligent – Robot can ‘learn’ about the environment using artificial intelligence (AI) and perform efficiently. Motion planning and control is discussed in Module 7. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 20 / 28TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS (CONTD.) CONTROL AND MODE OF OPERATION Most older industrial robots were teach and playback Robot is taken (manually) through the tasks and positions recorded. During actual operation, the robot plays back the taught sequence. Very time consuming to teach and robot cannot react to any changes in the environment. Computer controlled – inputs are given from a computer often after being tried out in an offline programming system. Sensor driven – Sensors are used to avoid obstacles and take decisions. Intelligent – Robot can ‘learn’ about the environment using artificial intelligence (AI) and perform efficiently. Motion planning and control is discussed in Module 7. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 20 / 28TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS (CONTD.) CONTROL AND MODE OF OPERATION Most older industrial robots were teach and playback Robot is taken (manually) through the tasks and positions recorded. During actual operation, the robot plays back the taught sequence. Very time consuming to teach and robot cannot react to any changes in the environment. Computer controlled – inputs are given from a computer often after being tried out in an offline programming system. Sensor driven – Sensors are used to avoid obstacles and take decisions. Intelligent – Robot can ‘learn’ about the environment using artificial intelligence (AI) and perform efficiently. Motion planning and control is discussed in Module 7. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 20 / 28OUTLINE . .1 CONTENTS . . .2 LECTURE 1 . Introduction to Robotics Types and Classification of Robots The Science of Robots The Technology of Robots . .3 MODULE 1 – ADDITIONAL MATERIAL . References and Suggested Reading . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 21 / 28THE SCIENCE OF ROBOTS New robots with improved capabilities made every day. Technology changes but the basic science/principles change more slowly. Basic ingredients – kinematics, dynamics, control, sensing and programming. Kinematics – motion of a object in three dimensional space without worrying about the cause. 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) – 3 translations and 3 rotations of a rigid link(see Module 2). 6 actuators at joints to achieve 6 DOF – direct and inverse kinematics problem (see Module 3 and Module 4). Linear and angular velocities of rigid bodies and links (see Module 5) Loss/gain of DOF in velocities and ability to apply/resist external force/moment. Serial and parallel manipulator kinematics. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 22 / 28THE SCIENCE OF ROBOTS New robots with improved capabilities made every day. Technology changes but the basic science/principles change more slowly. Basic ingredients – kinematics, dynamics, control, sensing and programming. Kinematics – motion of a object in three dimensional space without worrying about the cause. 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) – 3 translations and 3 rotations of a rigid link(see Module 2). 6 actuators at joints to achieve 6 DOF – direct and inverse kinematics problem (see Module 3 and Module 4). Linear and angular velocities of rigid bodies and links (see Module 5) Loss/gain of DOF in velocities and ability to apply/resist external force/moment. Serial and parallel manipulator kinematics. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 22 / 28THE SCIENCE OF ROBOTS New robots with improved capabilities made every day. Technology changes but the basic science/principles change more slowly. Basic ingredients – kinematics, dynamics, control, sensing and programming. Kinematics – motion of a object in three dimensional space without worrying about the cause. 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) – 3 translations and 3 rotations of a rigid link(see Module 2). 6 actuators at joints to achieve 6 DOF – direct and inverse kinematics problem (see Module 3 and Module 4). Linear and angular velocities of rigid bodies and links (see Module 5) Loss/gain of DOF in velocities and ability to apply/resist external force/moment. Serial and parallel manipulator kinematics. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 22 / 28THE SCIENCE OF ROBOTS New robots with improved capabilities made every day. Technology changes but the basic science/principles change more slowly. Basic ingredients – kinematics, dynamics, control, sensing and programming. Kinematics – motion of a object in three dimensional space without worrying about the cause. 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) – 3 translations and 3 rotations of a rigid link(see Module 2). 6 actuators at joints to achieve 6 DOF – direct and inverse kinematics problem (see Module 3 and Module 4). Linear and angular velocities of rigid bodies and links (see Module 5) Loss/gain of DOF in velocities and ability to apply/resist external force/moment. Serial and parallel manipulator kinematics. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 22 / 28THE SCIENCE OF ROBOTS New robots with improved capabilities made every day. Technology changes but the basic science/principles change more slowly. Basic ingredients – kinematics, dynamics, control, sensing and programming. Kinematics – motion of a object in three dimensional space without worrying about the cause. 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) – 3 translations and 3 rotations of a rigid link(see Module 2). 6 actuators at joints to achieve 6 DOF – direct and inverse kinematics problem (see Module 3 and Module 4). Linear and angular velocities of rigid bodies and links (see Module 5) Loss/gain of DOF in velocities and ability to apply/resist external force/moment. Serial and parallel manipulator kinematics. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 22 / 28THE SCIENCE OF ROBOTS Dynamics –Motion of links and endeffector due to the action of external forces/moments. Obtain equations of motion by using Newton Laws or Lagrangian formulation (see Module 6). Direct and inverse problem in dynamics for simulation and control. Desired motion and feedback control (see Module 7). A desired task is converted to a smooth desired motion – cubic trajectories. Controller ensures that the robot achieves the desired motion. Simple PID or newer modelbased controllers used for improved performance. Controllers for force (as well as position) control. Linear and nonlinear control. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 23 / 28THE SCIENCE OF ROBOTS Dynamics –Motion of links and endeffector due to the action of external forces/moments. Obtain equations of motion by using Newton Laws or Lagrangian formulation (see Module 6). Direct and inverse problem in dynamics for simulation and control. Desired motion and feedback control (see Module 7). A desired task is converted to a smooth desired motion – cubic trajectories. Controller ensures that the robot achieves the desired motion. Simple PID or newer modelbased controllers used for improved performance. Controllers for force (as well as position) control. Linear and nonlinear control. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 23 / 28THE SCIENCE OF ROBOTS Dynamics –Motion of links and endeffector due to the action of external forces/moments. Obtain equations of motion by using Newton Laws or Lagrangian formulation (see Module 6). Direct and inverse problem in dynamics for simulation and control. Desired motion and feedback control (see Module 7). A desired task is converted to a smooth desired motion – cubic trajectories. Controller ensures that the robot achieves the desired motion. Simple PID or newer modelbased controllers used for improved performance. Controllers for force (as well as position) control. Linear and nonlinear control. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 23 / 28THE SCIENCE OF ROBOTS Dynamics –Motion of links and endeffector due to the action of external forces/moments. Obtain equations of motion by using Newton Laws or Lagrangian formulation (see Module 6). Direct and inverse problem in dynamics for simulation and control. Desired motion and feedback control (see Module 7). A desired task is converted to a smooth desired motion – cubic trajectories. Controller ensures that the robot achieves the desired motion. Simple PID or newer modelbased controllers used for improved performance. Controllers for force (as well as position) control. Linear and nonlinear control. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 23 / 28THE SCIENCE OF ROBOTS Dynamics –Motion of links and endeffector due to the action of external forces/moments. Obtain equations of motion by using Newton Laws or Lagrangian formulation (see Module 6). Direct and inverse problem in dynamics for simulation and control. Desired motion and feedback control (see Module 7). A desired task is converted to a smooth desired motion – cubic trajectories. Controller ensures that the robot achieves the desired motion. Simple PID or newer modelbased controllers used for improved performance. Controllers for force (as well as position) control. Linear and nonlinear control. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 23 / 28OUTLINE . .1 CONTENTS . . .2 LECTURE 1 . Introduction to Robotics Types and Classification of Robots The Science of Robots The Technology of Robots . .3 MODULE 1 – ADDITIONAL MATERIAL . References and Suggested Reading . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 24 / 28THE TECHNOLOGY OF ROBOTS Robot is a sophisticated and expensive equipment Components making up a robot undergoes constant improvement and advancement and hard to keep up Main components: mechanical components, actuators, transmission devices, sensors, electronics and computers. Mechanical components – links and joints (see Module 2, Lectures 2 and 3). Links should be strong and lightweight – usually diecast sections. Joints are friction and backlash free to the extent possible. Actuators are electric, pneumatic or hydraulic. Transmission device needed/required to transfer motion (see Module 2, Lecture 4). . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 25 / 28THE TECHNOLOGY OF ROBOTS Robot is a sophisticated and expensive equipment Components making up a robot undergoes constant improvement and advancement and hard to keep up Main components: mechanical components, actuators, transmission devices, sensors, electronics and computers. Mechanical components – links and joints (see Module 2, Lectures 2 and 3). Links should be strong and lightweight – usually diecast sections. Joints are friction and backlash free to the extent possible. Actuators are electric, pneumatic or hydraulic. Transmission device needed/required to transfer motion (see Module 2, Lecture 4). . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 25 / 28THE TECHNOLOGY OF ROBOTS Robot is a sophisticated and expensive equipment Components making up a robot undergoes constant improvement and advancement and hard to keep up Main components: mechanical components, actuators, transmission devices, sensors, electronics and computers. Mechanical components – links and joints (see Module 2, Lectures 2 and 3). Links should be strong and lightweight – usually diecast sections. Joints are friction and backlash free to the extent possible. Actuators are electric, pneumatic or hydraulic. Transmission device needed/required to transfer motion (see Module 2, Lecture 4). . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 25 / 28THE TECHNOLOGY OF ROBOTS Robot is a sophisticated and expensive equipment Components making up a robot undergoes constant improvement and advancement and hard to keep up Main components: mechanical components, actuators, transmission devices, sensors, electronics and computers. Mechanical components – links and joints (see Module 2, Lectures 2 and 3). Links should be strong and lightweight – usually diecast sections. Joints are friction and backlash free to the extent possible. Actuators are electric, pneumatic or hydraulic. Transmission device needed/required to transfer motion (see Module 2, Lecture 4). . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 25 / 28THE TECHNOLOGY OF ROBOTS Robot is a sophisticated and expensive equipment Components making up a robot undergoes constant improvement and advancement and hard to keep up Main components: mechanical components, actuators, transmission devices, sensors, electronics and computers. Mechanical components – links and joints (see Module 2, Lectures 2 and 3). Links should be strong and lightweight – usually diecast sections. Joints are friction and backlash free to the extent possible. Actuators are electric, pneumatic or hydraulic. Transmission device needed/required to transfer motion (see Module 2, Lecture 4). . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 25 / 28THE TECHNOLOGY OF ROBOTS Robot is a sophisticated and expensive equipment Components making up a robot undergoes constant improvement and advancement and hard to keep up Main components: mechanical components, actuators, transmission devices, sensors, electronics and computers. Mechanical components – links and joints (see Module 2, Lectures 2 and 3). Links should be strong and lightweight – usually diecast sections. Joints are friction and backlash free to the extent possible. Actuators are electric, pneumatic or hydraulic. Transmission device needed/required to transfer motion (see Module 2, Lecture 4). . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 25 / 28THE TECHNOLOGY OF ROBOTS Sensors enable a robot to posses “touch and feel”, sense motion and force, and to “see” and “learn”(see Module 2, Lecture 5). Sensors are required for feedback control – internal sensors. External sensors – touch and force, distance measuring and cameras to “see”. Specialised sensors for welding, painting, assembly and other industrial operations. Computers and software – more expensive than hardware One or more processors to control motion of actuators. Processor for signal processing and sensing. Processor for user interface, data logging, communication and other activities. Offline programming system with user friendly GUI to train operator, verify motion and reducing downtime of a robot. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 26 / 28THE TECHNOLOGY OF ROBOTS Sensors enable a robot to posses “touch and feel”, sense motion and force, and to “see” and “learn”(see Module 2, Lecture 5). Sensors are required for feedback control – internal sensors. External sensors – touch and force, distance measuring and cameras to “see”. Specialised sensors for welding, painting, assembly and other industrial operations. Computers and software – more expensive than hardware One or more processors to control motion of actuators. Processor for signal processing and sensing. Processor for user interface, data logging, communication and other activities. Offline programming system with user friendly GUI to train operator, verify motion and reducing downtime of a robot. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 26 / 28THE TECHNOLOGY OF ROBOTS Sensors enable a robot to posses “touch and feel”, sense motion and force, and to “see” and “learn”(see Module 2, Lecture 5). Sensors are required for feedback control – internal sensors. External sensors – touch and force, distance measuring and cameras to “see”. Specialised sensors for welding, painting, assembly and other industrial operations. Computers and software – more expensive than hardware One or more processors to control motion of actuators. Processor for signal processing and sensing. Processor for user interface, data logging, communication and other activities. Offline programming system with user friendly GUI to train operator, verify motion and reducing downtime of a robot. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 26 / 28THE TECHNOLOGY OF ROBOTS Sensors enable a robot to posses “touch and feel”, sense motion and force, and to “see” and “learn”(see Module 2, Lecture 5). Sensors are required for feedback control – internal sensors. External sensors – touch and force, distance measuring and cameras to “see”. Specialised sensors for welding, painting, assembly and other industrial operations. Computers and software – more expensive than hardware One or more processors to control motion of actuators. Processor for signal processing and sensing. Processor for user interface, data logging, communication and other activities. Offline programming system with user friendly GUI to train operator, verify motion and reducing downtime of a robot. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 26 / 28THE TECHNOLOGY OF ROBOTS Sensors enable a robot to posses “touch and feel”, sense motion and force, and to “see” and “learn”(see Module 2, Lecture 5). Sensors are required for feedback control – internal sensors. External sensors – touch and force, distance measuring and cameras to “see”. Specialised sensors for welding, painting, assembly and other industrial operations. Computers and software – more expensive than hardware One or more processors to control motion of actuators. Processor for signal processing and sensing. Processor for user interface, data logging, communication and other activities. Offline programming system with user friendly GUI to train operator, verify motion and reducing downtime of a robot. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 26 / 28THE TECHNOLOGY OF ROBOTS Sensors enable a robot to posses “touch and feel”, sense motion and force, and to “see” and “learn”(see Module 2, Lecture 5). Sensors are required for feedback control – internal sensors. External sensors – touch and force, distance measuring and cameras to “see”. Specialised sensors for welding, painting, assembly and other industrial operations. Computers and software – more expensive than hardware One or more processors to control motion of actuators. Processor for signal processing and sensing. Processor for user interface, data logging, communication and other activities. Offline programming system with user friendly GUI to train operator, verify motion and reducing downtime of a robot. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 26 / 28OUTLINE . .1 CONTENTS . . .2 LECTURE 1 . Introduction to Robotics Types and Classification of Robots The Science of Robots The Technology of Robots . .3 MODULE 1 – ADDITIONAL MATERIAL . References and Suggested Reading . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 27 / 28MODULE 1 – ADDITIONAL MATERIAL References Sugested Reading . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 28 / 28
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