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The Science of Robots

The Science of Robots 11
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ImogenCameron,France,Teacher
Published Date:14-07-2017
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ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS & ANALYSIS MODULE 1 - INTRODUCTION 1 Ashitava Ghosal 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering & Centre for Product Design and Manufacture Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India Email: asitavamecheng.iisc.ernet.in NPTEL, 2010 . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS & ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 1 / 28. .1 CONTENTS . . .2 LECTURE 1 . Introduction to Robotics Types and Classification of Robots The Science of Robots The Technology of Robots . .3 MODULE 1 – ADDITIONAL MATERIAL . References and Suggested Reading . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS & ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 2 / 28OUTLINE . .1 CONTENTS . . .2 LECTURE 1 . Introduction to Robotics Types and Classification of Robots The Science of Robots The Technology of Robots . .3 MODULE 1 – ADDITIONAL MATERIAL . References and Suggested Reading . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS & ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 3 / 28CONTENTS OF LECTURE Introduction & Brief history. Types and classification of robots. Science of robotics. Technology of robotics. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS & ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 4 / 28CONTENTS OF LECTURE Introduction & Brief history. Types and classification of robots. Science of robotics. Technology of robotics. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS & ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 4 / 28CONTENTS OF LECTURE Introduction & Brief history. Types and classification of robots. Science of robotics. Technology of robotics. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS & ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 4 / 28CONTENTS OF LECTURE Introduction & Brief history. Types and classification of robots. Science of robotics. Technology of robotics. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS & ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 4 / 28INTRODUCTION Origin of the word robot in 1923 — translation of Czech play R. U. R (Rossum’s Universal Robot, 1921) by Karel Capek (Capek, 1975). From Czech word ‘robota’ meaning slave labour Designed to replace human beings, and depicted as very efficient and lacking emotion – even now this description is prevalent. Robots rebel against their human masters and destroy the entire human race except one man so that he can continue making robots Unfortunately, the formula gets lost in the destruction. Asimov (Asimov 1970) in story ‘Roundabout’ coins robotics in his three laws of robotics — Robots are portrayed as harmless and in control of humans First modern industrial robot patent in 1954 by George C. Devol (US Patent No. 2,988,237) for Universal Automation or Unimation. First robot manufactured by Unimation, Inc. (Founded by J. Engelberger and George C. Devol) called Unimate was purchased by General Motors for their Trenton, New Jersey automobile plant, and used for die-cast handling and spot welding. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS & ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 5 / 28INTRODUCTION Origin of the word robot in 1923 — translation of Czech play R. U. R (Rossum’s Universal Robot, 1921) by Karel Capek (Capek, 1975). From Czech word ‘robota’ meaning slave labour Designed to replace human beings, and depicted as very efficient and lacking emotion – even now this description is prevalent. Robots rebel against their human masters and destroy the entire human race except one man so that he can continue making robots Unfortunately, the formula gets lost in the destruction. Asimov (Asimov 1970) in story ‘Roundabout’ coins robotics in his three laws of robotics — Robots are portrayed as harmless and in control of humans First modern industrial robot patent in 1954 by George C. Devol (US Patent No. 2,988,237) for Universal Automation or Unimation. First robot manufactured by Unimation, Inc. (Founded by J. Engelberger and George C. Devol) called Unimate was purchased by General Motors for their Trenton, New Jersey automobile plant, and used for die-cast handling and spot welding. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS & ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 5 / 28INTRODUCTION Origin of the word robot in 1923 — translation of Czech play R. U. R (Rossum’s Universal Robot, 1921) by Karel Capek (Capek, 1975). From Czech word ‘robota’ meaning slave labour Designed to replace human beings, and depicted as very efficient and lacking emotion – even now this description is prevalent. Robots rebel against their human masters and destroy the entire human race except one man so that he can continue making robots Unfortunately, the formula gets lost in the destruction. Asimov (Asimov 1970) in story ‘Roundabout’ coins robotics in his three laws of robotics — Robots are portrayed as harmless and in control of humans First modern industrial robot patent in 1954 by George C. Devol (US Patent No. 2,988,237) for Universal Automation or Unimation. First robot manufactured by Unimation, Inc. (Founded by J. Engelberger and George C. Devol) called Unimate was purchased by General Motors for their Trenton, New Jersey automobile plant, and used for die-cast handling and spot welding. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS & ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 5 / 28INTRODUCTION Origin of the word robot in 1923 — translation of Czech play R. U. R (Rossum’s Universal Robot, 1921) by Karel Capek (Capek, 1975). From Czech word ‘robota’ meaning slave labour Designed to replace human beings, and depicted as very efficient and lacking emotion – even now this description is prevalent. Robots rebel against their human masters and destroy the entire human race except one man so that he can continue making robots Unfortunately, the formula gets lost in the destruction. Asimov (Asimov 1970) in story ‘Roundabout’ coins robotics in his three laws of robotics — Robots are portrayed as harmless and in control of humans First modern industrial robot patent in 1954 by George C. Devol (US Patent No. 2,988,237) for Universal Automation or Unimation. First robot manufactured by Unimation, Inc. (Founded by J. Engelberger and George C. Devol) called Unimate was purchased by General Motors for their Trenton, New Jersey automobile plant, and used for die-cast handling and spot welding. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS & ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 5 / 28INTRODUCTION Origin of the word robot in 1923 — translation of Czech play R. U. R (Rossum’s Universal Robot, 1921) by Karel Capek (Capek, 1975). From Czech word ‘robota’ meaning slave labour Designed to replace human beings, and depicted as very efficient and lacking emotion – even now this description is prevalent. Robots rebel against their human masters and destroy the entire human race except one man so that he can continue making robots Unfortunately, the formula gets lost in the destruction. Asimov (Asimov 1970) in story ‘Roundabout’ coins robotics in his three laws of robotics — Robots are portrayed as harmless and in control of humans First modern industrial robot patent in 1954 by George C. Devol (US Patent No. 2,988,237) for Universal Automation or Unimation. First robot manufactured by Unimation, Inc. (Founded by J. Engelberger and George C. Devol) called Unimate was purchased by General Motors for their Trenton, New Jersey automobile plant, and used for die-cast handling and spot welding. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS & ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 5 / 28INTRODUCTION Origin of the word robot in 1923 — translation of Czech play R. U. R (Rossum’s Universal Robot, 1921) by Karel Capek (Capek, 1975). From Czech word ‘robota’ meaning slave labour Designed to replace human beings, and depicted as very efficient and lacking emotion – even now this description is prevalent. Robots rebel against their human masters and destroy the entire human race except one man so that he can continue making robots Unfortunately, the formula gets lost in the destruction. Asimov (Asimov 1970) in story ‘Roundabout’ coins robotics in his three laws of robotics — Robots are portrayed as harmless and in control of humans First modern industrial robot patent in 1954 by George C. Devol (US Patent No. 2,988,237) for Universal Automation or Unimation. First robot manufactured by Unimation, Inc. (Founded by J. Engelberger and George C. Devol) called Unimate was purchased by General Motors for their Trenton, New Jersey automobile plant, and used for die-cast handling and spot welding. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS & ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 5 / 28INTRODUCTION Space Shuttle Arm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadarm PUMA 560 Robot MARS Rover http://www.dlr.de/en/ http://vlabs.iitkgp.ernet.in/MRLab/experiment1.html Robotic Surgery System – Can be remotely operated via Internet Industrial Robots from Fanuc Robotics, Japan da Vinci Surgical Robot (Patient Cart) http://www.fanucindia.com/ http://www.intuitivesurgical.com/ A popular kit for making robots http://world.honda.com/ASIMO/history/ http://mindstorms.lego.com/en-us/Default.aspx Figure 1: Some modern robots . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS & ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 6 / 28INTRODUCTION DEFINITION No clear definition of a “robot” The Robot Institute of America (1969) defines robot as “.... a re-programmable, multi-functional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks”. Currently the term “robots” are used more broadly as an “intelligent agent, physical or virtual, capable of doing a task autonomously or with guidance”. Robot – An electro-mechanical machine with sensors, electronics and guided by computers. Key concept is re-programmable and the extent of programming — distinguishes a robot from CNC machine tools. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS & ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 7 / 28INTRODUCTION DEFINITION No clear definition of a “robot” The Robot Institute of America (1969) defines robot as “.... a re-programmable, multi-functional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks”. Currently the term “robots” are used more broadly as an “intelligent agent, physical or virtual, capable of doing a task autonomously or with guidance”. Robot – An electro-mechanical machine with sensors, electronics and guided by computers. Key concept is re-programmable and the extent of programming — distinguishes a robot from CNC machine tools. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS & ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 7 / 28INTRODUCTION DEFINITION No clear definition of a “robot” The Robot Institute of America (1969) defines robot as “.... a re-programmable, multi-functional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks”. Currently the term “robots” are used more broadly as an “intelligent agent, physical or virtual, capable of doing a task autonomously or with guidance”. Robot – An electro-mechanical machine with sensors, electronics and guided by computers. Key concept is re-programmable and the extent of programming — distinguishes a robot from CNC machine tools. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS & ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 7 / 28INTRODUCTION DEFINITION No clear definition of a “robot” The Robot Institute of America (1969) defines robot as “.... a re-programmable, multi-functional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks”. Currently the term “robots” are used more broadly as an “intelligent agent, physical or virtual, capable of doing a task autonomously or with guidance”. Robot – An electro-mechanical machine with sensors, electronics and guided by computers. Key concept is re-programmable and the extent of programming — distinguishes a robot from CNC machine tools. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS & ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 7 / 28INTRODUCTION DEFINITION No clear definition of a “robot” The Robot Institute of America (1969) defines robot as “.... a re-programmable, multi-functional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks”. Currently the term “robots” are used more broadly as an “intelligent agent, physical or virtual, capable of doing a task autonomously or with guidance”. Robot – An electro-mechanical machine with sensors, electronics and guided by computers. Key concept is re-programmable and the extent of programming — distinguishes a robot from CNC machine tools. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS & ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 7 / 28INTRODUCTION Advances in robotics has closely followed the explosive development of computers and electronics. According to Wikipedia article, Devol used his patent on magnetic recording devices for the “brains” of his Unimate. First computer, ENIAC, was developed at University of Pennsylvania in 1946 and the first transistor device was built by Shockley and Pearson 1 in Bell Labs in late 1940’s . Another key ingredient, concept of feedback control — first textbook on feedback control is by Prof. Norbert Wiener of MIT in 1948. Feedback allows execution of a programmed (desired) motion by a robot (and a large number of devices) with the required accuracy. 1 First patent for a transistor was by physicist Julius Edgar Lilienfeld of Canada in 1925. . . . . . . ASHITAVA GHOSAL (IISC) ROBOTICS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS & ANALYSIS NPTEL, 2010 8 / 28