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Physics 2415: General Physics II
The course has three main parts, each about a
2. Magnetism and Magnetic Induction.
3. Electromagnetic Waves.
We’ll cover some other waves, and optical phenomena,
in the last few lectures. We’ll also cover DC and AC
circuits in the course. Part I: Electrostatics
1. Electric Charge and Electric Field
2. Gauss’ Law
3. Electric Potential
4. Capacitance and Dielectrics
(Then we’ll do DC circuits.)
Nuclei and Atoms
• An atom consists of a positively charged
nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively
charged electrons. The total electric charge
on an unionized atom is exactly zero.
• Unlike charges attract: the nucleus keeps the
electrons in orbit by electrical attraction, just
as the planets are held by the Sun’s
graviational attraction. But…
Nuclei and Atoms
• Unlike planets around the Sun, electrons are only
allowed to circle in certain orbits.
(Why this is true is explained by quantum mechanics,
and is the basis of the Periodic Table.)
• The nucleus contains N nucleons, N = Z + A,
Z protons each having electric charge e, A
neutrons, having no charge.
• The atom contains Z electrons, charge –e.
• The protons in the nucleus all repel each other
What Holds the Nucleus Together
• The nucleons have a strong but very short range
attraction, called the nuclear force, it’s like a thin
layer of glue around each nucleon.
• The electrostatic repulsion is longer range, and so
is more important in bigger nuclei, unlike the
nuclear “glue”, which only attracts neighbors.
• The electrostatic repulsion is directly responsible
for there being only about 100 chemical elements:
beyond that, the nuclear glue is overcome and the
nucleus flies apart. Electrostatics in Action…
A slow incoming neutron starts a Uranium nucleus wobbling
like a drop of water, electrostatic repulsion drives it apart.
Larger nuclei will break up without an ingoing neutron. What Holds Molecules Together
• Molecules are held together by electrostatic
attraction, but the details are complicated
because allowed electron distribution patterns
are determined by quantum mechanics.
• Example: the Mickey Mouse water molecule:
The hydrogen atom’s single electron
is drawn towards the oxygen
nucleus, so the H’s have net positive
charge, and are electrostatically
attracted to the O. What Holds Solids Together
• For ordinary salt, mainly
electrostatics: the Na
atom loses an electron
to become Na+, an ion,
the Cl gains to become
Cl, the ions form a
cubic lattice where all
the nearest neighbors
of a Cl are Na+’s. Contact Electrification
• If two dissimilar surfaces are placed in close
contact, usually some bonding occurs
between atoms, and therefore some electron
transfer takes place—so when the surfaces are
moved out of contact, one will have an excess
of electrons, one a deficiency.
• True contact at the atomic scale is best
achieved by rubbing the surfaces together. Triboelectric Series
• Countless experiments in rubbing
things together—cats, balloons,
etc.—have established the table on
• For two different surfaces, the one
higher in the table will lose electrons
and become positively charged.
•(Note: tribo is from the Greek for rub.)
uwz0R8 Positive and Negative Electricity
• Ben Franklin did many
some of them crazy,
and coined the terms
(meaning, we now
know, deficient in
(having extra electrons). Electric Charge is Always Conserved
• That’s obvious when we’re
talking about electron
transfer by rubbing—but
particle accelerators can
create protons It’s found
that an antiproton, with
negative charge, is always
created at the same time.
• Creating matter means
creating antimatter Conductors and Insulators
• Some solids—like
free to move from atom to
atom. These are conductors.
They’re usually shiny,
because the freely moving
electrons reflect light very
• In solids like NaCl, or glass,
The power is carried by aluminum wires,
etc., the electrons are tied to
suspended by glass, polymer, or porcelain
atoms, no charge can flow:
these solids are insulators. Attracting Neutrals
• A neutral conducting ball will • a
be attracted by an electric
charge: electrons will move
around in the conductor to
be closer to an external
positive charge, so
experiencing stronger force.
• For insulators there is
sometimes a similar (weaker)
effect: the molecules distort
to put electrons closer. The Electroscope
• Charge detector
invented by an English
clergyman in 1787. Two
very thin strips of gold
leaf hang side by side
from a conducting rod.
• If a + charge is brought
near, electrons move up
the rod, leaving the two
charged, so they repel
each other. Charging the Electroscope…
• By conduction: touch the top conductor with
a positively charged object—this will leave it
positively charged (electron deficient).
• By induction: while holding a positively
charged object near, but not in contact, with
the top, you touch the electroscope: negative
charge will flow from the ground, through
you, to the electroscope. Clicker Question
• I charge the electroscope by conduction,
touching it with a charged object, which I then
remove. The leaves are apart.
• I now bring the charged object back close to
the electroscope, but not touching it.
• The leaves:
A. Move further apart
B. Are not affected, if no touching
C. Move closer together.