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Basics of Image processing ppt

application of image processing ppt and digital image processing project ppt presentation
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Published Date:12-07-2017
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Introduction to Image Processing Prof. George Wolberg Dept. of Computer Science City College of New YorkWhat is Image Processing? Prof. George Wolberg Dept. of Computer Science City College of New YorkObjectives •In this lecture we: - Explore what image processing is about - Compare it against related fields - Provide historical introduction - Survey some application areas 10 Wolberg: Image Processing Course NotesWhat is Digital Image Processing? • Computer manipulation of pictures, or images, that have been converted into numeric form. Typical operations include: - Contrast enhancement - Remove blur from an image - Smooth out graininess, speckle, or noise - Magnify, minify, or rotate an image (image warping) - Geometric correction - Image compression for efficient storage/transmission 11 Wolberg: Image Processing Course NotesImage Processing Goals • Image processing is a subclass of signal processing concerned specifically with pictures • It aims to improve image quality for - human perception: subjective - computer interpretation: objective • Compress images for efficient storage/transmission 12 Wolberg: Image Processing Course NotesRelated Fields Image Processing Image Computer Computer Graphics Vision Scene Description 13 Wolberg: Image Processing Course NotesOverlap with Related Fields Image Processing Image Noise reduction Contrast enhancement Filtering Texture mapping Low-level Image-in / Image-out Antialiasing Extract attributes Computer Computer Edge detection Mid-level Graphics Vision Segmentation Image-in / Features-out Recognition High-level Cognitive functions Scene Description 14 Wolberg: Image Processing Course NotesDistinctions • No clear cut boundaries between image processing on the one end and computer vision at the other • Defining image processing as image-in/image-out does not account for - computation of average intensity: image-in / number-out - image compression: image-in / coefficients-out • Nevertheless, image-in / image-out is true most of time Output Image Description Input Image Computer Image Processing Vision Computer Artificial Description Graphics Intelligence 15 Wolberg: Image Processing Course NotesImage Processing: 1960-1970 Geometric correction and image enhancement applied to Ranger 7 pictures of the moon. Work conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. 16 Wolberg: Image Processing Course NotesImage Processing: 1970-1980 • Invention of computerized axial tomography (CAT) • Emergence of medical imaging • Rapid growth of X-ray imaging for CAT scans, inspection, and astronomy • LANDSAT earth observation 17 Wolberg: Image Processing Course NotesImage Processing: 1980-1990 • Satellite infrared imaging: LANDSAT, NOAA • Fast resampling and texture mapping 18 Wolberg: Image Processing Course NotesImage Processing: 1990-2000 • Morphing / visual effects algorithms • JPEG/MPEG compression, wavelet transforms • Adobe PhotoShop 19 Wolberg: Image Processing Course NotesImage Processing: 2000- • Widespread proliferation of fast graphics processing units (GPU) from nVidia and ATI to perform real-time image processing • Ubiquitous digital cameras, camcorders, and cell phone cameras rely heavily on image processing and compression 20 Wolberg: Image Processing Course NotesSources of Images • The principal energy source for images is the electromagnetic energy spectrum. • EM waves = stream of massless (proton) particles, each traveling in a wavelike pattern at the speed of light. Spectral bands are grouped by energy/photon - Gamma rays, X-rays, UV, Visible, Infrared, Microwaves, radio waves • Other sources: acoustic, ultrasonic, electronic 21 Wolberg: Image Processing Course NotesGamma-Ray Imaging • Used in nuclear medicine, astronomy • Nuclear medicine: patient is injected with radioactive isotope that emits gamma rays as it decays. Images are produced from emissions collected by detectors. 22 Wolberg: Image Processing Course NotesX-Ray Imaging • Oldest source of EM radiation for imaging • Used for CAT scans • Used for angiograms where X-ray contrast medium is injected through catheter to enhance contrast at site to be studied. • Industrial inspection 23 Wolberg: Image Processing Course NotesUltraviolet Imaging • Used for lithography, industrial inspection, flourescence microscopy, lasers, biological imaging, and astronomy • Photon of UV light collides with electron of fluorescent material to elevate its energy. Then, its energy falls and it emits red light. 24 Wolberg: Image Processing Course NotesVisible and Infrared Imaging (1) • Used for astronomy, light microscopy, remote sensing 25 Wolberg: Image Processing Course NotesVisible and Infrared Imaging (2) • Industrial inspection - inspect for missing parts - missing pills - unacceptable bottle fill - unacceptable air pockets - anomalies in cereal color - incorrectly manufactured replacement lens for eyes 26 Wolberg: Image Processing Course NotesMicrowave Imaging • Radar is dominant application • Microwave pulses are sent out to illuminate scene • Antenna receives reflected microwave energy 27 Wolberg: Image Processing Course Notes