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What is A Literature Review
What is A Literature Review 5
STUDY PROGRAM: COMPUTER SCIENCE
COMPUTER SCIENCE FACULTY, UNIVERSITY OF
Ania% Murni/Zainal A. Hasibuan
(ania%/zhasibuacs.ui.ac.id) Session Objec%ves
• To understand how to search relevant literatures.
• To understand the objec%ves of reviewing
• To understand the processes of reviewing
• To understand the components of literature to be
• To understand the state‐of‐the‐art literatures
related to the problem statement. Topic in the Mind Map
State General Problem
State Specific Problem
Refine Hypotheses Overview Previous Sessions
• The statement of general problem(s) as the
basis to ﬁnd related literatures.
– At this state, the nature of the problem(s) s%ll
shaky and blurred.
• Reviewing literatures will enhance the
statement of the problem(s).
– Literatures reviewed have to have logical
connec%on to the problems statement.
• Finding and reviewing related literatures are
an art as well a scien%ﬁc acts. What is A Literature Review? (source
University Library, University of California)
It is a surveys of scholarly articles, books
and other sources (e.g. dissertations, journal,
conference proceedings) relevant to a
particular issue, area of research, or theory
Textbook, magazine, Bulletin are not suggested
It is providing a description, summary, and
critical evaluation of each work (each
The purpose is to offer an overview of
significant literatures published on a topic
(overview the state-of-the-art). Deﬁni%on (Source: Wikipedia)..
• A Literature review is a body of text that aims to review the
cri%cal points of current knowledge on a par%cular topic.
• Most oPen associated with science‐oriented literature,
such as a thesis, the literature review usually precedes a
research proposal, methodology and results sec%on.
• Its ul%mate goal is to bring the reader up to date with
current literature on a topic and forms the basis for another
goal, such as the jus%ﬁca%on for future research in the
• A good literature review is characterized by: a logical ﬂow
of ideas; current and relevant references with consistent,
appropriate referencing style; proper use of terminalogy;
and an unbiased and comprehensive view of the previous
research on the topic. Deﬁni%on…
• According to Cooper (1988) "a literature review uses
as its database reports of primary or original
scholarship, and does not report new primary
• The primary reports used in the literature may be
verbal, but in the vast majority of cases reports are
• The types of scholarship may be empirical,
theore%cal, cri%cal/analy%c, or methodological in
nature. A literature review seeks to describe,
summarize, evaluate, clarify and/or integrate the
content of primary reports". How to Find Relevant Literatures?
• Search with the key‐word of the resesearch topic.
– Use broader key‐word (term) if the documents retrieved
are few or none.
– Use narrower key‐word if the documents retrieved are too
– Use synonim or related terms to enhance the search
– Employ Boolean operator: AND, OR, NOT to control the
• Pick the most recent and related ar%cle to start with.
• Start look for another related ar%cles through:
– New search terms found in the related ar%cles
– List of references in the chosen ar%cle The Objec%ves of Reviewing Literatures?
(source University Library, University of California)
• Place each work (research ar%cle) in the context of its
contribu%on to the understanding of the subject under
• Describe the rela%onship of each work to the others under
• Iden%fy new ways to interpret, and shed light on any gaps
in, previous research
• Resolve conﬂicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous
• Iden%fy areas of prior scholarship to prevent duplica%on of
• Point the way forward for further research
• Place one's original work (in the case of theses or
disserta%ons) in the context of exis%ng literature Why doing a literature review?
• To iden%fy gaps in the literature
• To avoid reinven%ng the wheel (at the very least this
will save %me and it can stop you from making the
same mistakes as others)
• To iden%fy methods that could be relevant to your
• To carry on from where others have already reached
(reviewing the ﬁeld allows you to build on the placorm
of exis%ng knowledge and ideas)
• To iden%fy other people working in the same ﬁelds (a
researcher network is a valuable resource)
• To increase your breadth of knowledge of your subject
area Cont….Why doing a literature
• To iden%fy similar works in your area
• To provide the intellectual context for your own
work, enabling you to posi%on your project rela%ve
to other work
• To iden%fy opposing views
• To put your work into perspec%ve
• To demonstrate that you can access previous work in
• To iden%fy informa%on and ideas that may be
relevant to your project Stages of Literature Reviews (source University
Library, University of California)
• Problem formula%on—which topic or ﬁeld is
being examined and what are issues?
• Literature search—ﬁnding materials relevant
to the subject being explored
• Data evalua%on—determining which literature
makes a signiﬁcant contribu%on to the
understanding of the topic
• Analysis and interpreta%on—discussing the
ﬁndings and conclusions of per%nent
literature Elements of Literature to Review
• An overview of the subject, issue or theory under
considera%on, along with the objec%ves of the literature
• Division of works under review into categories (e.g. those
in support of a par%cular posi%on, those against, and
those oﬀering alterna%ve theses en%rely)
• Explana%on of how each work is similar to and how it
varies from the others
• Conclusions as to which pieces are best considered in
their argument, are most convincing of their opinions,
and make the greatest contribu%on to the understanding
and development of their area of research How to Review Literatures?
Compare: try to find the similarities among literatures
Explain how each article similar to the others.
Contrast: try to find the differences among literatures
Explain how each article differ to the others
Criticize: put your own opinion on what is written in
Criticize the strength and weakness of the research
Synthesize: combine several literatures into an idea
Summarize: restate the article with your own words in a
concise way Examples
• Comparing: “Menurut peneli%an yang dilakukan oleh
Andri (1999), kinerja IRS dengan menggunakan teknik
extended Boolean lebih baik dibanding menggunakan teknik
Boolean saja. Hal ini sejalan dengan hasil‐hasil peneli%an
sebelumnya yang dilakukan oleh Savoy (1995), Salton (1990),
• Contras%ng: “Hasil peneli%an yang dilakukan oleh Santoso
(2006) menunjukkan bahwa gaya belajar konstruk%f lebih
adap%f terhadap penggunaan ICT. Hal ini bertentangan
dengan hasil peneli%an lainnya yang mengatakan bahwa gaya
posi%vist yang lebih adap%f terhadap penggunaan ICT (YYYY,
98; XXXX, 20010”. Examples
• Cri%cize: Menurut Hadi (2005) Sistem Informasi Untuk Ekseku%f (EIS)
dapat membantu pimpinan mengambil keputusan lebih akurat sekitar 90%
dibanding %dak menggunakan EIS, tetapi %dak dijelaskan berapa banyak
sample EIS yang disurvei dan kategori keputusan yang bagaimana yang
dijadikan sebagai acuan.
• Synthesize: Menurut Hadi (2005) keberhasilan suatu Sistem Informasi
Untuk Ekseku%f (EIS) sangat ditentukan oleh %ngkat ke akuratan menagkap
kebutuhan para ekseku%f sedangkan menurut Amir (2006), EIS sangat
ditentukan oleh kejelasan core bisnis dari perusahaannya. Dari kedua
pendapat tersebut, dapat dikatakan bahwa faktor‐2 penentu keberhasilan
EIS antara lain: keakuratan menangkap kebutuhan pimpinan, dan kejelasan
core bisnis perusahaan Where to Place Your Literature
• Usually it’s placed at Chapter 2 of your
thesis or dissertation
• A literature review may constitute an
essential chapter of a thesis or
• Literature review should logically
connected to research problems, research
methodology, analysis and conclusion. Geong Started
• Like many tasks, reading and star%ng to write
review literature usually seems worst before you
• So you should make a start
1. First make up an outline—just sit and type points to
2. Organiza%on. It is encouraging and helpful to start a ﬁling
3. Timetable. a list of dates for when you will give the ﬁrst
and second draPs
4. Itera%ve. it is easier, however, to improve something that
is already wriZen than to produce text from nothing Points to Consider When Reviewing
a Literature… (source University Library, University of California)
• Provenance—What are the author's creden%als? Are the
author's arguments supported by evidence (e.g. primary
historical material, case studies, narra%ves, sta%s%cs, recent
• Objec%vity—Is the author's perspec%ve even‐handed or
prejudicial? Is contrary data considered or is certain per%nent
informa%on ignored to prove the author's point?
• Persuasiveness—Which of the author's theses are most/least
• Value—Are the author's arguments and conclusions
convincing? Does the work ul%mately contribute in any
signiﬁcant way to an understanding of the subject? Points to Discuss in Literature Review:
• What is the problem and why is it important?
• Is the problem clearly deﬁned?
• Try to state the problem as simply as you can
• Is the research methodology well stated?
• How’s the data being created and manipulated?
• Is the manipulated data suﬃciently interpreted?
• What is the contribu%on of the study?
• Is the conclusion related to the problems?
• Is the evidence suﬃcient enough to support