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SOFTWARE PROJECT MANAGEMENT LECTURE 2 4 P’s in Project Management th Engr. Ali Javed 15 September, 2011 Contact Information 2  Instructor: Engr. Ali Javed Lecturer Department of Software Engineering U.E.T Taxila  Email:  Contact No: +92519047592  Office hours:  Monday, 11:00 01:00, Office 7 Engr. Ali Javed Course Information 3  Course Name: Software Project Management  Course Code: SE401  CMS Link: Engr. Ali Javed Recommended Websites 4 Engr. Ali Javed Recommended Websites 5 Engr. Ali Javed 6 4 P‟s in PM Spectrum  People  Product  Process  Project Engr. Ali Javed 7 People 1  Stakeholders  Team Leaders  Software Team  Agile Teams Engr. Ali Javed People 8  The most important factor in success of software project.  “Companies That sensibly manage their investment in people will prosper in the long run” Tim Tom.  Cultivation of motivated and highly skilled software people has always been important for software organizations.  The “peoplefactor” is so important that SEI has developed People Management Capability Maturity Model (PMCMM). Engr. Ali Javed PMCMM 9  Developed by SEI  “To enhance the readiness of s/w organizations to undertake increasingly complex applications by helping to attract, grow, motivate, deploy, and retain the talent needed to improve their software development capability”  In simple words to enhance the people‟s capabilities through personnel development  Organizations that achieve high levels of maturity in PMCMM have a higher likelihood of implementing effective software engineering practices Engr. Ali Javed PMCMM 10  Key Practice Areas of PMCMM  Recruiting 3  Selection 3  Performance Management 4  Training Engr. Ali Jav ed PMCMM 11  Key Practice Areas of PMCMM  Compensation 5  Organizational design 6  Career development 7  Team/culture development 8 Engr. Ali Javed PMCMM 12  Key Practice Areas of PMCMM  Work environment Engr. Ali Javed Peoples involved in Software Process 13  Stakeholders  Team Leaders  Software Team  Agile Teams Engr. Ali Javed The Stakeholders 14  They can be categorized into one of the following  Senior Managers  they define business issues that often have significant influence on business  Project (technical) managers  they must plan, motivate, organize and control the practitioners who do software work  Practitioners  They deliver the technical skills necessary to engineer a product or application  Customers  They specify the requirements for the software to be engineered  End Users  They interact with the software after it is released for production use Engr. Ali Javed The Team Leaders 15  Competent Practitioners often make poor team leaders as they lack the right mix of skills  In his excellent book of technical leadership, Jerry Weinberg suggests a MOI model of leadership MOI Model of Leadership  Motivation  encourage technical people (by “push” or “pull” ) to produce  Organization  Apply , improve processes efficiently  Ideas or Innovation  Make people feel creative  Be Creative Engr. Ali Javed The Team Leaders 16  The Team Leaders Characteristics of an effective project managers:  Problem Solving  Diagnostic  Skill to solve  Ability to design solution  Managerial Identity  Control the project Engr. Ali Javed The Team Leaders 17  The Team Leaders Characteristics of an effective project managers:  Achievement  Reward Initiative  Encourage Controlled risk taking  Influence and team building  Influence the team  Read people‟s mind and respond according to their needs  Be controlled in stress situations Engr. Ali Javed The Software Teams 18  Organizations/Structure of teams:  Democratic decentralized  Controlled decentralized  Controlled centralized Engr. Ali Javed The Software Teams: Democratic decentralized 19  Democratic decentralized  No permanent leader  Communication is horizontal  Suitable for small projects requiring less than 5 to 6 engineers, research oriented projects Engr. Ali Javed The Software Teams: Democratic decentralized 20  At different times, different  Team members may waste time members within the team arguing about trivial points due provide technical leadership. to absence of any authority in the team.  High morale and job satisfaction due to autonomy, hence less employee turnover. Engr. Ali Javed The Software Teams: Controlled Centralized 21  Controlled centralized  Defined team leader  Problem solving , communication and management by team leader  Communication is vertical Engr. Ali Javed The Software Teams: Controlled Centralized 22  The senior engineer/leader  Too much responsibility partitions tasks, verifies and authority is assigned to integrates the products leader, possibility of single developed by members. point of failure Engr. Ali Javed The Software Teams: Controlled Decentralized 23  Controlled decentralized  Draws upon the ideas from both earlier structures  Defined Leader  Horizontal communication  Problem solving is a group activity  Suitable for large organizations Engr. Ali Javed The Software Teams 24  Mantei describes seven factors that should be considered when planning team structure:  Difficulty of task  Size of resultant code (no. of lines)  Time that team will stay together  Degree of modularization  Required quality and reliability of the system being built  Rigidity of delivery date (schedule)  Degree of communication Engr. Ali Javed Communication Coordination Issues 25  Formal approaches  Writings (SE documentation, Customer requests, etc.)  Status review meetings  Design and code inspections  Informal approaches (more personal)  Interpersonal networking 9  Sharing of ideas on ad hoc basis  Seeking help from inside or outside the project team when problem arises  Electronic Communication  Email, electronic bulletin boards 10, video conferencing Engr. Ali Javed The People Agile Teams 26  Agile software development encourages customer satisfaction and early incremental delivery of software with overall simplicity.  Agile teams are small, highly motivated teams.  They adopt many characteristics of successful software project teams and avoid toxins that create problems.  They are self organizing and do not necessarily maintain a single team structure  Agile process models give significant autonomy to agile teams. Engr. Ali Javed The People Agile Teams 27  Planning is kept to minimum.  The agile team is allowed to select its own approach (e.g., process, methods, tools).  The agile team may have daily team meetings to coordinate and synchronize the day‟s work.  With each passing day, this self organization and collaboration move the team towards a completed software increment. Engr. Ali Javed 28 The Product 1  Software Scope  Problem Decomposition Engr. Ali Javed The Product 29  The product and the problem it is intended to solve must be examined at very beginning of the software project.  The scope of product must be established and bounded.  Bounded scope means  establishing quantitative data like no. of simultaneous users, max. allowable response time. etc.  Constraints and limitations  and mitigating factors described  The problem that the product is addressing must be decomposed Engr. Ali Javed Software Scope 30  Scope is defined by  Context  Functional location of the software product into a large system, product or business context  Constraints involved  Information Objectives  What data objects are required as i/p or o/p  Function and Performance  What function does the software system perform on i/p to produce o/p  What level of performance is required Engr. Ali Javed Problem Decomposition 31  Also called partitioning OR problem elaboration  This activity is at core of requirements analysis  Divide and conquer policy for complex problems  A complex problem is partitioned into smaller problems that are more manageable.  Decomposition make planning easier.  Decomposition in 2 major areas  Functionality that must be delivered  Process that will be used to deliver product Engr. Ali Javed 32 The Process 1  Process  Framework Activities  Process Models  Process Decomposition Engr. Ali Javed The Process 33  A software process provides the framework from which a comprehensive plan for software development can be established.  Common process framework activities which are applicable to all software projects are:  Communication  Planning  Modeling  Construction  Deployment Engr. Ali Javed Common Process Framework Activities 34  These characterize a software process and are applicable to all software projects  Communication  Planning  Modeling  Construction  Deployment  These are applied to software engineering work tasks (e.g., different product functions) Engr. Ali Javed The Process Models 35  Different process models:  Linear sequential, Prototyping, RAD, Spiral, Formal …  Project manager must decide about which model to use depending on  Customers who have requested the product  People who would work on project  Product characteristics  Project environment  Project planning begins once model is selected Engr. Ali Javed Process Decomposition 36  The way a process is decomposed depends on project complexity  Decomposition involves outlining of work tasks involved in each process framework activity  Example of decomposition for „communication‟ activity for a simple project:  Develop a list of clarification issues  Meet with customer to discuss clarification issues  Jointly develop statement of scope  Review the statement of scope with all concerned  Modify the statement of scope id required Engr. Ali Javed 37 The Project 1  Project  Signs of Projects Risk  How to Avoid Project Risks Engr. Ali Javed The Projects 38  The software projects must be planned and controlled effectively to avoid complexities.  The project managers and engineers must understand the critical success factors and develop a common sense approach for planning, monitoring and controlling the project. Engr. Ali Javed Signs of Projects Risk 39  John Reel describes ten signs that indicate that project is in jeopardy:  Software people don‟t understand customer needs  Product scope is poorly defined  Changes are managed poorly  The chosen technology changes  Business needs change  Deadlines are unrealistic  Users are resistant  Sponsorship is lost  Team lacks skills  Managers avoid best practices Engr. Ali Javed How to avoid problems 40  Start on the right foot  Involves detailed understanding of project  setting realistic objectives expectations  Selecting the right team  Facilitating the team  Maintain Momentum  Provide incentives  Reduce bureaucracy and give autonomy to team members but with supervision  Track Progress  Assess progress as work products are produced Engr. Ali Javed How to avoid problems 41  Make smart decisions  When possible, use existing software components / COTS software  Choose standard approaches and keep it simple  Avoid risks and allocate more time than needed for complex/risky tasks  Conduct a postmortem analysis  Compare planned and actual schedule  Collect and analyze project metrics (standards)  Get feedback from team and customers  Establish record of lessons learnt for each project Engr. Ali Javed 5 42 W HH Principle Engr. Ali Javed 5 W HH principle 43  Suggested by Barry Boehm in one of his papers  Excellent planning outline for project managers and software team  Applicable to all sizes of software projects  It is an approach to address  project objectives  Milestones schedule  Responsibilities  Management technical approaches  Required resources Engr. Ali Javed 5 W HH principle 44  Why is the system being develop  Answer to this questions help assess validity of business reason for the software work.  It answers if the business purpose justifies the expenditure of people, time and money  What will be done  Answer to this question establishes the task set required for project  When will it be done  Answer to this question helps the team establish a project schedule by identifying when tasks have to be conducted and when milestones are to be reached Engr. Ali Javed 5 W HH principle 45  Who is responsible for a function  Answer to this question establishes roles and responsibility of each team member  Where are they organizationally located  Answer to this question indicates that all roles and responsibilities are not limited to the software team itself, the customers, users and stakeholders also have responsibilities.  How will be job done technically and managerially  Once product scope is establishes, a technical and management strategy must be defined for it.  How much of each resource is needed  Answer to this question is derived by developing estimates based on answers to earlier questions. Engr. Ali Javed References 46 1. Software Engineering by Roger Pressman 2. Team Structures Portion taken from Gary Pollice lectures on Software Project Management 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Engr. Ali Javed For any query Feel Free to ask 47 Engr. Ali Javed
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