Cognitive cultural theory

cognitive culture examples and cognitive culture sociology definition
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Dr.BenjaminClark,United States,Teacher
Published Date:21-07-2017
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Intelligent Control and Cognitive Systems brings you... Culture & Language in Cognitive Systems Joanna J. Bryson University of Bath, United KingdomOutline What is culture for? (computationally) • Why are we social? • Why do we communicate? • Language as a special case: • Phonetics/phonology/morphology, Syntax, • Semantics, & Pragmatics. Natural Language Processing (NLP) •Outline What is culture for? (computationally) • Why are we social? • Why do we communicate? • Language as a special case: • Phonetics/phonology/morphology, Syntax, • Semantics, & Pragmatics. Natural Language Processing (NLP) •SocialityWhy not be social? Disease & parasites. • Competition for food, shelter, mates. • Time spent maintaining social structure. •Traditional Explanation (Galton 1871, Hamilton 1973) Aggregation • as a form of cover seeking.Traditional Explanation (Galton 1871, Hamilton 1973) Aggregation • as a form of cover seeking. Isolation • increases probability of being near a predator.Why not be social? Disease & parasites. • Competition for food, shelter, mates. • Time spent maintaining social structure. •Traditional Explanation (Galton 1871, Hamilton 1973) Aggregation • as a form of cover seeking? Aren’t • predators a form of parasite?Culture – Biological Perspective Culture: Behaviour acquired from • conspecifics by non-genetic means (Richerson & Boyd 2005). Neo-diffusionist hypothesis: cultural • diffusion of adaptive behaviours more likely than neutral or negative traits (Kashima 2008).Culture as Concurrency If each agent has a 1% chance of • discovering a skill (e.g. making yogurt) in its lifetime and there are 2000 agents, at any instant probably some agents will know the skill. If it is easier to learn the skill from a • knowledgeable agent than by discovery, then selective pressure for culture. Inclusive fitness c b × r • (Hamilton 1964; West et al 2007).What About Selfish Genes? How can evolution select traits that help the • community but hurt the individuals? Inclusive fitness & kin / group selection: • What is transmitted is the replicator. • The unit of selection is the vehicle (or • interactor.) Most current vehicles are composed of • many, many replicators. (Dawkins e.g. The Extended Phenotype)Multiple Levels of Interaction Cooperation boo ha ha Replicator (Gene) Group Rah nyah boo nyah Organism Boo.Strategies for Speeding Search Concurrency • multiple searches at the same time, • only effective if solutions can be • communicated. Pruning • limit search to likely space of solutions •Culture Lets Humans Search Faster Language Built Culture Why Don’t Other Species Use It?They DoCulture in non- human primates Chimpanzees (Whiten, Goodall, McGew, Nishida, Reynolds, Sugiyama, Tutin, Wrangham, & Boesch 1999, p . 684). Macaques (de Waal & Johanowicz 1993); Capuchins (Perry et al 2003); Orangutans (van Schaik et al 2003).Culture in non- human primates Chimpanzees (video from Whiten) Goodall, McGew, Nishida, Reynolds, Sugiyama, Tutin, Wrangham, & Boesch 1999, p . 684). Macaques (de Waal & Johanowicz 1993); Capuchins (Perry et al 2003); Orangutans (van Schaik et al 2003).Solitary Tortoises Use Culture if It’s Available Social Learning in a Non-Social Tortoise Anna Wilkinson, Karin Künstner Julia Müller& Ludwig Huber 2010. 12 12 Left Right 10 10 8 8 6 6 4 4 2 2 0 0 Esme Emily Moses Aldous Molly Quinn Alexandra Wilhelmina Tortoise Tortoise Number of trials in which the tortoise reached the goal Number of trials in which the tortoises reached the goal Even Bacteria Share Info MGEs: e.g. Phages & Plasmids One on One ‘speech’? 20 ‘Books’? Images from Bharat Kumar Chimanlal Patel