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General Psychology chapter 1 ppt

general psychology lecture notes ppt and general psychology introduction ppt
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Published Date:15-07-2017
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GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY PSY 1000 Sherry Dockins, MASA, LCPC,CADC, ICDVP Sherry_DockinsIVCC.eduWhat is Psychology? • The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. – Physical state – Mental state – Environment • Behavior = outward or avert actions and reactions – Talking, facial expressions and movement • Mental Process = internal, covert activity – Thinking, feeling and rememberingPsychology’s Goals • Description – What is happening? – Student who’s grades are slipping • Explanation – Why is it happening? – Theory – Testing – dyslexia • Prediction – When will it happen again? – Probably throughout academic experience • Control – How can it be changed? – Intervene – Learning strategiesThe History of Psychology • Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) Germany – Father of Psychology st – 1 in movement to make psychology a science st – 1 true experimental lab in psychology Structuralist - structure or basic elements of the mind Objective introspection – Examining and measuring one’s own thoughts and mental activities • Trained volunteers to observe, analyze and describe their own sensations, mental images and emotional reactions. • Train 10,00 observations; 20 mins to report 1.5 second experiment • Goal to break down behavior in to basic elements…H 0 2 – Eventually rejected as too subjectiveThe history of Psychology • Structuralism (USA) – E.B. Titchener (1867 – 1927) – Student of Wilhelm Wundt – Analyze sensations, images and feelings into basic elements • Eventually Discarded • Functionalism – William James (1842 – 1910) – Function or purpose of behavior • not analysis or description – How do specific behaviors & mental processes help ADAPT to environment? • No longer a major perspectiveThe history of Psychology • Gestalt Psychology – “The whole is greater than the sum of the parts” – Max Wertheimer – Gestalt = “an organized whole” or “configuration” – People seek our patterns to make sense of things • Gestalt Psychology • Focus on perceptions and sensations – particularly the perception of patterns and whole figures The History of Psychology • Psychoanalysis – Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) – Neurologist Theory of personality - a type of psychotherapy that emphasizes unconscious or repressed motives and conflicts. – Depression, anxiety & obsession had mental not physical causes – This distress due to conflict and emotional traumas in childhood – Conscious awareness “tip of the mental iceberg” – “interpretation of dreams’ – Well known……profound influence …. • His theory used in modified formQuiz 4. Name which of the following early psychologists would have been most likely to agree with the statement, “The study of the mind should focus on how it allows us to adapt to our surroundings.” a) Wilhelm Wundt b) William James c) John Watson d) Sigmund Freud 5. Which early perspective would have been LEAST likely to agree with the structuralists? a) Introspectionism b) Functionalism c) Psychoanalysis d) Gestalt 6. In the experiment with “Little Peter,” what did Mary Cover Jones use as a stimulus to counter Little Peter’s fear of the Rabbit? a) A white rat b) Food c) A loud noise d) RelaxationPsychology Now: Modern Perspectives • Psychodynamic Perspective – Modern version, focused on the development of a sense of self and the discovery of other motivations behind a person’s behavior than sexual motivations • Behavioral Perspective – – B. F Skinner – Followed Watson – Operant Conditioning • Reinforcement and Punishment • Humanistic Perspective – rd – “3 Force” – after psychodynamic and behaviorism – People’s ability to direct their own lives • Cognitive Perspective – focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving and learning – Cognitive neuroscience – study of the physical changes in the brain and nervous system during thinkingModern Perspectives • Sociocultural Perspective – Perspective that focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture (Social and Cultural Psychology) • Biopsychological Perspective - Attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occurring in the body, such as genetic influences, hormones and the activity of the nervous system. • Evolutionary Perspective – perspective that focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share.Quiz 1. Which of the following pairs represents the two psychological perspectives that were part of the historical beginning of psychology? a) Humanism and behaviorism b) Behaviorism and psychodynamics c) Psychodynamics and humanism d) Cognitive psychology and psychodynamics 2. Which perspective is known at the “third force” is psychology? a) Psychoanalysis b) Behaviorism c) Cognitive psychology d) Humanism 3. Elsie suffered a stroke and had to be hospitalized. She then began to talk funny, garbled words and seemed to think she was being held against her will. Which of the following perspective BEST explains Elsie’s odd behavior? a) Psychodynamics b) Cognitive psychology c) Behaviorism d) biopsychologyQuick Quiz • Anxiety is a common problem. Which possible explanation of anxiety fits these perspectives? 1) Anxious people often think about the future in distorted ways 2) Anxiety is due to forbidden unconscious desires 3) Anxiety symptoms often bring hidden rewards, such as being excused from exams 4) Excessive anxiety can be caused by a chemical imbalance 5) A national emphasis on competition and success promotes anxiety about failure. A.Learning D. Biological B. Psychodynamic E. Cognitive C. Social-culturalPsychological Professionals Psychiatrist – medical doctor; prescribe medications; not always up on psych Psychoanalyst – practices psychoanalysis specialized training (M.D., Ph.D., Psy. D., Ed.) Psychologist – no medical training but doctorate (Ph. D. or Psy. D.) Psychiatric social worker - LCSW – Licensed Clinical Social Worker MSW - Master of Social Work LCPC – Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor MFCC – Licensed Marriage, Family and Child CounselorWhat do psychologists do? • Provide health or mental health services “psychological practice” – Counseling psychologist– help people deal with everyday life – School psychologist – school performance; student, parent & teacher – Clinical psychologist – diagnose, treat & study mental / emotional problems; has Ph.D., an Ed.D, or a Psy.D. • Teach and do research in colleges and universities – Basic psychology – “pure” research; knowledge for sake of knowledge – Applied psychology – direct practical significance; application of findingsWhat do Psychologist do? • Teach and do research in colleges and universities – Basic psychology – “pure” research; knowledge for sake of knowledge • “How does peer pressure influence attitudes and behavior” – Applied psychology – direct practical significance; application of findings • “How can knowledge of peer pressure reduce underage drinking?” • Types of nonclinical specialties • Experimental psychologist – laboratory studies; learning, motivation & cognition • Educational psychologist – learning and improvement of school systems • Developmental psychologist – change and growth over time • Industrial/organizational psychologist – behavior in workplace • Psychometric psychologist – design and evaluate testsWhat do psychologist do? • Psychology in the community • Conducting research or applying its findings in nonacademic settings (business, sports, government, law, and military). – American Psychological Association (APA) • 53 divisions – Psychology of men – Psychology of women – Sports psychology – Gay and lesbian issues – Psychology and the law – Advertising3 Main Types of Psychologist –Clinical Psychologists –Research Psychologists –Community •Law •Sports •AdvertisingCareer Requirements • Completion of a doctoral program. • Licensure is required when working independently. • A one year internship for clinical. • Effective psychologists match career choice with personal temperament and aptitude. Clinical Psychologists • Clinical psychologists are the largest subfield. • Clinical psychologists help those who have difficulty functioning due to a crisis. • Clients often have the goal to return to a previous level of functioning prior to the trauma event. • Psychologists complete this work in community mental health centers, private practices, hospitals and clinics. Clinical psychologists provide treatment in individual, group, couples or family modalities. • Clinical psychologists are also part of interdisciplinary teams that collaborate with physicians, nutritionists, physiotherapists, and social workers to implement treatment and intervention programs. American Psychological Association, 2009Research Psychologists • Research or experimental psychologists study the behaviors of humans and animals. • Research psychologists formulate hypotheses and collect data to test their validity. • Experimental research is conducted on topics that include motivation, learning, memory, sensory and perceptual processes, effects of substance abuse, as well as genetic and neurological factors affecting behavior. • This research can be completed in a laboratory setting where the variables of the study can be controlled, while other research can be completed in vivo where behavior is studied as it occurs naturally. • Researchers also work collaboratively on multidisciplinary teams. American Psychological Association, 2009 United States Department of Labor, 2009