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GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY 13
Sherry Dockins, MASA, LCPC,CADC, ICDVP
• What is psychology
• Why are you taking this course
• What do you expect to learnWhat to expect
• Small group
• Large group discussion
• In class activities
• Out of class activities
• Research paper
• ExamsChapter 1
The Science of
PsychologyWhat is Psychology
• The scientific study of behavior and mental
– Physical state
– Mental state
• Behavior = outward or avert actions and reactions
– Talking, facial expressions and movement
• Mental Process = internal, covert activity
– Thinking, feeling and rememberingPsychology’s Goals
• Description – What is happening
– Student who’s grades are slipping
• Explanation – Why is it happening
– Testing – dyslexia
• Prediction – When will it happen again
– Probably throughout academic experience
• Control – How can it be changed
– Learning strategiesThe History of Psychology
• Wilhelm Wundt (18321920) Germany
– Father of Psychology
– 1 in movement to make psychology a science
– 1 true experimental lab in psychology
Structuralist structure or basic elements of the mind
– Examining and measuring one’s own thoughts and mental activities
• Trained volunteers to observe, analyze and describe their own
sensations, mental images and emotional reactions.
• Train 10,00 observations; 20 mins to report 1.5 second experiment
• Goal to break down behavior in to basic elements…H 0
– Eventually rejected as too subjectiveThe history of Psychology
• Structuralism (USA)
– E.B. Titchener (1867 – 1927)
– Student of Wilhelm Wundt
– Analyze sensations, images and feelings into basic
• Eventually Discarded
– William James (1842 – 1910)
– Function or purpose of behavior
• not analysis or description
– How do specific behaviors mental
processes help ADAPT to environment
• No longer a major perspectiveThe history of Psychology
• Gestalt Psychology
– “The whole is greater than the sum of the parts”
– Max Wertheimer
– Gestalt = “an organized whole” or “configuration”
– People seek our patterns to make sense of things
• Gestalt Psychology
• Focus on perceptions and sensations
– particularly the perception of patterns and whole figures The History of Psychology
– Sigmund Freud (18561939)
Theory of personality a type of psychotherapy that emphasizes
unconscious or repressed motives and conflicts.
– Depression, anxiety obsession had mental not physical causes
– This distress due to conflict and emotional traumas in childhood
– Conscious awareness “tip of the mental iceberg”
– “interpretation of dreams’
– Well known……profound influence ….
• His theory used in modified formHistory of Psychology
Dawn of Behaviorism
• Ivan Pavlov
• John B. Watson
– Father of Behaviorism
– The science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only
– Behavior = stimulus – response relationship
– Little AlbertHistory of Psychology
• Mary Clover Jones
– Classic study on Counter Conditioning
– “Little Peter”
• Same as “Little Albert”
• Associate food (pleasure) with feared object (rabbit) = no
fear of rabbitQuiz
1. In the definition of psychology, behavior means:
a) Internal, covert processes
b) Mental processes
c) Outward or overt actions and reactions
2. Experimental psychologists, whose design experiments to determine the
causes of behavior, would be most interested in the goal of:
3. Dr. Watson designs a special behavior program for helping children who are
bullies learn how to be less aggressive an more successful in social
relationships. Dr. Watson is most interested in the goal of:
4. Name which of the following early psychologists would have been most likely to agree with
the statement, “The study of the mind should focus on how it allows us to adapt to our
a) Wilhelm Wundt
b) William James
c) John Watson
d) Sigmund Freud
5. Which early perspective would have been LEAST likely to agree with the
6. In the experiment with “Little Peter,” what did Mary Cover Jones use as a stimulus to
counter Little Peter’s fear of the Rabbit
a) A white rat
c) A loud noise
d) RelaxationPsychology Now: Modern Perspectives
• Psychodynamic Perspective – Modern version, focused on the development of a sense of
self and the discovery of other motivations behind a person’s behavior than sexual
• Behavioral Perspective –
– B. F Skinner
– Followed Watson
– Operant Conditioning
• Reinforcement and Punishment
• Humanistic Perspective –
– “3 Force”
– after psychodynamic and behaviorism
– People’s ability to direct their own lives
• Cognitive Perspective – focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem
solving and learning
– Cognitive neuroscience – study of the physical changes in the brain and nervous
system during thinkingModern Perspectives
• Sociocultural Perspective – Perspective that focuses on the relationship
between social behavior and culture
(Social and Cultural Psychology)
• Biopsychological Perspective Attributes human and animal behavior
to biological events occurring in the body,
such as genetic influences, hormones
and the activity of the nervous system.
• Evolutionary Perspective – perspective that focuses on the biological
bases of universal mental characteristics
that all humans share.Quiz
1. Which of the following pairs represents the two psychological perspectives that were part of the
historical beginning of psychology
a) Humanism and behaviorism
b) Behaviorism and psychodynamics
c) Psychodynamics and humanism
d) Cognitive psychology and psychodynamics
2. Which perspective is known at the “third force” is psychology
c) Cognitive psychology
3. Elsie suffered a stroke and had to be hospitalized. She then began to talk funny, garbled words and
seemed to think she was being held against her will. Which of the following perspective BEST explains
Elsie’s odd behavior
b) Cognitive psychology
d) biopsychologyQuick Quiz
• Anxiety is a common problem. Which possible explanation of anxiety fits these
1) Anxious people often think about the future in distorted ways
2) Anxiety is due to forbidden unconscious desires
3) Anxiety symptoms often bring hidden rewards, such as being excused from
4) Excessive anxiety can be caused by a chemical imbalance
5) A national emphasis on competition and success promotes anxiety about failure.
A.Learning D. Biological
B. Psychodynamic E. Cognitive
C. SocialculturalPsychological Professionals
Psychiatrist – medical doctor; prescribe medications; not always up on psych
Psychoanalyst – practices psychoanalysis
specialized training (M.D., Ph.D., Psy. D., Ed.)
Psychologist – no medical training but doctorate (Ph. D. or Psy. D.)
Psychiatric social worker LCSW – Licensed Clinical Social Worker
MSW Master of Social Work
LCPC – Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor
MFCC – Licensed Marriage, Family and Child CounselorWhat do psychologists do
• Provide health or mental health services “psychological practice”
– Counseling psychologist– help people deal with everyday life
– School psychologist – school performance; student, parent teacher
– Clinical psychologist – diagnose, treat study mental / emotional problems;
has Ph.D., an Ed.D, or a Psy.D.
• Teach and do research in colleges and universities
– Basic psychology – “pure” research; knowledge for sake of knowledge
– Applied psychology – direct practical significance; application of findingsWhat do Psychologist do
• Teach and do research in colleges and universities
– Basic psychology – “pure” research; knowledge for sake of knowledge
• “How does peer pressure influence attitudes and behavior”
– Applied psychology – direct practical significance; application of findings
• “How can knowledge of peer pressure reduce underage drinking”
• Types of nonclinical specialties
• Experimental psychologist – laboratory studies; learning, motivation
• Educational psychologist – learning and improvement of school systems
• Developmental psychologist – change and growth over time
• Industrial/organizational psychologist – behavior in workplace
• Psychometric psychologist – design and evaluate testsWhat do psychologist do
• Psychology in the community
• Conducting research or applying its findings in
nonacademic settings (business, sports, government,
law, and military).
– American Psychological Association (APA)
• 53 divisions
– Psychology of men
– Psychology of women
– Sports psychology
– Gay and lesbian issues
– Psychology and the law
– AdvertisingWork SettingsSubfieldsCareers as a Psychologist3 Main Types of Psychologist
• Completion of a doctoral program.
• Licensure is required when working independently.
• A one year internship for clinical.
• Effective psychologists match career choice with
personal temperament and aptitude. Clinical Psychologists
• Clinical psychologists are the largest subfield.
• Clinical psychologists help those who have difficulty
functioning due to a crisis.
• Clients often have the goal to return to a previous level of
functioning prior to the trauma event.
• Psychologists complete this work in community mental health
centers, private practices, hospitals and clinics. Clinical
psychologists provide treatment in individual, group, couples
or family modalities.
• Clinical psychologists are also part of interdisciplinary teams
that collaborate with physicians, nutritionists,
physiotherapists, and social workers to implement treatment
and intervention programs.
American Psychological Association, 2009Research Psychologists
• Research or experimental psychologists study the behaviors of humans
• Research psychologists formulate hypotheses and collect data to test their
• Experimental research is conducted on topics that include motivation,
learning, memory, sensory and perceptual processes, effects of substance
abuse, as well as genetic and neurological factors affecting behavior.
• This research can be completed in a laboratory setting where the
variables of the study can be controlled, while other research can be
completed in vivo where behavior is studied as it occurs naturally.
• Researchers also work collaboratively on multidisciplinary teams.
American Psychological Association, 2009
United States Department of Labor, 2009Job Trends
• Jobs for psychologist are expected to grow faster
• The median salaries for these careers were reported
between 59,000 and 86,000.
• The salaries for research psychologists were higher
than those for clinical psychologists.
United States Department of Labor, 2009Salary for Clinical Psychologist
• The median annual salary for clinical psychologists in
May 2006 was 59,440.
• The middle 50 percent earned between 45,300 and
• The lowest 10 percent earned less than 35,280.
• The highest 10 percent earned more than 102,730.
United States Department of Labor, 2009Salary for Research Psychologist
• The median annual salary for research psychologists in May
2006 was 86,420.
• The middle 50 percent earned between 66,310 and
• The lowest 10 percent earned less than 48,380.
• The highest 10 percent earned more than 139,620.
United States Department of Labor, 2009What would you do and why
• Clinical Practice
• Community; non clinicalQuick Quiz
2. Clinical psychologist
3. Research psychologist
A. Trained in a therapeutic approach started by Freud
B. Has a Ph.D., Psy.D. Ed.D. and does research on or
psychotherapy for mental health problems
C. May have any credentials or none.
D. Has an advanced degree (usually a Ph.D.) does applied or
E. Has an M.D.; tends to take a medical approach to mental
health problems.Psychology: The Science
• Why Psychologists use the scientific method.
Scientific Method – a system of gathering data so that bias and error in
measurement are reduced.Scientific Method
1. Perceiving the Question
– You notice something interesting happening and would like an explanation.
• You wonder if violent cartoons create aggressive behavior in children.
2. Form a Hypothesis
– A tentative explanation of a phenomenon based on observations.
– “Children who watch violent cartoon will become aggressive”
3. Test Hypothesis
– Choose a method to gather information
– Look for information that proves or disproves your hypothesis
4. Draw Conclusions
– Will show if hypothesis is supported or unsupported (both are important)
– Statistical operations on raw data to determine if results by chance.
5. Report Your Results
– Write exactly what you did so study can be replicated.Quick Quiz
Which rule of science was violated in each of these cases
1) For years, writer Norman Cousins told how he had cured himself of a rare, life
threatening disease through a combination of humor and vitamins. In a best
selling book, he recommended the same approach to others.
2) Benjamin Rush, an 18 century physician, believed that yellow fever should be
treated by bloodletting. Many of his patients died, but Rush did not lose faith
in his approach; he attributed each recover to the treatment and each death to
the severity of the disease.Types of Studies
2. Case studies
• Gathering the facts
– Descriptive method – describe / predict behavior not explain
– Representative sample – group that matches larger
population wanting to study
– Small representative better than large not representative
– Must have at least 20Descriptive Studies
Observational – observe, measure record behavior
careful not to intrude
• Naturalistic – people or animals in natural environment
schools, on the street, offices
Jane Goodall; Diane Fosse
– Observer Effect – tendency for people and animals to act differently from normal
when they are now they are being observed.
– Observation Bias – tendency of observers to see what they expect to see.
– Blind observer – observer not know the research question.
– Participant Observations – when observer becomes a participant.
• Laboratory – more control
one way mirrorNaturalistic Observation
• Allows description of behavior • Little or no control
as it occurs in real life.
• Observation may be bias
• Useful in 1 stage of exp.
• Weak cause and effectLaboratory Observation
• More control than natural• Limited control
• Sophisticated equipment• Observation may be bias
• Weak cause and effect
• Behavior may differ Descriptive Studies
Case studies detailed description of one person
– Careful observation or formal tests by clinicians /researchers
– “Are first yrs important for learning speech”
• Case study on Genie
• Don’t over simplify
“autism from cold mothers”Case Studies
• Good source of hypothesis• Vital information missing
• Indepth information• Hard to interpret
• Study unusual cases that would • Memories may be selective or
be unethical or impractical to inaccurate.
study any other way.
• Individual may not be
representative or typicalDescriptive of Studies
Surveys – questionnaires and interviews that gather information based
on asking people about experiences, attitudes or opinions
– Gallup poll – national opinion poll
– Call in radio show surveys
Representative sample – randomly selected sample of subjects from a larger
population of subjects.
Population – the entire group of people or animal in which the researcher is interested.
– Certain shows have specialized audience
– “Should weed be legalized”
»Wayne’s World vs. Meet the Press
Volunteer Bias Feel strongly enough to call; differ from those who don’t
Question construction – bias or slant
“how many times have you…” vs “have you ever…”Surveys
• Large amount of • No identification of cause
information on large and effect.
numbers of people
• Not a representative
1. In the scientific method, the first step is
a) Reporting your results
b) Perceiving a question
c) Drawing conclusions
d) Testing the hypothesis
2. In a naturalistic observation, the phenomenon where the behavior of the
subjects being observed changes due to being watched is called
a) Observer bias
b) Participation observation
c) Observer effect
d) Representative sampling
3. The use of helps to control for the effect of observer bias.
a) Blind observations
b) A single trained observer
c) Randomly selected observers
d) None of theseQuiz
4. The main disadvantage of a case study is that it is NOT
a. Easily done due to the large number of subjects
b. Detailed enough for most research questions
c. Generalizable to other similar condition
5. Which of the following is the BEST example of a
a. You ask your fellow students to be participants in a study of adult
b. You ask people from your church to participate in a study of family
c. You choose people shopping in an expensive store in the mall to
respond to your survey.
d. You choose people randomly from the telephone book to respond
to your survey.Relational Studies
4. Correlational – look for a consistent relationship between two variables.
Correlation Coefficient a number to measure strength and direction of the relationship
between the 2 variables
Variables – Characteristic of behavior or experience that can
be measures or described by a number:
• IncomeCorrelation (continued)
• Positive Correlation – higher X = higher Y (IQ to grades)
lower X = lower Y
• Negative Correlation – higher X = Lower Y (TV to grades)
lower Y = Higher X
• Uncorrelated no correlation (tall and aggression)Correlation
• Coefficient of correlation – range in value from 1.00 to +1.00
– Use height and weight as variables
– List tallest to shortest and list heaviest to lightest
• If list the same then +1.00 correlation
• +.80 = strong
• .80 = strong but negative correlation
• If no correlation = zero or close to it
• Correlation CausationSo………..
• Annual income and
– years of education
– dental problems
• How do they relateCorrelationsCorrelation Studies
• Shows whether 2 or more • No cause and effect
variable are related
• Allows general predictionsQuick Quiz
A) Identify each of the following as a positive or negative correlation.
1) The higher a male monkey’s level of the hormone testosterone,
the more aggressive he is likely to be.
2) The older people are the less frequently the tend to have sexual
3) The hotter the weather, the more crimes against persons tend to
occur.ActivityWhat Type of Study Would You Use
• Does climate affect mating habits of whales
• Do abused children have difficultly with
• IQ and GradesCausal Studies
1. Experiments – a deliberate manipulation of a variable to see if corresponding changes in
behavior result, allowing the determination of causeandeffect
• Operational definition – define a variable so it can be measured
• Independent Variable – Manipulated by researcher
• Dependent Variable – Measurable response or behavior in the experiment
• The dependent variable depends on the independent variableCausal studies: experiment groups
Experimental group – Subjects in an experiment who are subjected to
the independent variable.
Control Group – Subjects in an experiment who are not subjected to the
independent variable and who may receive a placebo.
– a comparison group
Placebo – fake treatment
Used as a control in an experiment
Random assignment – same probability of being assigned to either group Dependent vs. Independent
Question: Does eating a donut affect test scores
Independent variableExperiments (Continued)
• Experimenter Effects – tendency of the experimenter’s expectations for
a study to unintentionally influence the results
of the study.
• Single Blind – Subjects do not know if in control or experimental group.
• Double Blind – Neither subject nor experimenter know which group
subjects are in.Single Blind and Double BlindExperimental Studies
• Artificial situation
• Control situation
• Results may not generalize
• Can ID cause and effect
to real world
• Placebo v. treatment
• Experimenter effectsQuiz
1. It’s common knowledge that the more you study, the
higher you grade will be. What kind of correlation is
a. Positive c. Negative
b.Zero d. Causal
2. Which of the following would indicate the strongest
relationship between variables.
a. +1.04 c. +0.75
b. 0.89 d. +0.54
3. In a study, neither the experimenter nor
the participants know who is in the control group and
who is in the experimental group.
a. Placebo c. Doubleblind
b.Singleblind d. TripleblindQuiz
4. In an experiment to test the effects of alcohol on memory. The
experimenter gives vodka mixed in orange juice to tone group of
subjects and orange juice with no vodka to the other group. She
then measures the memory skills of both groups by means of a
memory test. In this study, the independent variable would be.
a. Scores on the memory test
b. The presence or absence of vodka in the orange juice
d. A placebo
5. In the same experiment, the control group is the one that gets
a. Only one drink of orange juice with vodka
b. A fake test of memory
c. Only something to eat
d. The orange juice without vodkaEthics Working With PeopleEthics of Psychological Research
• When working with people:
1. Rights and wellbeing of participants must be
weighed against the study’s value to science.
2. Participants must be allowed to make an informed
decision about participation.
3. Deception must be justified.
4. Participants may withdraw from the study at any
5. Participants must be protected from risks or told
explicitly of risks.
6. Investigators must debrief participants, telling the
true nature of the study and expectation of results.
7. Data must remain confidential.Ethics Working With Animals
• Simple behaviors that are easy to identify change
• Not able to study on humans – maternal deprivation
• Shorter life span so can see result over life time
• Are easier to controlCritical Thinking
• Ability and willingness to assess claims and make objective
judgments on the basis of wellsupported reasons and
evidence rather than emotion or anecdote.
• Making reasoned judgments about claims.4 criteria for Critical Thinking
1. There are very few “truths” that do not need to be subjected to testing.
2. All evidence is not equal in quality.
3. Just because someone is considered to be an authority or to have
expertise does not make everything that person claims automatically true.
– Linus Pauling
– 2 time Nobel winner
– Vitamin C prevent cold
– No evidence to support
4. Critical thinking requires on open mind.Psychology: The Science
• Empirical or Pseudoscience
– Evidence gathered by
– “Pop psychology” or quick fixes
popular opinionEmpirical or Pseudoscience
• Phrenology (study of mind)
– Early 1800’s
– Joseph Gall (1758 – 1828)
– Austrian physician
– Different brain areas accounted for
specific character and personality traits
– “read” from bumps on the skull
– Studied into the 20 century
• A pseudoscienceGot Critical thinking Quiz
1. Which of the following is NOT one of the common ethical rules
a) Participants have to give informed consent
b) Deception cannot be used in any studies with human being
c) The rights and wellbeing of the participants must come first
d) Data must remain confidential
2. We use animals in research because
a. Animals have simple behavior that makes it easy to see changes
b. Animals don’t live as long as humans and are easier to control
c. We can do things to animals that we can’t do to people
d. All of the above
3. Critical thinking means making judgments based on
a. Emotional issues
b. Deeping a closed mind
c. Reason and logical evaluation
d. Authority and expertiseQuiz
4. A famous newscaster advertises a new magnetic mattress for
controlling pain. If Nathanial decides to order the mattress
because he believes that such a wellknown personality should
know if it works or not. He has made a error in which of the
a. Few “truths” do not need to be tested.
b. All evidence is not equal in quality.
c. Authority or expertise does not make the claims of the authority or
d. Critical thinking requires an open mind.
5. Which pseudopsychology claims to understand personality
through a study of the bumps on one’s skull