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Published Date:15-07-2017
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GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY PSY 1000 Sherry Dockins, MASA, LCPC,CADC, ICDVP Sherry_DockinsIVCC.eduIntroduction • What is psychology? • Why are you taking this course? • What do you expect to learn?What to expect • PowerPoint • Lecture • Small group • Large group discussion • In class activities • Out of class activities • Research paper • ExamsChapter 1 The Science of PsychologyWhat is Psychology? • The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. – Physical state – Mental state – Environment • Behavior = outward or avert actions and reactions – Talking, facial expressions and movement • Mental Process = internal, covert activity – Thinking, feeling and rememberingPsychology’s Goals • Description – What is happening? – Student who’s grades are slipping • Explanation – Why is it happening? – Theory – Testing – dyslexia • Prediction – When will it happen again? – Probably throughout academic experience • Control – How can it be changed? – Intervene – Learning strategiesThe History of Psychology • Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) Germany – Father of Psychology st – 1 in movement to make psychology a science st – 1 true experimental lab in psychology Structuralist - structure or basic elements of the mind Objective introspection – Examining and measuring one’s own thoughts and mental activities • Trained volunteers to observe, analyze and describe their own sensations, mental images and emotional reactions. • Train 10,00 observations; 20 mins to report 1.5 second experiment • Goal to break down behavior in to basic elements…H 0 2 – Eventually rejected as too subjectiveThe history of Psychology • Structuralism (USA) – E.B. Titchener (1867 – 1927) – Student of Wilhelm Wundt – Analyze sensations, images and feelings into basic elements • Eventually Discarded • Functionalism – William James (1842 – 1910) – Function or purpose of behavior • not analysis or description – How do specific behaviors & mental processes help ADAPT to environment? • No longer a major perspectiveThe history of Psychology • Gestalt Psychology – “The whole is greater than the sum of the parts” – Max Wertheimer – Gestalt = “an organized whole” or “configuration” – People seek our patterns to make sense of things • Gestalt Psychology • Focus on perceptions and sensations – particularly the perception of patterns and whole figures The History of Psychology • Psychoanalysis – Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) – Neurologist Theory of personality - a type of psychotherapy that emphasizes unconscious or repressed motives and conflicts. – Depression, anxiety & obsession had mental not physical causes – This distress due to conflict and emotional traumas in childhood – Conscious awareness “tip of the mental iceberg” – “interpretation of dreams’ – Well known……profound influence …. • His theory used in modified formHistory of Psychology Dawn of Behaviorism • Ivan Pavlov – Conditioning • John B. Watson – Father of Behaviorism – The science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only – Behavior = stimulus – response relationship – Little AlbertHistory of Psychology • Mary Clover Jones – Classic study on Counter Conditioning – “Little Peter” • Same as “Little Albert” • Associate food (pleasure) with feared object (rabbit) = no fear of rabbitQuiz 1. In the definition of psychology, behavior means: a) Internal, covert processes b) Mental processes c) Outward or overt actions and reactions 2. Experimental psychologists, whose design experiments to determine the causes of behavior, would be most interested in the goal of: a) Descriptions b) Explanation c) Prediction d) Control 3. Dr. Watson designs a special behavior program for helping children who are bullies learn how to be less aggressive an more successful in social relationships. Dr. Watson is most interested in the goal of: a) Descriptions b) Explanation c) Prediction d) ControlQuiz 4. Name which of the following early psychologists would have been most likely to agree with the statement, “The study of the mind should focus on how it allows us to adapt to our surroundings.” a) Wilhelm Wundt b) William James c) John Watson d) Sigmund Freud 5. Which early perspective would have been LEAST likely to agree with the structuralists? a) Introspectionism b) Functionalism c) Psychoanalysis d) Gestalt 6. In the experiment with “Little Peter,” what did Mary Cover Jones use as a stimulus to counter Little Peter’s fear of the Rabbit? a) A white rat b) Food c) A loud noise d) RelaxationPsychology Now: Modern Perspectives • Psychodynamic Perspective – Modern version, focused on the development of a sense of self and the discovery of other motivations behind a person’s behavior than sexual motivations • Behavioral Perspective – – B. F Skinner – Followed Watson – Operant Conditioning • Reinforcement and Punishment • Humanistic Perspective – rd – “3 Force” – after psychodynamic and behaviorism – People’s ability to direct their own lives • Cognitive Perspective – focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving and learning – Cognitive neuroscience – study of the physical changes in the brain and nervous system during thinkingModern Perspectives • Sociocultural Perspective – Perspective that focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture (Social and Cultural Psychology) • Biopsychological Perspective - Attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occurring in the body, such as genetic influences, hormones and the activity of the nervous system. • Evolutionary Perspective – perspective that focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share.Quiz 1. Which of the following pairs represents the two psychological perspectives that were part of the historical beginning of psychology? a) Humanism and behaviorism b) Behaviorism and psychodynamics c) Psychodynamics and humanism d) Cognitive psychology and psychodynamics 2. Which perspective is known at the “third force” is psychology? a) Psychoanalysis b) Behaviorism c) Cognitive psychology d) Humanism 3. Elsie suffered a stroke and had to be hospitalized. She then began to talk funny, garbled words and seemed to think she was being held against her will. Which of the following perspective BEST explains Elsie’s odd behavior? a) Psychodynamics b) Cognitive psychology c) Behaviorism d) biopsychologyQuick Quiz • Anxiety is a common problem. Which possible explanation of anxiety fits these perspectives? 1) Anxious people often think about the future in distorted ways 2) Anxiety is due to forbidden unconscious desires 3) Anxiety symptoms often bring hidden rewards, such as being excused from exams 4) Excessive anxiety can be caused by a chemical imbalance 5) A national emphasis on competition and success promotes anxiety about failure. A.Learning D. Biological B. Psychodynamic E. Cognitive C. Social-culturalPsychological Professionals Psychiatrist – medical doctor; prescribe medications; not always up on psych Psychoanalyst – practices psychoanalysis specialized training (M.D., Ph.D., Psy. D., Ed.) Psychologist – no medical training but doctorate (Ph. D. or Psy. D.) Psychiatric social worker - LCSW – Licensed Clinical Social Worker MSW - Master of Social Work LCPC – Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor MFCC – Licensed Marriage, Family and Child Counselor