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Dr.LeonBurns,New Zealand,Researcher
Published Date:21-07-2017
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Air is one of the essential factors making life on the Earth possible. Protection of air from pollution is a matter of great importance. Air pollution Anthrophogenic Natural Oxygen un nitrogen compose 99 % of inhaled air. Unfortunately, we inhale also: Droplets of the Dust Very small amount of water other gases 2Pollutants spread rapidly and to far distances in the atmosphere Troposphere contain almost 95 % of the all air mass 3A AIIR R P PO OL LL LU UT TIIO ON N S SO OU UR RC CE ES S Both industrial processes and heating contributes to air pollution. Transport Air pollution comes from: vehicles Thermo-electro power-plants Factories Dry cleaning solvents Smoking 4Picnics Aviation 5 FiresSecondary pollutants (sulphur acid) are deriving in air from primary pollutants in chemical reaction between Primary pollutants (sulphur primary pollutant air compounds dioxide) come in air directly by natural or anthropogenic Primary processes CO CO 2 Secondary SO NO 2 hydrocarbons N NO O S SO O H HN NO O 2 2 3 3 3 3 S Su us sp pe en nd de ed d H SO H O participles 2 4 2 2 O 3 - 2- NO SO 3 4 salts Natural Pollution Stationary sources Anthropogenic Mobile 6Schematic drawing, causes and effects of air pollution: (1) greenhouse effect, (2) particulate contamination, (3) increased UV radiation, (4) acid rain, (5) increased ground 7 level ozone concentration, (6) increased levels of nitrogen oxides.A A Aiiir r r p p po o ollllllu u ut t tiiio o on n n Pollutants spread rapidly and to far distances in the atmosphere; therefore, the problem of atmospheric pollution should be dealt with on a global scale, and international cooperation is vital in this regard. Turbulence made by airplanes A Ai ir r m mo ov ve em me en nt t a an nd d t tu ur rb bu ul le en nc ce e t to o make easy dissipation of the pollutants Nowadays countless very harmful substances can enter the air of a work area or the atmosphere in the form of gas, vapour, aerosols or dust. Some of them return back on the Earth surface in a form of solid participles, drops of liquid or polluted rain. 8H H HIIIS S ST T TO O OR R RY Y Y O O OF F F A A AIIIR R R P P PO O OL L LL L LU U UT T TIIIO O ON N N The air pollution problem has been accompanying us already since the times the ancient people discovered fire. The ancient people’s health or even life were endangered by high concentrations of such pollutants as carbon monoxide (CO) released from incompletely burnt firewood and other compounds emitted during burning. Furthermore, the ancient Romans already knew about lead and mercury poisoning in mines. A Al lr re ea ad dy y i in n 1 12 27 73 3. . E Ed dw wa ar rd d I I, , t th he e k ki in ng g o of f E En ng gl la an nd d f fo or rb bi id d t to o b bu ur rn n l lo ow w q qu ua al li it ty y c co oa al l, , t to o reduce air pollution. Air pollution hazard has sharply increased since the development of Industrial Revolution and the mining industry. Edward I smoke tails from factory chimneys photo-chemical smog motor vehicles new hazardous substances (petrol with tetra-ethyl lead) 9A A Aiiir r r p p po o ollllllu u ut t ta a an n nt t ts s s In troposphere are thousands of air pollutants, but main air pollution comes from substances of the nine groups : 1. Carbon oxides (CO un CO ) 2 2. Sulphur oxides (SO un SO ) 2 3 3 3. . Ni Nit tr ro og ge en n o ox xiid de es s ( (N N O O, , N NO O u un n N NO O ) ) 2 2 2 2 4. Volatile organic substances methane (CH ), benzol (C H ), formaldehyde 4 6 6 (CH O), freon‘s 2 5. Dispersed solid participles dust, soot, pollen, asbestos, compounds of lead, arsenic, cadmium and other heavy metals, nitrates, sulphates, drops of liquid with sulphur acid, oil products, dioxins', polycyclic biphenyl's, pesticides 10A A Aiiir r r p p po o ollllllu u ut t ta a an n nt t ts s s 6. Photo-chemical oxidant’s - ozone (O ), peroxsil-nitrates, 3 - hydrogen peroxide (H O ), hydroxyl radical (OH ), aldehydes, which forms 2 2 in atmosphere under reaction between oxygen, nitrogen oxides and volatile hydrocarbons in presence of Sun radiation 222 7. Radioactive substances (radon (Rn ), 131 90 239 iodide (J ), strontium (Sr ), plutonium (Pu ) a an nd d o ot th he er r r ra ad di io oa ac ct ti iv ve e i is so ot to op pe es s, , w wh hi ic ch h c co om me es s i in n atmosphere in gaseous or dispersed form 8. Heat always to result, when one energy form converting into other, especially by burning fossil fuel in car’s engine, furnace of factory, thermo-electro plant, stove or fireplace 9. Noise , rises using transport vehicles, mechanisms in industry or building, devices for households (vacuum cleaner, radio, mower, etc). 11A A Aiiir r r p p po o ollllllu u ut t tiiio o on n n t t tr r re e en n nd d ds s s iiin n n t t th h he e e w w wo o or r rllld d d Considerable pollution source group is motor transport – as motor exhaust gases contain various harmful substances. The exhaust gas composition may differ depending on driving habits, engine operating conditions, fuel supply and quality. In the process of incomplete combustion of fuel hydrocarbons, they are transformed into carcinogenic substances – polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Although a range of air environmental protection measures are being implemented today, it is estimated that the losses incurred by the effects of polluted air on the human health – medical expenses, loss of working capacity – still amount to hundreds of millions of EUR’s per year just in the European Union War is one of the substantial air polluter To protect both workers and residents, several criteria (limit value) have been established in order to limit the maximum permissible concentrations of various harmful substances in the air. 12P Po ollllu ut tiio on n f fr ro om m W Wa ar r Agent Orange, rocket fuel, lead, mercury, petroleum, asbestos, countless carcinogenic solvents. This toxic stew settles into the soil in which we grow our food, seeps down into the water we drink and floats unseen in the air we breathe making us sick — terribly sick – and killing many of us, or leading to birth defects, cancer, miscarriages, and kidney and thyroid disease. More recently in Alaska, as a result of nuclear testing off that state’s coast, doctors say workers there will develop cancer at twice the rate as the general public. The Vietnamese Red Cross estimates that 150,000 children have birth defects caused by the U.S. military’s spraying of Agent Orange during the Vietnam war. 13Smog is a type of air pollution; the word "smog" is a combination of “smoke” and “fog”. Modern smog is a type of air pollution derived from emission from internal combustion engines and industrial fumes that react in the atmosphere with sunlight to form secondary pollutants that also combine with the primary emissions to form photochemical smog. Smog is also caused by large amounts of coal burning in an area caused by a mixture of smoke, sulphur dioxide and other components. The term "smog" is generally attributed to Dr. Henry des Voeux in his 1905 paper, "Fog and Smoke" for a meeting of the Public Health Congress. Characteristic coloration for smog in California in the beige cloud bank behind Golden Gate Bridge. The brown coloration is due to the NO in the photochemical smog. 14 xP PH HO OT TO OC CH HE EM MI IC CA AL L S SM MO OG G Photochemical smog was first described in the 1950s. It is the result of chemical reaction of sunlight, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere. This mixture of air pollutants can include the following: aldehydes; nitrogen oxides, especially, nitrogen dioxide; peroxyacil nitrates; tropospheric ozone; volatile organic c co om mp po ou un nd ds s. . All of these chemicals are usually highly reactive and oxidizing. Photochemical smog is therefore considered to be a problem of modern industrialization. It is present in all modern cities, but it is more common in cities with sunny, warm, dry climates and a large number of motor vehicles. Because it travels with the wind, it can affect sparsely populated areas as well. Heavy smog in Moscow. Russia. 15 Domodedovo International Airport. 2010. H HE EA AL LT TH H E EF FF FE EC CT TS S B BY Y S SM MO OG G Smog is a serious problem in many cities and continues to harm human health. Ground level ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide are especially harmful for senior citizens, children, and people with heart and lung conditions such as emphysema, bronchitis and asthma. It can inflame breathing passages, decrease the lungs' working capacity, cause shortness of breath, pain when inhaling deeply, wheezing, and coughing. It can cause eye and nose irritation and it dries out the protective membranes of the nose and throat and i in nt te er rf fe er re es s w wi it th h t th he e b bo od dy y''s s a ab bi il li it ty y t to o f fi ig gh ht t i in nf fe ec ct ti io on n, , increasing susceptibility to illness. Hospital admissions and respiratory deaths often increase during periods when ozone levels are high. The USA EPA has developed an Air Quality Index to help explain air pollution levels to the general public: - eight hour average ozone mole fractions of 85 to 104 nmol/mol are described as "Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups", 105 nmol/mol 124 nmol/mol as "unhealthy" and 125 nmol/mol to 404 nmol/mol as "very unhealthy“, Highland Park Optimist Club wearing - the "very unhealthy" range for some other pollutants smog-gas masks at banquet, are: 355 μg m−3 - 424 μg m−3 for PM ; 15.5 10 Los Angeles, 1954. μmol/mol - 30.4 μmol/mol for CO and 0.65 μmol/mol - 1.24 μmol/mol for NO 2 16 .M MA AJ JO OR R S SM MO OG G I IN NC CI ID DE EN NT TS S I IN N T TH HE E U US SA A 1948, October, 30-31, Donora, PA: 20 died, 600 hospitalized, thousands more stricken. Lawsuits were not settled until 1951, 1953, November, New York: Smog kills between 170 and 260 people, 1954, October, Los Angeles: heavy smog shuts down schools and industry for most of the month, 1963, New York: blamed for 200 deaths, 1966, New York: blamed for 169 deaths. Smog in New York City as viewed from the World Trade Center in 1988 17P Ph ho ot to oc ch he em mi ic ca al l s sm mo og g 18P PH HO OT TO OC CH HE EM MIIC CA AL L S SM MO OG G – – A AR RE EA AS S A AF FF FE EC CT TE ED D Photochemical smog more frequently happening in places, where is sunny, hot and dry climate, as well as, heavy street traffic. Beijing air on a day after rain (left) and a smoggy day (right), August 2005. Characteristic smog cities are Los Angeles, Denver, Sidney, Mexico City, Toronto, Beijing, Manila, Ruhr Areas, Buenos Aires, however smog usually are in summer time. 19IIN ND DU US ST TR RIIA AL L S SM MO OG G Burning coal and heavy oil fractions with high content of sulphur compounds, a industrial smog take shape. Earlier its happened mainly in winter time. Industrial smog consist manly of sulphur dioxide, droplets of sulphur acid and solid participles. Claude Monet made several trips to London between 1899 and 1901, during which he painted views of the Thames and Houses of Parliament which show the sun struggling to shine through London's smog-laden atmosphere. 20