Air is one of the essential factors making life on the Earth possible.
Protection of air from pollution is a matter of great importance.
Oxygen un nitrogen compose 99 % of inhaled air.
Unfortunately, we inhale also:
Droplets of the
Very small amount of
2Pollutants spread rapidly and to far
distances in the atmosphere
Troposphere contain almost 95 %
of the all air mass
3A AIIR R P PO OL LL LU UT TIIO ON N S SO OU UR RC CE ES S
Both industrial processes and heating contributes to air pollution.
Air pollution comes from:
FiresSecondary pollutants (sulphur acid) are deriving in air
from primary pollutants in chemical reaction between
Primary pollutants (sulphur
primary pollutant air compounds
dioxide) come in air directly by
natural or anthropogenic
N NO O S SO O H HN NO O
2 2 3 3 3 3
S Su us sp pe en nd de ed d
H SO H O
participles 2 4 2 2
6Schematic drawing, causes and effects of air pollution: (1) greenhouse effect, (2)
particulate contamination, (3) increased UV radiation, (4) acid rain, (5) increased ground
level ozone concentration, (6) increased levels of nitrogen oxides.A A Aiiir r r p p po o ollllllu u ut t tiiio o on n n
Pollutants spread rapidly and to far distances in the atmosphere; therefore, the
problem of atmospheric pollution should be dealt with on a global scale, and
international cooperation is vital in this regard.
Turbulence made by airplanes
A Ai ir r m mo ov ve em me en nt t a an nd d t tu ur rb bu ul le en nc ce e t to o
make easy dissipation of the
Nowadays countless very harmful substances can enter the air of a work area or the
atmosphere in the form of gas, vapour, aerosols or dust. Some of them return back on
the Earth surface in a form of solid participles, drops of liquid or polluted rain.
8H H HIIIS S ST T TO O OR R RY Y Y O O OF F F A A AIIIR R R P P PO O OL L LL L LU U UT T TIIIO O ON N N
The air pollution problem has been accompanying us already since the times the
ancient people discovered fire.
The ancient people’s health or even life were endangered by high concentrations
of such pollutants as carbon monoxide (CO) released from incompletely burnt
firewood and other compounds emitted during burning.
Furthermore, the ancient Romans already knew about lead and mercury poisoning
A Al lr re ea ad dy y i in n 1 12 27 73 3. . E Ed dw wa ar rd d I I, , t th he e k ki in ng g o of f E En ng gl la an nd d f fo or rb bi id d t to o b bu ur rn n l lo ow w q qu ua al li it ty y c co oa al l, , t to o
reduce air pollution.
Air pollution hazard has sharply increased since
the development of Industrial Revolution and the
smoke tails from factory chimneys
new hazardous substances
(petrol with tetra-ethyl lead)
9A A Aiiir r r p p po o ollllllu u ut t ta a an n nt t ts s s
In troposphere are thousands of air pollutants, but main air pollution
comes from substances of the nine groups :
1. Carbon oxides (CO un CO )
2. Sulphur oxides (SO un SO )
3 3. . Ni Nit tr ro og ge en n o ox xiid de es s ( (N N O O, , N NO O u un n N NO O ) )
2 2 2 2
4. Volatile organic substances
methane (CH ), benzol (C H ), formaldehyde
4 6 6
(CH O), freon‘s
5. Dispersed solid participles
dust, soot, pollen, asbestos, compounds of lead, arsenic,
cadmium and other heavy metals, nitrates, sulphates,
drops of liquid with sulphur acid, oil products, dioxins',
polycyclic biphenyl's, pesticides
10A A Aiiir r r p p po o ollllllu u ut t ta a an n nt t ts s s
6. Photo-chemical oxidant’s - ozone (O ), peroxsil-nitrates,
hydrogen peroxide (H O ), hydroxyl radical (OH ), aldehydes, which forms
in atmosphere under reaction between oxygen, nitrogen oxides and
volatile hydrocarbons in presence of Sun radiation
7. Radioactive substances (radon (Rn ),
131 90 239
iodide (J ), strontium (Sr ), plutonium (Pu )
a an nd d o ot th he er r r ra ad di io oa ac ct ti iv ve e i is so ot to op pe es s, , w wh hi ic ch h c co om me es s i in n
atmosphere in gaseous or dispersed form
8. Heat always to result, when one energy form converting into
other, especially by burning fossil fuel in car’s engine, furnace of
factory, thermo-electro plant, stove or fireplace
9. Noise , rises using transport vehicles,
mechanisms in industry or building, devices for households
(vacuum cleaner, radio, mower, etc).
11A A Aiiir r r p p po o ollllllu u ut t tiiio o on n n t t tr r re e en n nd d ds s s iiin n n t t th h he e e w w wo o or r rllld d d
Considerable pollution source group is motor
transport – as motor exhaust gases contain various
The exhaust gas composition may differ depending
on driving habits, engine operating conditions, fuel
supply and quality.
In the process of incomplete combustion of fuel
hydrocarbons, they are transformed into
carcinogenic substances – polyaromatic
Although a range of air environmental protection measures are being implemented today, it is
estimated that the losses incurred by the effects of polluted air on the human health – medical
expenses, loss of working capacity – still amount to hundreds of millions of EUR’s per year just
in the European Union
War is one of the substantial air polluter
To protect both workers and residents, several criteria (limit value) have been
established in order to limit the maximum permissible concentrations of various
harmful substances in the air.
12P Po ollllu ut tiio on n f fr ro om m W Wa ar r
Agent Orange, rocket fuel, lead, mercury, petroleum, asbestos, countless carcinogenic solvents.
This toxic stew settles into the soil in which we grow our food, seeps down into the water we
drink and floats unseen in the air we breathe making us sick — terribly sick – and killing many
of us, or leading to birth defects, cancer, miscarriages, and kidney and thyroid disease.
More recently in Alaska, as a result of nuclear testing off that state’s coast, doctors say workers there will
develop cancer at twice the rate as the general public.
The Vietnamese Red Cross estimates that 150,000 children have birth defects caused by the U.S. military’s
spraying of Agent Orange during the Vietnam war.
13Smog is a type of air pollution; the word "smog" is a combination of
“smoke” and “fog”. Modern smog is a type of air pollution derived
from emission from internal combustion engines and industrial fumes
that react in the atmosphere with sunlight to form secondary
pollutants that also combine with the primary emissions to form
Smog is also caused by large amounts of coal burning in an area caused by
a mixture of smoke, sulphur dioxide and other components.
The term "smog" is generally attributed to Dr. Henry des Voeux in his 1905 paper, "Fog and Smoke"
for a meeting of the Public Health Congress.
Characteristic coloration for smog in California in the beige cloud bank behind Golden Gate Bridge. The brown
coloration is due to the NO in the photochemical smog.
xP PH HO OT TO OC CH HE EM MI IC CA AL L S SM MO OG G
Photochemical smog was first described in the
1950s. It is the result of chemical reaction
of sunlight, nitrogen oxides and volatile
organic compounds in the atmosphere.
This mixture of air pollutants can include the
aldehydes; nitrogen oxides, especially,
nitrogen dioxide; peroxyacil nitrates;
tropospheric ozone; volatile organic
c co om mp po ou un nd ds s. .
All of these chemicals are usually highly
reactive and oxidizing. Photochemical
smog is therefore considered to be a
problem of modern industrialization.
It is present in all modern cities, but it is more
common in cities with sunny, warm, dry
climates and a large number of motor
Because it travels with the wind, it can affect
sparsely populated areas as well.
Heavy smog in Moscow. Russia.
Domodedovo International Airport. 2010. H HE EA AL LT TH H E EF FF FE EC CT TS S B BY Y S SM MO OG G
Smog is a serious problem in many cities and continues
to harm human health.
Ground level ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide
and carbon monoxide are especially harmful for
senior citizens, children, and people with heart and
lung conditions such as emphysema, bronchitis and
It can inflame breathing passages, decrease the lungs'
working capacity, cause shortness of breath, pain
when inhaling deeply, wheezing, and coughing. It
can cause eye and nose irritation and it dries out the
protective membranes of the nose and throat and
i in nt te er rf fe er re es s w wi it th h t th he e b bo od dy y''s s a ab bi il li it ty y t to o f fi ig gh ht t i in nf fe ec ct ti io on n, ,
increasing susceptibility to illness.
Hospital admissions and respiratory deaths often
increase during periods when ozone levels are high.
The USA EPA has developed an Air Quality Index to help
explain air pollution levels to the general public:
- eight hour average ozone mole fractions of 85 to 104
nmol/mol are described as "Unhealthy for Sensitive
Groups", 105 nmol/mol 124 nmol/mol as
"unhealthy" and 125 nmol/mol to 404 nmol/mol as
Highland Park Optimist Club wearing
- the "very unhealthy" range for some other pollutants
smog-gas masks at banquet,
are: 355 μg m−3 - 424 μg m−3 for PM ; 15.5
Los Angeles, 1954.
μmol/mol - 30.4 μmol/mol for CO and 0.65
μmol/mol - 1.24 μmol/mol for NO
.M MA AJ JO OR R S SM MO OG G I IN NC CI ID DE EN NT TS S I IN N T TH HE E U US SA A
1948, October, 30-31, Donora,
PA: 20 died, 600
more stricken. Lawsuits
were not settled until
1953, November, New York:
Smog kills between 170
and 260 people,
1954, October, Los Angeles:
heavy smog shuts down
schools and industry for
most of the month,
1963, New York: blamed for
1966, New York: blamed for
Smog in New York City as viewed from the World
Trade Center in 1988
17P Ph ho ot to oc ch he em mi ic ca al l s sm mo og g
18P PH HO OT TO OC CH HE EM MIIC CA AL L S SM MO OG G – – A AR RE EA AS S A AF FF FE EC CT TE ED D
Photochemical smog more frequently happening in places, where is sunny, hot and dry
climate, as well as, heavy street traffic.
Beijing air on a day after rain (left)
and a smoggy day (right), August 2005.
Characteristic smog cities are Los Angeles, Denver,
Sidney, Mexico City, Toronto, Beijing, Manila, Ruhr
Areas, Buenos Aires, however smog usually are in
19IIN ND DU US ST TR RIIA AL L S SM MO OG G
Burning coal and heavy oil fractions with high content of sulphur compounds, a industrial smog take shape.
Earlier its happened mainly in winter time.
Industrial smog consist manly of sulphur dioxide, droplets of sulphur acid and solid
Claude Monet made several trips to London between
1899 and 1901, during which he painted views of the
Thames and Houses of Parliament which show the sun
struggling to shine through London's smog-laden