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C# object oriented programming basics

C# object oriented programming basics
Object Oriented Software Development 2. C object oriented programming basics www.ThesisScientist.comWhat is object oriented programming  A programming approach which uses objects  An object is a software component which has properties and behaviour  When a program runs objects are created and work together to perform the program’s tasks  Most modern programming languages support object orientation  C, Java, VB.NET, C++, PHP, etc. www.ThesisScientist.comWhere should we use it  Objectorientation offers some key benefits:  Code reuse – DRY principle  Ability to model realworld environments  Understandability  Many kinds of software application can benefit from object oriented approach  GUI applications, web applications, games, etc. www.ThesisScientist.comObjects  An entity, or thing, is represented as an object in the program  e.g. an object representing an Employee in a company  Objects have attributes to represent state of object, e.g. name, location of an Employee  Objects have methods to define the actions, or behaviour, which object can perform, e.g. an Employee could record that he or she worked some overtime hours www.ThesisScientist.comResponsibilities and collaboration  Objects have responsibilities  This allows objects to interact, or collaborate, with each other  Program consists of objects which interact, just as real world entities interact  For example, in a realworld company each person has a job to do (responsibilities), and people collaborate to achieve the company’s aims www.ThesisScientist.comEncapsulation  Objects are able to collaborate through behaviour and attributes which are public  Objects can also have behaviour and attributes which are private  These are for the object itself to use in performing its responsibilities  Public behaviour may modify private attributes or use private behaviour  Collaborating objects do not need to know about these www.ThesisScientist.comClasses  May have more than one object of the same kind that have common characteristics  Class is a template for creating objects of the same kind  A bit like a job description for a realworld job  Employee class can be used to create many Employee objects  When we write the code we are actually writing the class definitions www.ThesisScientist.comClasses and objects  An object is a specific instance of a class  Class defines the attributes and methods which are common to all instances of class  Each object can have its own specific values for these attributes  Each Employee object will have a Name, but the value is different in each object  Objects are created from the class as the program runs www.ThesisScientist.comWhat’s in a class  A class is written as a named a block of code  Contains declarations of variables to represent the attributes  Contains blocks of code, nested within the class, to define the methods  Each method contains a sequence of steps which carry out the action which that method defines  Usually contains one or more constructors www.ThesisScientist.comC class example code  OOBasicsDemo project  Employee.cs www.ThesisScientist.comClass diagrams private – cannot be accessed by other objects class name attributes methods public – can be accessed by other objects www.ThesisScientist.comObject diagrams emp1 : Employee name = Michael each object here is an instance username = michael of the Employee class with its currentLocation = loc own values for the attributes phoneNumber = 1234 emp2 : Employee name = Susan username = susan currentLocation = loc phoneNumber = 4321 www.ThesisScientist.comVariables  A variable is a name given to a piece of information in a program  Allows us write code which refers to and uses that information  Actual value will depend on what has happened as the program runs  May be different each time the program runs and may change as it runs www.ThesisScientist.comDeclaring variables  In C a variable needs to be declared before it can be used  Declaring a variable means specifying that a particular piece of information may exist by giving it a name and stating the type int myValue Declares a variable of type int with name “myValue” www.ThesisScientist.comGiving values to variables  Can assign a value to a variable, e.g. myValue = 3 myValue = x where x is another int variable myValue = 3x  Can assign at the same time as declaring, e.g int myValue = 3 www.ThesisScientist.comObject references  In an OO program, a variable can be an object reference  A name given to an object  Allows us write code which refers to and uses that object  Need to declare variable: Employee emp  Need to create an object and assign it to this variable www.ThesisScientist.comInstance variables  Attributes of an object are also known as instance variables or fields  prefer these as attribute has another meaning in C  Each instance variable represents a piece of information of a specific type, which can be:  a C builtin type, e.g. string, int  any .NET Framework type, e.g. DateTime (we will look at .NET types in more detail later)  any class in your application, e.g. Location (a class which would represent a work location) www.ThesisScientist.comC creating objects example code  OOBasicsDemo project  Employee.cs  Program.cs www.ThesisScientist.comCreating objects example  Test program creates some objects and make them do something  Program.cs  Main method – entry point to a C application  Creates object using new keyword  emp1, emp2 are object references each of which “points” to an object of type Employee www.ThesisScientist.comnull references  A reference can be null  The reference is declared but does not actually point to an object reference declared, not assigned to object null reference assigned to object reference no longer assigned to object null www.ThesisScientist.comConstructors  Constructor is executed when object is created to initialise object  Constructor is similar to a method, but must have same name as the class  Employee must have constructor with list of parameters which match information supplied www.ThesisScientist.comConstructors  Class can have more than one constructor, each with different parameter list  Employee has two constructors – one takes no parameters (default constructor) www.ThesisScientist.comC messages example code  OOBasicsDemo project  Employee.cs  TimeSheet.cs  Program.cs www.ThesisScientist.comMessages  Collaborating objects interact with each other by sending messages  Message is simply the name of a method to be called on the receiving object  Information may be passed to receiving object as method parameter(s)  Reply may be passed back as method return value www.ThesisScientist.comTypes of message  Messages sent to an object may :  Request information from that object  Method will return a value  Parameter(s) may provide further detail as to what information to return  Give an instruction to that object  Method will (usually) not return a value  Parameter(s) may provide further detail about instruction www.ThesisScientist.comSending messages to objects  Send message by calling method  In example code, method of Employee sends message to a TimeSheet object to ask it to add an entry  Calls AddEntry method  Employee does not need to know how TimeSheet does this  Note that test program sends message to Employee object to start this off www.ThesisScientist.comCollaboration through messages  In this example the Employee object and TimeSheet object collaborate do perform the task of recording the information about hours worked  Employee object has knowledge of hours worked and responsibility for providing this information to the TimeSheet object  TimeSheet object has responsibility for actually storing the information www.ThesisScientist.comSequence diagram object Program emp1 ts RecordOvertime() time AddEntry() message This diagram shows that Program calls RecordOvertime on Employee object emp1, which as a result calls AddEntry on TimeSheet object ts – look at code to see how this works www.ThesisScientist.comMethod signatures  Specify method name, return type and parameter types, e.g.:  RecordOvertime  Needs number of hours as a parameter  Needs TimeSheet object as a parameter  returns no value (return type is void)  Email  Returns a string containing the email address  Doesn’t need to pass any parameters www.ThesisScientist.comClass diagram with more detail attribute types parameters return type www.ThesisScientist.comMethods and algorithms  A method contains code which defines the steps required to perform an action  Sometimes this can be very simple:  AddEntry method simply writes to console  RecordOvertime method just sends a message to another object  Sometimes the action is more complicated, and requires many steps to define an algorithm www.ThesisScientist.comMethods and algorithms  Algorithm is a stepbystep procedure to solve a problem  Steps are defined as program statements  May involve combination of any of the following:  Calculations  Decisions: ifelse statements  Repeated actions: for, while loops  Calls to other methods www.ThesisScientist.comRelationships  Need to define relationships to allow objects to interact  Can show relationships in class and object diagrams  Need to implement these in code  Learn code patterns for implementing various relationship types www.ThesisScientist.com“hasa” relationship  One object contains one or more other objects  Department has Employees, Employee hasa Location  aggregation – shared ownership  composition – exclusive ownership  association – no ownership  Usually implemented as an instance variable in one class  Employee has an attribute of type Location www.ThesisScientist.com“usesa” relationship  One object has some kind of association with another  Employee usesa TimeSheet  Association is temporary, not implemented by instance variable  Can be implemented through a method parameter  Employee’s RecordOvertime method has a parameter of type TimeSheet www.ThesisScientist.com“isa” relationship  Inheritance relationship  We will come back to this later... www.ThesisScientist.comC relationships example code  OOBasicsDemo project  Employee.cs  Location.cs  TimeSheet.cs  Department.cs www.ThesisScientist.comRelationships in class diagram aggregation association (hasa) Note that we are not showing the currentLocation attribute of type association (usesa) Location in the Employee class box now as it is implied by the relationship www.ThesisScientist.comRelationships in object diagram “snapshot” of objects which exist at a point in time while the program runs emp1 : Employee name : string = Michael username : string = michael phoneNumber : string = 1234 loc : Location emp2 : Employee name : string = Susan here there are two Employee username : string = susan objects associated with the same phoneNumber : string = 4321 Location object www.ThesisScientist.comKey OO concepts  Object  Class  Message  Relationship www.ThesisScientist.comWhat’s next  Next we will look in more detail at the syntax of C and how to write C classes www.ThesisScientist.comConcepts  Object  Class  Message  Reusability  Encapsulation  Information hiding www.ThesisScientist.com
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23-07-2017