GPU architecture ppt

gpu image processing ppt and powerpoint gpu acceleration and gpu programming ppt
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GraceRogers,Greece,Professional
Published Date:12-07-2017
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Tim Sweeney CEO, Founder Epic Games timepicgames.com THE END OF THE GPU ROADMAPBackground: Epic Games  Independent game developer  Located in Raleigh, North Carolina, USA  Founded in 1991  Over 30 games released  Gears of War  Unreal series  Unreal Engine 3 is used by 100’s of gamesUnreal Engine 1 1996-1999  First modern game engine  Object-oriented  Real-time, visual toolset  Scripting language  Last major software renderer  Software texture mapping  Colored lighting, shadowing  Volumetric lighting & fog  Pixel-accurate culling  25 games shippedUnreal Engine 2 2000-2005  PlayStation 2, Xbox, PC  DirectX 7 graphics  Single-threaded  40 games shippedUnreal Engine 3 2006-2012  PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, PC  DirectX 9 graphics  Pixel shaders  Advanced lighting & shadowing  Multithreading (6 threads)  Advanced physics  More visual tools  Game Scripting  Materials  Animation  Cinematics…  150 games in developmentGears of War 2: Project Overview  Project Resources  15 programmers  45 artists  2-year schedule  12M development budget  Software Dependencies  1 middleware game engine  20 middleware libraries  Platform librariesGears of War 2: Software Dependencies Gears of War 2 Gameplay Code 250,000 lines C++, script code Unreal Engine 3 Middleware Game Engine 2,000,000 lines C++ code ZLib Speed FaceFX Bink DirectX OpenAL Data … Movie Tree Face Compr- Graphics Audio Rendering Animation Codec essionComputing History 1985 Intel 80386: Scalar, in-order CPU 1989 Intel 80486: Caches 1993 Pentium: Superscalar execution 1995 Pentium Pro: Out-of-order execution 1999 Pentium 3: Vector floating-point 2003 AMD Opteron: Multi-core 2006 PlayStation 3, Xbox 360: “Many-core” …and we’re back to in-order executionGraphics History 1984 3D workstation (SGI) 1997 GPU (3dfx) 2002 DirectX9, Pixel shaders (ATI) 2006 GPU with full programming language (NVIDIA GeForce 8) 2009? x86 CPU/GPU Hybrid (Intel Larrabee)Hardware: 2012-2020Hardware: 2012-2020 Processor Processor Processor Processor Processor In Order In Order In Order In Order In Order 4 Threads 4 Threads 4 Threads 4 Threads 4 Threads I D I I D I D I D D L2 Cache Processor Processor Processor Processor Processor In Order In Order In Order In Order In Order 4 Threads 4 Threads 4 Threads 4 Threads 4 Threads I D I D I D I D I D Intel Larrabee NVIDIA GeForce 8  x86 CPU-GPU Hybrid  General Purpose GPU  C/C++ Compiler  CUDA “C” Compiler  DirectX/OpenGL  DirectX/OpenGL  Many-core, vector architecture  Many-core, vector architecture  Teraflop-class performance  Teraflop-class performanceHardware: 2012-2020 CONCLUSION CPU, GPU architectures are getting closerTHE GPU TODAYThe GPU Today  Large frame buffer  Complicated pipeline  It’s fixed-function  But we can specify shader programs that execute in certain pipeline stagesShader Program Limitations  No random-access memory writes  Can write to current pixel in frame buffer  Can’t create data structures  Can’t traverse data structures  Can hack it using texture accesses  Hard to share data between main program and shaders programs  Weird programming language  HLSL rather than C/C++ Result: “The Shader ALU Plateau”Antialiasing Limitations  MSAA & Oversampling  Every 1 bit of output precision costs up to 2X memory & performance  Ideally want 10-20 bits  Discrete sampling (in general)  Texture filtering only implies antialiasing when shader equation is linear  Most shader equations are nonlinear Aliasing is the 1 visual artifact in Gears of WarTexture Sampling Limitations  Inherent artifacts of bilinear/trilinear  Poor approximation of Integrate(color,area) in the presence of:  Small triangles  Texture seams  Alpha translucency  Masking  Fixed-function = poor scalability  Megatexture, etcFrame Buffer Model Limitation  Frame buffer: 1 (or n) layers of 4-vectors, where n = small constant  Ineffective for  General translucency  Complex shadowing models  Memory bandwidth requirement = FPS Pixel Count Layers Depth pow(2,n) where n = quality of MSAASummary of Limitations  “The Shader ALU Plateau”  Antialiasing limitations  Texture Sampling limitations  Frame Buffer limitationsThe Meta-Problem:  The fixed-function pipeline is too fixed to solve its problems  Result:  All games look similar  Derive little benefit from Moore’s Law  Crysis on high-end NVIDIA SLI solution only looks at most marginally better than top Xbox 360 games This is a market BEGGING to be disrupted :-)