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The History of the Internet

The History of the Internet 17
The History of the InternetThree Major Players in Internet HistoryEarly Innovations The creation of the Internet is dependent on mankind’s earlier innovations 1836 Telegraph by Cooke and Wheatstone •Revolutionized human (tele)communications. •Morse Code a series of dots and dashes used to communicate between humans. This is similar to how computers communicate via (binary 0/1) data today. Although it is much slower 18581866 Transatlantic cable. Allowed direct instantaneous communication across the Atlantic. Today, cables connect all continents and are still a main hub of telecommunications. 1876 Telephone. Alexander Graham Bell Exhibits. •Telephones exchanges provide the backbone of Internet connections today. •Modems provide Digital to Audio conversions to allow computers to connect over the telephone network. Political Events 1940’s to 1980’s U.S. vs. Soviet Cold War 1957 U.S.S.R. launches Sputnik. The US forms the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) within the Department of Defense (DoD) to build US skills in computer technology. • The start of global telecommunications. Satellites play an important role in transmitting all sorts of data today. ARPA Created 1957 In response, US forms the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) within the Department of Defense (DoD) to establish US lead in science and technology applicable to the military. 1962 Dr. J.C.R. Licklider was chosen to head ARPA's research in improving the military's use of computer technology. • Licklider was a visionary who sought to make the government's use of computers more interactive. • moved ARPA's contracts from the private sector to universities and laid the foundations for what would become the ARPANET.PacketSwitching is Key 19621968 Packetswitching (PS) networks developed • The Internet relies on packets to transfer data. • Data is split into tiny packets that may take different routes to a destination. The origin is military : for utmost security in transferring information of networks (no single outage point). • More than one route available if one route goes down another may be followed. • Networks can withstand large scale destruction (Nuclear attack This was the time of the Cold War). The Story of ARPANET Team 1969 ARPANET commissioned by DoD for research into networking. The Team included: Bob Taylor, a psychoacoustician, was director of the computer research program at the Department of Defense's Advanced Research Projects Agency in 1966 when he hit upon the idea of lining computers together. He was awarded 1 Million to develop the network. Larry Roberts, a pioneer in computer networking at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory. He designed the original fournode network, which was to be based on packetswitching, as opposed to circuit switching. The Story of ARPANET – the Nodes 1969 – Four nodes and a test • First node at UCLA soon after at: • Stanford Research Institute (SRI) • UCSB • U of UtahThe Story of ARPANET – The IMPs 1969 – To connect these four computers – each with its own “language” – Wes Clark suggested to Larry Roberts that 4 small computers that spoke the same language be constructed and connected together. • The small computers were called Information Message Processors (IMP) Honeywell 516 mini computer with 12K of memory developed by Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc. (BBN) The Birth of the Internet The plan was unprecedented: Kleinrock, a pioneering computer science professor at UCLA, and his small group of graduate students hoped to log onto the Stanford computer and try to send it some data. Steve Crocker Mike Wingfield developed ARPANET Wingfield built the network protocol hardware interface between the UCLA computer and the first IMP Jon Postel Bill Naylor Vinton Cerf developed Domain Name System, FTP, Telnet, and develop TCP/IP the Internet Protocol. The Birth of the Internet They would start by typing "login," and seeing if the letters appeared on the faroff monitor. Kleinrock : "We set up a telephone connection between us and the guys at SRI...," "We typed the L and we asked on the phone, "Do you see the L" LO "Yes, we see the L," came the response. "We typed the O, and we asked, "Do you see the O." "Yes, we see the O." G "Then we typed the G, and the system crashed"... Yet a revolution had began"... Source: Sacramento Bee, May 1, 1996, p.D1The Birth of the Internet 1971 Ray Tomlinson of BBN invents email program to send messages across a distributed network. The original program was derived from two others: • an intramachine email program (SNDMSG) and an experimental file • transfer program (CPYNET) • 15 nodes (23 hosts) on ARPANET. The first email message qwertyuiopThe Birth of the Internet 1973 Global Networking becomes a reality • First international connections to the ARPANET: University College of London (England) and Royal Radar Establishment (Norway) 1974 Packets become mode of transfer • Transmission Control Program (TCP) specified. Packet network Intercommunication the basis of Internet Communication. • Telenet, a commercial version of ARPANET, opened the first public packet data service. 1976 Networking comes to many • Queen Elizabeth sends out an email.The Birth of the Internet 1977 Email takes off, Internet becomes a reality • Number of hosts breaks 100. • THEORYNET provides electronic mail to over 100 researchers in computer science (using a locally developed Email system and TELENET for access to server). 1979 News Groups born • Computer Science Department research computer network established in USA. • USENET established using UUCP. – A collection of discussions groups, news groups. – 3 news groups established by the end of the year – Almost any topic now has a discussion group.The Birth of the Internet 1979 News Groups born • Computer Science Department research computer network established in USA. • USENET established using UUCP. – USENET still thrives today. – A collection of discussions groups, news groups. – 3 news groups established by the end of the year – Almost any topic now has a discussion group.The Birth of the Internet 1982 TCP/IP defines future communication •DCA and ARPA establishes the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), as the protocol suite, commonly known as TCP/IP, for ARPANET. • Leads to one of the first definitions of an Internet as a connected set of networks, specifically those using TCP/IP. 1983 Internet gets larger Name server developed. • There is such a large number of nodes that its hard to remember exact paths • Use meaningful names instead. The Birth of the Internet 1984 Growth of Internet Continues • Number of hosts breaks 1,000. • Domain Name Server (DNS) introduced. Instead of 123.456.789.10 it is easier to remember something like www.myuniversity.mydept.mynetwork.mycountry • ( e.g. 1986 Power of Internet Realized • 5, 000 Hosts. 241 News groups. • NSFNET created when NSF establishes 5 supercomputing centers to provide highcomputing power for all This allows an explosion of connections, especially from universities.The Birth of the Internet 1987 Commercialization of Internet Born • Number of hosts 28,000. • UUNET is founded with Usenix funds to provide commercial UUCP and Usenet access. 1988 • Internet Relay Chat (IRC) developed 1989 Large growth in Internet • Number of hosts breaks 100,000 • First relays between a commercial electronic mail carrier and the InternetThe Birth of the Internet 1990 Expansion of Internet continues • 300,000 Hosts. 1,000 News groups • ARPANET ceases to exist • Archie released files can be searched and retrieved (FTP) by name. • The World comes online (, becoming the first commercial provider of Internet dialup access. The Birth of the Internet 1991 Friendly User Interface to Internet established • Gopher released by Paul Lindner and Mark P. McCahill from the U of Minnesota. •Text based, menudriven interface to access internet resources. •No need to remember or even know complex computer command. User Friendly Interface (). •Largely superseded by WWW, these days.The Birth of the Internet 1992 Multimedia changes the face of the Internet • Number of hosts breaks 1 Million. News groups 4,000 • The term "Surfing the Internet" is coined by Jean Armour Polly.The Birth of the Internet 1993 The WWW Revolution truly begins • Number of Hosts 2 Million. 600 WWW sites. • The Mosaic Web browser is released (by a group of 10 students from U of I at ChampaignUrbana) on the Net, gaining 2 million and fueling a 341,634 annual growth rate for Web traffic. The Birth of the Internet 1993 The WWW Revolution truly begins • The White House opens its Web page and the President gets an email address. • Business and Media really take notice of the Internet. • Mosaic takes the Internet by storm. –User Friendly Graphical Front End to the World Wide Web. –Develops into Netscape most popular WWW browser to date.The Birth of the Internet The Stats Map of Net History 30 Years of the Net in Brief  Stats Story Date Hosts Domains WebSites WHR() Jan98 29,670,000 2,500,000 2,450.000 8.3 Jul97 19,540,000 1,301,000 1,200,000 6.2 Jul96 12,881,000 488,000 300,000 2.3 Jul95  6,642,000  120,000 25000 0.4 Jul94 3,212,000 46,000 3,000 0.1 Jul93 1,776,000 26,000 150 0.01 Jul92 992,000 16,300 50 0.005 Jul89 130,000 Jul81 210 1969 4
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