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Published Date:21-07-2017
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STRATEGIES TO REDUCE AIR POLLUTION IN INDIA Dr. B. Sengupta Dr. B. Sengupta Former Member Secretary Former Member Secretary Central Pollution Control Board Central Pollution Control Board Ministry of Environment & Forests Ministry of Environment & Forests Govt. of India, Delhi Govt. of India, Delhi Email:, Paper presented at Indo-Japanese Conference on Fuel Quality and Vehicular Emissions On 18 March , 2009Contents Contents Air Quality Concerns Current Status of AQM Air Quality trends Thrust Areas Way ForwardAir Quality Air Quality METROS CITIES/URBAN AREAS Concerns Concerns 65 non-attainment cities Dominant Sources: Vehicular Emissions, Small/Medium Scale Industries, Gensets, Biomass burning, etc. Pollutants: NO , SPM/RSPM & CO x CRITICALLY POLLUTED AREAS 24 critically polluted areas Dominant Sources: Industries-Power Plants, Refineries, Chemical Plants, etc.) Pollutants: NO SPM/RSPM, SO VOCs, PAHs, etc. x , 2 RURAL AREAS Indoor air pollution: Use of Biomass, Coal, kerosene, etc. Outdoor air pollution: Unpaved roads, Biomass burning, Gen-sets etc. 3 Pollutants: SPM/RSPM, CO, etc.Current Status of AQM Current Status of AQM Institutional Mechanism Assessment of Air Quality Monitoring Emission Inventory Source Apportionment Air Pollution Exposure & Health Impacts Control Strategies City Specific AQM Action PlansInstitutional Mechanism Institutional Mechanism Central Level Ministry of Environment & Forests Central Pollution Control Board Environment Pollution Control Authority Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas Ministry of Road Transport & Highways Other Central Ministries/Agencies R&D Centers & other Institutions State Level Department of Environment Pollution Control Board/Committees Local Bodies/AuthoritiesEmission Inventory Emission Inventory TPP TPP 58% 82% CEMEN OTHERS SUGAR T OTHERS 0% 1% 40% CEMEN PAPER 1% SUGAR T 1% 10% SPM LOAD FROM INDUSTRIES (T/DAY) 7% SPM LOAD FROM INDUSTRIES (T/DAY) Without Control Device With Control Device TPP 89% SO LOAD 2 FROM INDUSTRIES (T/DAY) STEEL 5% SULPHURIC OIL ACID REFINERIE PLANTS S 2% 3%Emission Inventory (Contd..) Emission Inventory (Contd..) Air pollution from vehicles in Delhi Air pollution from vehicles in MumbaiControl Strategies Control Strategies Adopted Adopted Air Quality Standards notified (1982 & 1994) and Air Pollution Control areas declared Emission Standards notified for Industries Vehicles (in-use & new), Gensets, etc. Fuel quality improvements. (Coal, gasoline & diesel). Relocation of polluting industries, phasing out older polluting vehicles, introduction of mass rapid transportation, etc. Road map for control of emissions from new and in-use vehicles developed up to year 2010 Use of Alternate fuel (CNG,LPG,Ethanol petrol, Bio-diesel, Hydrogen,etc.)Gasoline Benzene Reduction No Specifications Programme in India Before 1996 5 % June 1994 April 1996 0.15 g/l 3% in Metro cities (4 metro) April 1995 April 2000 1 % in NCT & Mumbai Jan Unleaded 1997 4 metros 3 % in all India Nov. 2000 & Low leaded Jan 1% in Major Metros Entire Country 1999 April. 2005 3 % in all India Gasoline Lead Unleaded Feb NCR April. 2010 2000 Phase-out Unleded Country Programme In IndiaVehicle Emission Euro-III (Country) Norm Schedule In Euro-IV (11 cities) India April 2010 Euro-II (Country) April6 Euro-III (11 cities) Sulphur 0.50 % 4 metros & Taj 2005 Euro-I equivalent (Country) August 1997 Euro-II eqv. For cars (4 metros) Sulphur 0.25% Delhi & Taj 2000/01 April 1998 nd 2 set norms notified Sulphur 0.25% 1996 Metro cities April-2000 Emission norms for catalytic vehicles Sulphur 0.25% April 2000-04 Entire Country 1995 st 1 set norms notified Sulphur 0.05% 11 cities April-2005 1990 Sulphur 0.05% April-2010 Entire Country & 0.035 (11 cities) Diesel Sulphur Sulphur 0.005% (11 cities) & 0.035% Reduction (Entire Country) ProgrammeEMISSION REDUCTIONS ROAD MAP FOR NEW PASSENGER CARS EMISSION REDUCTIO NS ROAD MAP FOR NEW (HDV)Control Strategies Adopted Control Strategies Adopted (contd..) (contd..) CREP developed for 17 categories of industries Specific control strategies for major industries Initiatives for small scale sector City specific AQM action plansIndustry Specific Industry Specific Control Strategies Control Strategies THERMAL POWER PLANT: Ash utilization time frame laid down (26% utilization) Enforcement of PM Emission Standards (70% compliant) Mandatory use of beneficiated coal Promotion of clean coal technologies. (FBC, PFBC, IGCC, etc.) Tall stack dispersionAir Pollution Due to Use of Air Pollution Due to Use of Coal in Thermal Power Plants Coal in Thermal Power Plants ITEMS EXISTING 2050 SCENARIO SCENARIO Coal based Electricity 67600 900000 Production (MW) Coal Consumption 258 3434 (million tonnes) Particulate Matter 1.62 21.9 Emission (million tonnes) Sulphur Dioxide 2.451 32.6 (million tonnes) Emission Oxide of Nitrogen 2.3 30.9 (million tonnes) Source: CEA/NTPC Use of clean coal technologies (Super Critical ,IGCC, PFBC, CFBC, etc.) to be promoted based on location specific requirements.Control Strategies And Control Strategies And Policies Adopted Policies Adopted Oil Refineries Control of SO emissions by using high 2 efficiency SRU, adequate stack height & low sulphur fuels. (Mathura refinery emissions restricted to 10.8 MT/day; Total SO emission 175 MT/Day from 123 2 MMTPA capacity) SO emission standards being revised & 2 NOx & VOC standards to be introduced Leak Detection & Repair Programme to reduce fugitive emissionsInitiatives Taken to Control Air Initiatives Taken to Control Air Pollution From SSI Sector Pollution From SSI Sector Brick Kiln 1. Replacement of movable chimney by fixed chimney. (saving of coal by 10%) 2. Better firing and feeding practices. (saving of coal by 10%) 3.Use of vertical shaft brick kiln (saving of coal by 10-16% over BTK)Initiatives Taken To Control Air Initiatives Taken To Control Air Pollution From SSI Sector Pollution From SSI Sector Cupola Furnace (Foundry) 1. Use of divided cold blast 2. Improving metal coke ratio from 5:1 to 9:1 (resulting in saving of 2.5 tonne of coke in 8 hours operation 3. Development of low pressure scrubbing system Hot Mix Plant 1. Indirect heating of bitumen using thermic fluid to replace direct heating STONE CRUSHER 1. Developing enclosure and water mist spraying system to control air pollution 2. Siting guidelines for stone crushersSTEPS TAKEN STEPS TAKEN TO IMPROVE TO IMPROVE AIR QUALITY IN AIR QUALITY IN NCR-DELHI NCR-DELHI Industrial Pollution Control Use of beneficiated coal (having ash 34%) made mandatory in Thermal Power Plant. Closure of hazardous air polluting industries. Shifting of highly polluting industries from non- conforming areas (residential area) to conforming area (approved industrial area). Emission standard for DG Sets (Portable and Stationery sets) Notification and approved fuel for UT of Delhi Upgradation of ESP’s in three coal based power station in Delhi. Use of LDO instead of coal in small boilers.Emission Reduction from Emission Reduction from Vehicles by Introducing Vehicles by Introducing Stricter Norms Stricter Norms Norms Year of Implementation 1996 1996 1998 (Cat. Convertor Norms) 1998 Bharat Stage I (Euro I) 1999 Bharat Stage II (Euro II) 2000/2001 Bharat Stage III (Euro III) April, 2005 Bharat Stage IV (Euro IV) April, 2010