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STRATEGIES TO REDUCE AIR POLLUTION

STRATEGIES TO REDUCE AIR POLLUTION
STRATEGIES TO REDUCE AIR POLLUTION IN INDIA Dr. B. Sengupta Dr. B. Sengupta Former Member Secretary Former Member Secretary Central Pollution Control Board Central Pollution Control Board Ministry of Environment Forests Ministry of Environment Forests Govt. of India, Delhi Govt. of India, Delhi Email: bsg161gmail.com, Paper presented at IndoJapanese Conference on Fuel Quality and Vehicular Emissions On 18 March , 2009Contents Contents Air Quality Concerns Current Status of AQM Air Quality trends Thrust Areas Way ForwardAir Quality Air Quality METROS CITIES/URBAN AREAS Concerns Concerns 65 nonattainment cities Dominant Sources: Vehicular Emissions, Small/Medium Scale Industries, Gensets, Biomass burning, etc. Pollutants: NO , SPM/RSPM CO x CRITICALLY POLLUTED AREAS 24 critically polluted areas Dominant Sources: IndustriesPower Plants, Refineries, Chemical Plants, etc.) Pollutants: NO SPM/RSPM, SO VOCs, PAHs, etc. x , 2 RURAL AREAS Indoor air pollution: Use of Biomass, Coal, kerosene, etc. Outdoor air pollution: Unpaved roads, Biomass burning, Gensets etc. 3 Pollutants: SPM/RSPM, CO, etc.Current Status of AQM Current Status of AQM Institutional Mechanism Assessment of Air Quality Monitoring Emission Inventory Source Apportionment Air Pollution Exposure Health Impacts Control Strategies City Specific AQM Action PlansInstitutional Mechanism Institutional Mechanism Central Level Ministry of Environment Forests Central Pollution Control Board Environment Pollution Control Authority Ministry of Petroleum Natural Gas Ministry of Road Transport Highways Other Central Ministries/Agencies RD Centers other Institutions State Level Department of Environment Pollution Control Board/Committees Local Bodies/AuthoritiesEmission Inventory Emission Inventory TPP TPP 58 82 CEMEN OTHERS SUGAR T OTHERS 0 1 40 CEMEN PAPER 1 SUGAR T 1 10 SPM LOAD FROM INDUSTRIES (T/DAY) 7 SPM LOAD FROM INDUSTRIES (T/DAY) Without Control Device With Control Device TPP 89 SO LOAD 2 FROM INDUSTRIES (T/DAY) STEEL 5 SULPHURIC OIL ACID REFINERIE PLANTS S 2 3Emission Inventory (Contd..) Emission Inventory (Contd..) Air pollution from vehicles in Delhi Air pollution from vehicles in MumbaiControl Strategies Control Strategies Adopted Adopted Air Quality Standards notified (1982 1994) and Air Pollution Control areas declared Emission Standards notified for Industries Vehicles (inuse new), Gensets, etc. Fuel quality improvements. (Coal, gasoline diesel). Relocation of polluting industries, phasing out older polluting vehicles, introduction of mass rapid transportation, etc. Road map for control of emissions from new and inuse vehicles developed up to year 2010 Use of Alternate fuel (CNG,LPG,Ethanol petrol, Biodiesel, Hydrogen,etc.)Gasoline Benzene Reduction No Specifications Programme in India Before 1996 5 June 1994 April 1996 0.15 g/l 3 in Metro cities (4 metro) April 1995 April 2000 1 in NCT Mumbai Jan Unleaded 1997 4 metros 3 in all India Nov. 2000 Low leaded Jan 1 in Major Metros Entire Country 1999 April. 2005 3 in all India Gasoline Lead Unleaded Feb NCR April. 2010 2000 Phaseout Unleded Country Programme In IndiaVehicle Emission EuroIII (Country) Norm Schedule In EuroIV (11 cities) India April 2010 EuroII (Country) April6 EuroIII (11 cities) Sulphur 0.50 4 metros Taj 2005 EuroI equivalent (Country) August 1997 EuroII eqv. For cars (4 metros) Sulphur 0.25 Delhi Taj 2000/01 April 1998 nd 2 set norms notified Sulphur 0.25 1996 Metro cities April2000 Emission norms for catalytic vehicles Sulphur 0.25 April 200004 Entire Country 1995 st 1 set norms notified Sulphur 0.05 11 cities April2005 1990 Sulphur 0.05 April2010 Entire Country 0.035 (11 cities) Diesel Sulphur Sulphur 0.005 (11 cities) 0.035 Reduction (Entire Country) ProgrammeEMISSION REDUCTIONS ROAD MAP FOR NEW PASSENGER CARS EMISSION REDUCTIO NS ROAD MAP FOR NEW (HDV)Control Strategies Adopted Control Strategies Adopted (contd..) (contd..) CREP developed for 17 categories of industries Specific control strategies for major industries Initiatives for small scale sector City specific AQM action plansIndustry Specific Industry Specific Control Strategies Control Strategies THERMAL POWER PLANT: Ash utilization time frame laid down (26 utilization) Enforcement of PM Emission Standards (70 compliant) Mandatory use of beneficiated coal Promotion of clean coal technologies. (FBC, PFBC, IGCC, etc.) Tall stack dispersionAir Pollution Due to Use of Air Pollution Due to Use of Coal in Thermal Power Plants Coal in Thermal Power Plants ITEMS EXISTING 2050 SCENARIO SCENARIO Coal based Electricity 67600 900000 Production (MW) Coal Consumption 258 3434 (million tonnes) Particulate Matter 1.62 21.9 Emission (million tonnes) Sulphur Dioxide 2.451 32.6 (million tonnes) Emission Oxide of Nitrogen 2.3 30.9 (million tonnes) Source: CEA/NTPC Use of clean coal technologies (Super Critical ,IGCC, PFBC, CFBC, etc.) to be promoted based on location specific requirements.Control Strategies And Control Strategies And Policies Adopted Policies Adopted Oil Refineries Control of SO emissions by using high 2 efficiency SRU, adequate stack height low sulphur fuels. (Mathura refinery emissions restricted to 10.8 MT/day; Total SO emission 175 MT/Day from 123 2 MMTPA capacity) SO emission standards being revised 2 NOx VOC standards to be introduced Leak Detection Repair Programme to reduce fugitive emissionsInitiatives Taken to Control Air Initiatives Taken to Control Air Pollution From SSI Sector Pollution From SSI Sector Brick Kiln 1. Replacement of movable chimney by fixed chimney. (saving of coal by 10) 2. Better firing and feeding practices. (saving of coal by 10) 3.Use of vertical shaft brick kiln (saving of coal by 1016 over BTK)Initiatives Taken To Control Air Initiatives Taken To Control Air Pollution From SSI Sector Pollution From SSI Sector Cupola Furnace (Foundry) 1. Use of divided cold blast 2. Improving metal coke ratio from 5:1 to 9:1 (resulting in saving of 2.5 tonne of coke in 8 hours operation 3. Development of low pressure scrubbing system Hot Mix Plant 1. Indirect heating of bitumen using thermic fluid to replace direct heating STONE CRUSHER 1. Developing enclosure and water mist spraying system to control air pollution 2. Siting guidelines for stone crushersSTEPS TAKEN STEPS TAKEN TO IMPROVE TO IMPROVE AIR QUALITY IN AIR QUALITY IN NCRDELHI NCRDELHI Industrial Pollution Control Use of beneficiated coal (having ash 34) made mandatory in Thermal Power Plant. Closure of hazardous air polluting industries. Shifting of highly polluting industries from non conforming areas (residential area) to conforming area (approved industrial area). Emission standard for DG Sets (Portable and Stationery sets) Notification and approved fuel for UT of Delhi Upgradation of ESP’s in three coal based power station in Delhi. Use of LDO instead of coal in small boilers.Emission Reduction from Emission Reduction from Vehicles by Introducing Vehicles by Introducing Stricter Norms Stricter Norms Norms Year of Implementation 1996 1996 1998 (Cat. Convertor Norms) 1998 Bharat Stage I (Euro I) 1999 Bharat Stage II (Euro II) 2000/2001 Bharat Stage III (Euro III) April, 2005 Bharat Stage IV (Euro IV) April, 2010 Vehicular Pollution Vehicular Pollution Control Control Road Map for Fuel Quality Improvement Norms Year of Implementation 0.5 S – Diesel 1996 0.25 S – Diesel 2000 0.05 S – Diesel 2003 0.035 S – Diesel 2005 Unleaded Petrol 2000 Low Smokes 2 T oil 1998 Approved Fuel for Approved Fuel for U.T. of Delhi U.T. of Delhi • Coal with low sulphur (S 0.4) • Fuel oil / LDO/ LSHS / with low sulphur (S – 1.8) • Motor gasoline (as per specifications given in the notification dated 2496 of the Ministry of Environment and Forests, annexed hereto) • Diesel (as per specifications given in the notification dated 2496 of the Ministry of Environment and Forests, annexed hereto) • Liquid petroleum Gas (LPG) • Compressed Natural Gas(CNG) • Kerosene • Naphtha (for power station) • Aviation turbine fuel (for aircraft) • Fire wood (only for domestic use in rural areas and crematorium) • Bio Gas Source: Gazette Notification of Delhi Govt.Alternate Fuel Use in Alternate Fuel Use in NCR Delhi NCR Delhi • CNG – Norms notified and more than 80,000 CNG vehicles plying in Delhi • LPG – Norms notified, LPG kits approved • Gasoline with 5 ethanol from 2003 in sugar producing states UT to be extended to other states and Union Territories. 10 to be introduced by 2007 • Bio – diesel (5) by 2005 Bio – diesel (10) by 2011Restriction on Grossly Restriction on Grossly Polluted Vehicles in India Polluted Vehicles in India 15 Years old Commercial Vehiclesphased out in Delhi City Diesel Buses phased out in Delhi and introduced clean fuel (CNG) BusesROAD MAP FOR VEHICULAR EMISSION ROAD MAP FOR VEHICULAR EMISSION NORMS FOR INUSE VEHICLES NORMS FOR INUSE VEHICLES Activities Applicable for Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Kanpur, Pune New PUC Checking System for all categories of 1 April 2004 vehicles Inspection Maintenance system for all 1 April 2006 categories of vehicles Performance Checking of catalytic converters 1 April 2005 and converstion kits installed in vehicles Augmentation of city public transport system Not later than 1 April 2004 Emission norms for city public service vehicles City Buses and Taxis From 1 April 2004 Registered after 1 April 1996 : Applicable norms on date registration. Before 1 April 1996 : 1996 emission Norms. From 1 April 2008 Registered after Introduction of BharatII norms : Applicable norms on date registration. Registered before Introduction of BharatII norms : India 2000 norms 3 wheelers From 1 April 2004 Registered after 1 April 2000 : Applicable norms on date of registration. Before 1 April 2000 : 1996 emission norms. From 1 April 2008 Registered after 1 April 2000 : Applicable norms on date of registration before 1 April 2005 : Minimum India 2000 emission norms. Emission norms for all inter state buses. From 1 April 2004 Minimum India 2000 Registered after 1 April 2000 : India 2000 Minimum Bharat Stage II Before 1 April 2000 : 1996 emission norms. From 1 April 2008 Registered after 1 April 2005 : Bharat Stage – II Before 1 April 2005 : Minimum India 2000 emission norms. Agencies Involved Agencies Involved Central Pollution Control Board Ministry of Environment Forests Environmental Pollution Control Authority Ministry of Petroleum Natural Gas Ministry of Road Transport Highways Ministry of IndustriesImpacts of Interventions on Impacts of Interventions on the Air Pollutants the Air Pollutants Sulphur Dioxide(SO ) levels in Ambient Air 2 30 4.5 4 25 3.5 20 3 15 2.5 2 10 1.5 5 1 0 0.5 199798 199899 19992000 200001 200102 200203 200304 Residential Industrial Traffic Intersection Vehicle Population Year 199798 199899 19992000 200001 200102 200203 200304 Year 199798 199899 19992000 200001 200102 200203 200304 Year 199798 199899 19992000 200001 200102 200203 200304 Year 199798 199899 19992000 200001 200102 200203 200304 Year 199798 199899 19992000 200001 200102 200203 200304 3 Values in µg/m Vehicle Registration in MillionsImpacts of Interventions on the Air Impacts of Interventions on the Air Pollutants Pollutants Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) levels in Ambient Air 610 4.5 4 510 3.5 410 3 310 2.5 2 210 1.5 110 1 10 0.5 199798 199899 19992000 200001 200102 200203 200304 Residential Industrial Traffic Intersection Vehicle Population Year 199798 199899 19992000 200001 200102 200203 200304 Residential 345 349 311 304 397 311 330 Industrial 363 361 439 354 442 349 339 Traffic Intersection 426 418 490 476 533 509 500 Vehicle Population 3 3.2 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.8 4.1 3 Values in µg/m Vehicle Registration in MillionsImpacts of Interventions on Impacts of Interventions on the Air Pollutants the Air Pollutants Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM) levels in Ambient Air 300 4.5 4 250 3.5 200 3 150 2.5 2 100 1.5 50 1 0 0.5 199798 199899 19992000 200001 200102 200203 200304 Residential Industrial Traffic Intersection Vehicle Population Year 199798 199899 19992000 200001 200102 200203 200304 Residential NA NA NA 120 139 127 131 Industrial NA NA NA 150 167 140 140 Traffic Intersection 200 216 191 180 270 244 228 Vehicle Population 3 32 34 35 36 38 41 3 Values in µg/m Vehicle Registration in MillionsImpacts of Interventions on Impacts of Interventions on the Air Pollutants the Air Pollutants Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) levels in Ambient Air 100 4.5 90 4 80 3.5 70 3 60 2.5 50 2 40 1.5 30 1 20 10 0.5 199798 199899 19992000 200001 200102 200203 200304 Residential Industrial Traffic Intersection Vehicle Population Year 199798 199899 19992000 200001 200102 200203 200304 Residential 29 27 29 28.7 33 37.9 40 Industrial 35 34 34 29 35 36 42 Traffic Intersection 63 60 59 67 75 94 89 Vehicle Population 3 3.2 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.8 4.1 3 Values in µg/m Vehicle Registration in MillionsImpacts of Interventions on Impacts of Interventions on the Air Pollutants the Air Pollutants Carbon Monoxide (CO) levels in Ambient Air 6 4.5 4 5 3.5 4 3 2.5 3 2 2 1.5 1 1 0.5 0 0 199798 199899 19992000 200001 200102 200203 200304 Carbon Monoxide Vehicle Population Year 199798 199899 19992000 200001 200102 200203 200304 Carbon Monoxide 5.45 4.241 4.686 4.183 3.258 2.831 2.581 Vehicle Population 3 3.2 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.8 4.1 3 Values in mg/m Vehicle Registration in MillionsIMPACT OF INTERVENTIONS ON AIR IMPACT OF INTERVENTIONS ON AIR QUALITY OF DELHI (1996 Vs. 2003) QUALITY OF DELHI (1996 Vs. 2003)CONTINUOUS AIR QUALITY MONITORING STATION IN INDIAPM 10 2.5 CONTINUOUS MONITOR AT BHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG (ITO), NEW DELHIInside View of the CPCB Continuous Monitoring Station at Sirifort, New Delhi Parameter Monitored: Sulphur Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Oxides of Nitrogen, Ozone, THC, BTX and Meteorological parameters, Wind Speed, Wind Direction, Temperature Relative HumidityCPCB CONTINUOUS MONITORING STATION AT DELHI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, BAWANA, DELHISIDE VIEW CPCB CONTINUOUS MONITORING STATION AT DELHI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, BAWANA, DELHIInside View of the CPCB Continuous Monitoring Station at DCE, Delhi Parameter Monitored: Sulphur Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Oxides of Nitrogen, Ozone, PM and 10 Meteorological parameters, Wind Speed, Wind Direction, Temperature and Relative HumidityCPCB Mobile Monitoring VanSchematic Description of Air Quality Monitoring System METEOROLOGIC AL Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) DATA • TEMPERAURE • HUMIDITY • WIND SPEED Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) • WIND DIRECTION Intercom 6 ZERO GAS Measuring Signal Calibration CALIBRATION SPAN GAS Carbon monoxide (CO) Ozone (O3) Station Computer Central Computer ANALYSERS MODEM CALIBRATIO N GASAir Quality Trends Air Quality Trends SO Within standard in most of metro 2 cities and showing decreasing trend NO Exceeding standard in few metros and 2 showing increasing trend in some metros RSPMExceeding standard in most metro cities but decreasing trends in most metros SPM Exceeding standard in most metros but with no definite trends CO Decreasing trend in DelhiAir Quality Trends in Major Cities in India Trends of SO 2 Res. Areas TI NAAQS Diesel S Res. Areas NAAQS 70 1.25 70 60 60 1 50 50 40 0.75 40 0.5 30 30 0.5 20 0.25 20 10 0.05 0.035 0.25 0 10 0 0 Year Mumbai Year Delhi Res. Areas NAAQS Res. Areas NAAQS 70 70 60 60 50 50 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 Kolkata Year Year Chennai 1995 1996 1997 1998 1995 1999 1996 2000 1997 2001 1998 2002 1999 2003 2000 2004 2001 2005 2002 2006 2003 2004 2005 2006 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 1999 2000 2000 2001 0 1 2 0 2002 2003 2002 2004 2003 2005 2006 2004 2005 2006 3 Concentration (µg/m ) 3 Concentration (µg/m) Diesel Sulphur () 3 3 Concentration (µg/m ) Concentration (µg/m )Trends of NO 2 90 Res. Areas NAAQS Res. Areas NAAQS No. of Vehicles 75 70 6 60 60 5 45 50 4 40 30 3 30 15 2 20 0 1 10 0 0 Year Mumbai Delhi Year 100 Res. Areas NAAQS Res. Areas NAAQS 80 80 70 60 60 50 40 40 20 30 20 0 10 0 Year Chennai Kolkata Year 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Concentration 3 3 Concentration (µg/m ) (µg/m ) No. of Vehicles ( in Millions) 3 3 Concentration (µg/m ) Concentration (µg/m )Trends of RSPM Res. Areas NAAQS 180 6 Res. Areas NAAQS No. of Vehicles 160 140 5 140 120 120 4 100 100 3 80 80 60 2 60 40 40 1 20 20 0 0 0 Year Delhi Year Mumbai Res. Areas NAAQS Res. Areas NAAQS 100 140 90 120 80 100 70 60 80 50 60 40 40 30 20 20 10 0 0 Year Year Chennai Kolkata 2000 2001 2002 2003 1999 2004 2000 2001 2005 2002 2006 2003 2004 2005 2006 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 3 3 Concentration (µg/m) Concentration (µg/m ) No. ofVehicles (in Millions) 3 Concentration (µg/m ) Concentration (µg/m3)Real Time Continuous Ambient Air Quality Data of Delhi on CPCB websiteAIR POLLUTION AND AIR POLLUTION AND HEALTH EFFECTS HEALTH EFFECTS™™™™™™™ POLLUTION CAUSES, POLLUTION CAUSES, POLLUTANTS EFFECTS POLLUTANTS EFFECTS The 'Pure' Air MAJOR CAUSES MAJOR CAUSES Other Automobile exhausts, Industrial emission, Automobile exhausts, Industrial emission, gases, Oxygen, 1 Dom Dome es stic c tic cooking, The ooking, Therm rmal al power plants power plants 21 MAJOR POLLUTANTS MAJOR POLLUTANTS Nitrogen, Heavy metals: Pb, Fe, Cd, Zn, Ni Heavy metals: Pb, Fe, Cd, Zn, Ni 78 Gases: CO, NOx, SO2 VOC: Benzene, T Gases: CO, NOx, SO2 VOC: Benzene, To olluene uene PAH: Benzoapyrene, Benz anthracene PAH: Benzoapyrene, Benz anthracene Particulate matter: 0.01100μm Particulate matter: 0.01100μm Health effects of pollutants Induction or revival of diseases Health effects are the Health effects are the Respiratory illness / disorder impact of a complex impact of a complex Genotoxicity leading to cancer mixture rather than a mixture rather than a Systemic Immune alterations Cardiovascular problems particular pollutant particular pollutant Brain damage Retardation of fetal growthWhat are the health impacts of changes in air quality  Air Quality Data Required for Air Quality Data Required for Epidemiological Studies Epidemiological Studies CPCB is monitoring ambient air quality under National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP) Monitoring is carried out at 341 monitoring stations in 126 cities/towns in 25 states and 4 UTs Data is available online in Environmental Data on a daily basis Data of 3 continuous stations and 1 mobile van in Delhi is available on a real time basis on CPCB website (After a time lag of 15 minutes). Data available in 1hourly, 8hourly, 24hourly average and annual average basis. Parameters include SO , NO, NO , NOx, PM , PM , BTX, 2 2 2.5 10 CO, Ozone Many SPCBs are carrying out continuous monitoring and data is available on their website. Epidemiological Studies Initiated Epidemiological Studies Initiated by CPCB in India by CPCB in India Epidemiological Study to find the Effect of Air Pollutants especially Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM) and other carcinogens on Human Health in Delhi – CNCI, Kolkata CNCI, Kolkata Study on Ambient Air Quality, Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function of Children in Delhi – CNCI, Kolkata CNCI, Kolkata Health Effect of Chronic Exposure to Smoke from Biomass Fuel burning in Rural Households: A Study in Northern and Eastern India CNCI, Kolkata CNCI, Kolkata Effects of Environmental Pollution on the Status of Human Health of Delhi Residents – AIIMS, New Delhi AIIMS, New Delhi Human Risk Assessment Studies in Asbestos Industries in India ITRC, Lucknow ITRC, Lucknow™™™™™™™™™ Epidemiological Study on Effect Epidemiological Study on Effect of Air Pollution on Human Health of Air Pollution on Human Health in Delhi (Adults) in Delhi (Adults) STUDY PROTOCOL Study Population: 6005 adults residing in Delhi for past 10 years or more 1046 subjects from rural areas of West Bengal as control 1438 individuals have been clinically examined in Health Camps. Age 21 66 years Questionnaire survey Information obtained regarding Age, sex, smoking habit, occupation, socio economic status etc. Upper respiratory symptoms (URS) Lower respiratory symptoms (LRS) Asthma, headache, eye irritation, respiratory allergy Neurobehavioral symptoms Clinical examination Contd.. Study Protocol LUNG FUNCTION TEST BY SPIROMETRY Sampling lab investigation: Sputum: cytopathology Blood: hematology, immunology, biochemistry, enzymology Buccal mucosa: genotoxicity Urine: t,tMA Statistical Analysis: Epi Info6, SYSTAT 9.0 Software system (SPSS INC. Chicago, USA) FINDINGS FINDINGS (These findings are under review by AIIMS) High level of air pollution in Delhi was associated with higher incidence of upper and lower respiratory symptoms Residents of Delhi showed statistically significant increased prevalence of restrictive, obstructive, as well as combined (both obstructive and restrictive) type of lung functions deficits as compared with controls. Lung function reduction was more prevalent in women than in men both in rural and urban settings Besides gender, smoking habit, Body mass index (BMI) and Socio economic status (SES), particulate air pollution was positively associated with lung function deficits Very high alveolar macrophage (AM) count in sputum suggesting higher particle loadStudy on Ambient Air Quality, Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function of Children in Delhi STUDY PROTOCOL STUDY PROTOCOL Study Population: 11,628 school children of Delhi Control: 4536 children from Uttaranchal rural West Bengal Questionnaires: personal family history; socioeconomic status; exposure respiratory symptoms assessed. The following symptoms were analyzed URS – running/stuffy nose, sinusitis, sore throat, common cold fever LRS – dry cough, cough with phlegm, wheezing, chest discomfort, breathlessness Other symptoms – asthma, allergy, headache, nausea, eye irritation, palpitation Clinical examination Air quality data obtained from CPCB and Laser operated Dust Trak Monitor Contd..STUDY PROTOCOL STUDY PROTOCOL Pulmonary function test Assessed by spirometry using portable spirometer (Spirovit SP1, Schiller, Switzerland) Parameters assessed:FVC, FEV , 1 PEFR, FEF Lung function impairment 2575. categorized as restrictive, obstructive and combined defects degree of impairment was ascertained Laboratory investigation : Sputum: AM responses, sputum cytology infiltrating leukocytes (NSE, PPB, PAP) Blood: TC, DC, and cell morphology Statistical Analysis : Data were analyzed in the Dept. of Medical Statistics using the software EPI6 SYSTAT 9.0 (SPSS INC Chicago, USA) Statistical tests like bivariate correlation, logistic regression, multiple regression were used as per requirements taking into account various confounding variables FINDINGS FINDINGS (These findings are under review by AIIMS) Upper respiratory symptoms (URS) like sinusitis, running or stuffy nose, sneezing, sore throat and common cold with fever were more prevalent in Delhi than in controls, and the girls suffered more than the boys. Children in Delhi had more lower respiratory symptoms (LRS) such as frequent dry cough, sputumproducing cough, wheezing breath, breathlessness on exertion, chest pain or tightness and disturbed sleep due to breathing problems. Respiratory and associated symptoms were most prevalent in children from low socioeconomic status, and least in children from families with high socioeconomic background. The symptoms were more prevalent in children during winter when PM level in air is highest in a year, and 10 lowest during monsoon when particulate air pollution level is lowest, suggesting a positive association with particulate air pollution. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DEVELOPMENT OF NEW AIR QUALITY STANDARD AIR QUALITY STANDARD FOR IMPROVEMENT FOR IMPROVEMENT OF AIR QUALITY OF AIR QUALITYCURRENT NATIONAL CURRENT NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS (NAAQS) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS (NAAQS) Pollutant Time Concentration in Method of Weighted Ambient Air Measurement Average Sulphur Annual 80 60 15 • Improved West and 3 3 3 Dioxide Average µg/m µg/m µg/m Gaeke Method (SO ) • Ultraviolet Fluorescence 2 24 Hours 120 80 30 3 3 3 Average µg/m µg/m µg/m Oxides of Annual 80 60 15 • Jacob Hochheiser 3 3 3 Nitrogen Average µg/m µg/m µg/m modified (NaOH as NO2 NaAsO2) Method 24 Hours 120 80 30 • Gas Phase 3 3 3 Average µg/m µg/m µg/m Chemiluminiscence Suspended Annual 360 140 70 • High Volume Sampling 3 3 3 Particulate Average µg/m µg/m µg/m (Average flow rate not Matter less than 1.1m3/minute) 24 Hours 500 200 100 (SPM) 3 3 3 Average µg/m µg/m µg/m Respirable Annual 120 60 50 • Respirable Particulate 3 3 3 Particulate Average µg/m µg/m µg/m Matter Sampler Matter (Size 24 Hours 150 100 75 less than Average µg/m3 µg/m3 µg/m3 10µm)(RPM) Contd..Pollutant Time Concentration in Method of Weighted Ambient Air Measurement Average Lead (Pb) Annual 1.0 0.75 0.50 AAS Method after 3 3 3 Average µg/m µg/m µg/m sampling using EPM 2000 or equivalent filter paper 24 Hours 1.5 1.0 0.75 3 3 3 Average µg/m µg/m µg/m Carbon 8 Hours 5.0 2.0 1.0 Non dispersive Infrared 3 3 3 Monoxide Average mg/m mg/m mg/m Spectroscopy (CO) 1 Hour 10.0m 4.0 2.0 3 3 3 Average g/m mg/m mg/m 3 Ammonia Annual 0.1 mg/m (NH3) Average 3 24 Hour 0.4 mg/m Annual Arithmetic mean of minimum 104 measurements in a year twice a week 24 hourly at uniform interval. Annual Arithmetic mean of minimum 104 measurements in a year twice a week 24 hourly at uniform interval. Average 24 ho 24 hourl urly y//8 h 8 ho ourly urly values values sho shoul uld d be be met 98 met 98 of t of th he time in e time in a y a ye ea ar. How r. Howe eve ver, 2 r, 2 of of the time, it may the time, it may exc exceed but eed but not on two consecutive days. not on two consecutive days. NOTE NOTE 1. 1. National National Ambient Ambient Air Air Q Qu ualit ality y St Standard : T andard : Th he levels of air qualit e levels of air quality y necessary necessary w wiith an adeq th an adequate margin of safety uate margin of safety, , to protect the public health, vegetation and property. to protect the public health, vegetation and property. 2. 2. W Whenever henever and and w wherever tw herever two consecutive values exceed the li o consecutive values exceed the limit sp mit specified ab ecified above for the respective category, it ove for the respective category, it w would be consi ould be consid dere ered d adequate re adequate rea as son t on to o i in nstitute regular/conti stitute regular/contin nu uous monit ous monito oring and further ring and further investigatio investigations. ns. 3. The State Government / State Board shall notify the sensitive and other areas in the respective states within a 3. The State Government / State Board shall notify the sensitive and other areas in the respective states within a period of six mont period of six months from the da hs from the date of notifica te of notification of National A tion of National Ambient Air Quality mbient Air Quality Standards StandardsPROPOSED AMBIENT AIR PROPOSED AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS QUALITY STANDARDS S. Parameter, units Averaging time Analysis Method No. 1hr 8hr 24hr Annual 1. 1. Benzene (C Benzene (C H H ), ), 15 15 5 5 • • Online gas Online gas 6 6 6 6 3 3 µ µg/m g/m chromatography chromatography • Activated • Activated carbon/tenex carbon/tenex adsorption and GC adsorption and GC analysis analysis 2. Carbon Monoxide 4000 6000 • Non Dispersive Infra 2. Carbon Monoxide 4000 6000 • Non Dispersive Infra 3 3 (CO) µg/m (CO) µg/m Re Red (NDI d (NDIR), R), Spe Spec ctroscopy troscopy 3. 3. Formaldehyde 80 45 • Absorption in MBTH Formaldehyde 80 45 • Absorption in MBTH 3 3 (HCHO), µg/m and (HCHO), µg/m and spectrophotometer spectrophotometer analysis analysis 4. 4. Polyaromatic 5 1 • Solvent extraction Polyaromatic 5 1 • Solvent extraction Hydrocarbons followed by analysis Hydrocarbons followed by analysis of GC/HPLC/GCMS (Ba (BaP P) (particulate ) (particulate of GC/HPLC/GCMS phase only) phase only),, 3 3 ng/m ng/m Contd..3 3 5. Arsenic, ng/m 20 6 5. Arsenic, ng/m 20 6 • • AAS/ICP method after AAS/ICP method after sampling on EPM or sampling on EPM or 3 3 6. 6. Lead, Lead, µ µg/m g/m 1 1 0.5 0.5 equivalent Filter Paper equivalent Filter Paper (1) (1) 7. 15 7. Mercur Mercury y (total), (total), 15 • • Particulate : Particulate : same as same as 3 3 ng/m ng/m for lead for lead above. above. • Vapour – Activated • Vapour – Activated Particulate 3 Particulate 3 Carbon or goal coated Carbon or goal coated 3 3 phase, ng/m phase, ng/m sand adsorption sand adsorption Vapour phase, 12 Vapour phase, 12 followed by analysis followed by analysis 3 3 ng/m ng/m on AAS on AAS/ICP /ICP 3 3 8. 8. Nickel, ng/m Nickel, ng/m 25 25 • • AAS/ICP Method after AAS/ICP Method after sampling on EPM or sampling on EPM or 3 3 9. Vanadium, ng/m 200 9. Vanadium, ng/m 200 equivalent Filter Paper equivalent Filter Paper 10. 10. Nitroge Nitrogen Dioxide n Dioxide 200 200 80 80 40 40 • • Jacob Hochhelser Jacob Hochhelser (NO ) General Modified Method (NO ) General Modified Method 2 2 3 3 Area, Area, µ µg/m g/m • Chemiluminescences • Chemiluminescences Nitrogen Dioxide 30) 30) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO ) Sensitive 3month (NO ) Sensitive 3month 2 2 (2) (2) 3 3 Area Area , , µ µg/m g/m Av Avg) g) 11. Ozone (O ), 180 90 • UV Photometric 11. Ozone (O ), 180 90 • UV Photometric 3 3 3 3 µg/m technology µg/m technology • • Chemiluminescences Chemiluminescences Contd..12. Particulate Matter (PM ), 100 60 • Approved Particle 12. Particulate Matter (PM ), 100 60 • Approved Particle 10 10 3 3 µg/m size cutoff sampler µg/m size cutoff sampler • • Gravimetr Gravimetric analysis ic analysis Particulate Matter (PM ), 60 60 40 40 Particulate Matter (PM ), 2.5 2.5 3 3 µg/m µg/m 13. 20 13. BSF/TSF (Benzene / toluene BSF/TSF (Benzene / toluene 20 • • ASTM D4600 ASTM D4600 87, 87, 3 3 soluble fract soluble fraction) ion), , µ µg/m g/m 1990 1990 14. 14. Sulphur dioxide (SO ) 260 260 80 80 50 50 • Improved West and Sulphur dioxide (SO ) • Improved West and 2 2 3 3 General Area, µg/m Geake General Area, µg/m Geake • • Ultravio Ultraviollet et 20 Sulphur dioxide (SO Sulphur dioxide (SO ) ) 20 2 2 Fluorescence Fluorescence 3 3 Sensit Sensitive Area, ive Area, µ µg/m g/m (3month (3month avg.) avg.) 3 3 15. Ammonia (NH ), µg/m 400 100 • Chemiluminescence, 15. Ammonia (NH ), µg/m 400 100 • Chemiluminescence, 3 3 • • Indophenol Indophenol – – blue blue method method (1) Whenever measurement of vapour mercury cannot be done, standard for particulate mercury only is applicable. (2) For sensitive area, more stringent standards will be applicable for NO and SO 2 2 standards for other parameters remain unchanged Notes. Notes : (a) Annual arithmetic mean of minimum 104 measurements taken twice a week 24 hourly at a uniform interval should not exceed the annual standards. (b) 1hour/24hour/8hour values should be met 98 of the time in a year. However, 2 of the time, it may exceed but not on two consecutive days. ¾¾¾¾¾ Thrust Areas for Air Pollution Control Thrust Areas for Air Pollution Control Thrust Areas for Air Pollution Control The major programme areas identified for air pollution th control during 11 Five Year Plan will include : Strengthening the monitoring and enforcement of emission standards for both point and nonpoint sources Prepare and implement action plans for major cities for addressing air pollution for both point and nonpoint sources. Strengthening efforts for partial substitution of fossil fuels by biofuels. Toxic / hazardous air pollution monitoring and control in chemical industrial zones and critically polluted areas. Monitoring of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) in major industrial sectors like pesticides, pharmaceuticals, dyes and dye intermediates, etc. Contd..¾¾¾¾¾ Promotion of clean transportation fuel like biodiesel, etc. Shifting from manual air quality monitoring to continuous air quality monitoring systems. Source apportionment studies for RSPM and NOx for all major nonattainment cities. Introduction of clean process technology for highly air polluting industrial sectors like Coke oven plants, Aluminium industry, Thermal power plants, Sponge Iron Plants. Networking of existing manual and continuous air quality monitoring stations and data transmission from all automatic and manual stations through environmental data bank on daily basis on CPCB website. Contd..¾¾¾¾¾¾ Undertaking of monitoring of Fine Particulate Matter PM2.5 from urban areas. Extending network of National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP) to ClassI cities, metro cities and State Capitals. Undertaking health related studies and evolving air pollution control plans. Preventing burning of lowgrade fuel / unapproved fuel in urban areas to prevent air pollution Review of existing air quality standards development for Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) for PM2.5. Air Pollution Control from 17 categories of highly polluting Industries as per CREP agreement Contd..¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ Fuel Quality monitoring/surveillance Introduction of IM System for inuse vehicles Setting up Regional Calibration Laboratories Air pollution Control from Small Scale Air polluting Industries (Brick Kiln, Foundry, Sponge Iron Plants, Lime Kilns, Ceramic Industries etc.) Comprehensive apportionment studies for RSPM and NOx in 16 highly air polluting cities Promotion of clean coal technologies. Promotion of public private partnership in Air Quality Monitoring. Contd..CHALLENGES IN THE FIELD CHALLENGES IN THE FIELD OF AIR POLLUTION CONTRO OF AIR POLLUTION CONTRO 1. Air Quality Monitoring Station to be increased from 1. Air Quality Monitoring Station to be increased from th th 342 to 700 during 11 Five Year Plan and quality of 342 to 700 during 11 Five Year Plan and quality of data to be improved by proper calibration of data to be improved by proper calibration of samplers, QA/QC, training of personnels, etc. Also all samplers, QA/QC, training of personnels, etc. Also all data to be posted in website of CPCB / SPCBs for data to be posted in website of CPCB / SPCBs for public information. public information. 2. More Continuous Air Quality Monitoring Station 2. More Continuous Air Quality Monitoring Station (CAAQMS) to be setup and real time data to be (CAAQMS) to be setup and real time data to be posted in Website for public information. posted in Website for public information. 3. Health Impact Studies to be initiated to give Scientific 3. Health Impact Studies to be initiated to give Scientific Input to Ambient Air Quality Standard. Input to Ambient Air Quality Standard. 4. Action Plan for 65 Non Attainment cities to be 4. Action Plan for 65 Non Attainment cities to be prepared and implemented. prepared and implemented. Contd..5. Effective enforcement of standard in Thermal Power 5. Effective enforcement of standard in Thermal Power Plants, Sponge Iron Plants, Stone Crusher, Brick Kiln, Plants, Sponge Iron Plants, Stone Crusher, Brick Kiln, Coke Oven Plants, Ferro Alloy Plant, etc which are Coke Oven Plants, Ferro Alloy Plant, etc which are causing serious air pollution problem. causing serious air pollution problem. 6. CREP recommendations to be implemented in 17 6. CREP recommendations to be implemented in 17 categories of industries for air pollution control. categories of industries for air pollution control. 7. Effective implementation of Action Plan in identified 24 7. Effective implementation of Action Plan in identified 24 critically polluted area (Singrauli, Korba, Vapi, critically polluted area (Singrauli, Korba, Vapi, Ankleshwar, Manali, Pattancheru, Cochin, Dhanbad, Ankleshwar, Manali, Pattancheru, Cochin, Dhanbad, Haldia, Tarapur, etc), specially Hazardous Air Pollutant Haldia, Tarapur, etc), specially Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) control. (HAP) control. 8. Inspection and maintenance programme to be 8. Inspection and maintenance programme to be strengthened for inuse vehicle emission control strengthened for inuse vehicle emission control through transport Department. through transport Department. 9. Enforcement of standard in small scale air polluting 9. Enforcement of standard in small scale air polluting industries (stone crusher, hot mix plants, brick kiln, industries (stone crusher, hot mix plants, brick kiln, re re rolling mills, etc.) rolling mills, etc.) Contd..10. National / State Task Force to be setup for 10. National / State Task Force to be setup for management of air pollution from Sponge Iron Plants management of air pollution from Sponge Iron Plants as problem is very serious. as problem is very serious. 11. Source Apportionment Studies for RSPM/PM for non 11. Source Apportionment Studies for RSPM/PM for non 10 10 attainment cities on priority to be initiated. attainment cities on priority to be initiated. 12.Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) assessment / 12.Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) assessment / monitoring and control in chemical industry zone like monitoring and control in chemical industry zone like Vapi, Anklehswar, Cuddalore, Manali, Mahad, Trans Vapi, Anklehswar, Cuddalore, Manali, Mahad, Trans Thane Area, Mahad, Tarapur, Durgapur, Dhanbad, Thane Area, Mahad, Tarapur, Durgapur, Dhanbad, etc.) etc.) 13. Air / Noise Pollution from DG Sets to be effectively 13. Air / Noise Pollution from DG Sets to be effectively controlled as 50000 DG Sets are installed by Cellular controlled as 50000 DG Sets are installed by Cellular Tower only. Tower only. 14. Serious attention to be given to Management of Fly 14. Serious attention to be given to Management of Fly Ash generated from coal based Thermal Power Plants Ash generated from coal based Thermal Power Plants (present generation is 112 Million Tonnes per Annum) (present generation is 112 Million Tonnes per Annum) 15. Issue regarding fuel adulteration to be addressed with 15. Issue regarding fuel adulteration to be addressed with appropriate authorities in Government. appropriate authorities in Government.  Recommendation for Urban air Recommendation for Urban air Recommendation for Urban air quality improvement quality improvement quality improvement Bharat Stage (IV) norms to be implemented immediately. Bharat Stage (IV) norms to be implemented immediately. In use vehicular emission control to be strengthened especially city In use vehicular emission control to be strengthened especially city specific I/M programme. specific I/M programme. BS(V) and BS (VI) norm to be formulated considering air quality and BS(V) and BS (VI) norm to be formulated considering air quality and health impact data. health impact data. Clean fuel like CNG, LPG, Biofuel and Biodiesel to be promoted in a Clean fuel like CNG, LPG, Biofuel and Biodiesel to be promoted in a big way. big way. Future fuel Future fuel (such (such as as hydrogen) and vehicle technology ( such as hydrogen) and vehicle technology ( such as hybrid hybrid vehicle) to be promoted. vehicle) to be promoted. Continuous air quality monitoring to be further strengthened and data Continuous air quality monitoring to be further strengthened and data to be posted in CPCB/MOEF website for public information. to be posted in CPCB/MOEF website for public information. Major thrust to be given for transportation planning(dedicated bus Major thrust to be given for transportation planning(dedicated bus corridor, Metro services, Metro connectivity, Flyover etc) corridor, Metro services, Metro connectivity, Flyover etc) New ambient air quality standard finalized and recommended by CPCB New ambient air quality standard finalized and recommended by CPCB based upon health impact should be notified quickly based upon health impact should be notified quickly Fuel adulteration to be checked. Fuel adulteration to be checked. Policy on SO2/NOX control from industrial sources to be finalize Policy on SO2/NOX control from industrial sources to be finalized d Recommendation for Industrial Recommendation for Industrial Recommendation for Industrial area air quality improvement area air quality improvement area air quality improvement Clean coal technology to be promoted in a bigger way. Clean coal technology to be promoted in a bigger way. Fly ash management specially from thermal power plant to be given Fly ash management specially from thermal power plant to be given priority. priority. Carrying capacity based development to be started specially in area like Carrying capacity based development to be started specially in area like Paradeep, Jharsuguda, Kutchch, RaipurSiltara, Raigarah, Dhanbad Paradeep, Jharsuguda, Kutchch, RaipurSiltara, Raigarah, Dhanbad Asansol, Durgapur, Haldia, Cochin, Vizag, Chandrapur etc. Asansol, Durgapur, Haldia, Cochin, Vizag, Chandrapur etc. Policy on So2/NOX control in industrial area to be finalized. Policy on So2/NOX control in industrial area to be finalized. Hazardous air pollution assessment and control to be promoted Hazardous air pollution assessment and control to be promoted in in chemical industrial zones. chemical industrial zones. Major thrust to be given to control air pollution from SSI units like stone Major thrust to be given to control air pollution from SSI units like stone crushers, brick klin , sponge iron plants, lime kiln, foundry etc. crushers, brick klin , sponge iron plants, lime kiln, foundry etc. CREP recommendation as finalized by CPCB to be implemented for 17 CREP recommendation as finalized by CPCB to be implemented for 17 categories of highly polluting industries. categories of highly polluting industries. Action plan to be implemented in 24 critically polluted areas as Action plan to be implemented in 24 critically polluted areas as identified by CPCB. identified by CPCB.By DR. B. SENGUPTA DR. B. SENGUPTA Former Member Secretary Former Member Secretary Central Pollution Control Board DELHI (INDIA) Email : bsg1951yahoo.com Website : http://www.cpcb.nic.in