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From Waste to Wealth using Green Chemistry

From Waste to Wealth using Green Chemistry 53
Closed Closed Loop Loop Chemistry Chemistry From Waste to Wealth using using Green Chemistry James Clark Green Chemistry Centre of Excellence University of York, UK www www.greenchemistry .netBenefits of the Chemical IndustryYet everybody hates chemicals Pressures on the Chemical Industry Across the Lifecycle www www.greenchemistry .netWe are running out of key elements Elemental unsustainability www www.greenchemistry .netSo much ends up in waste www www.greenchemistry .netWhat What do do we we do do with with our our w waste? aste? What a waste www www.greenchemistry .netW Wa as ste te is is tomorrows tomorrows resource resource We need to encouragg ge the greater use off chemically rich waste as a resource www www.greenchemistry .netCh Chemi ical ls f from f food d wast te films bi bio-adh dhesiives hydrophobes Liquid fuels sugars solid fuels phenols starch nanocomposites pectin bio-surfactants collagen Food Food supply supply cellulose natural chelants chain residues chitosan PVC replacements li ligni in natural dyes hydrogels hemicellulose chemical waxes monomers bio-solvents cosmetic waxes www www.greenchemistry .netA A w world orld of of possibilities possibilities… Spent coffee 1 Mt/y of Ag gro-residues grounds grounds 3 3 Mt/y Mt/y food waste 46 Mt/y Palm oil waste 15.8 Mt/y Unripe Unripe coconut coconut husks 5 Mt/y 30 Mt/y of Agro Agro-residues residues Orange peels 382 t/y coffee 12 Mt/y husks Cassava Cassava starch starch 228 Mt/y www www.greenchemistry .netSustainable sources of f Carbon Carbon O Over 90% 90% of f organi ic ch hemi ical ls are b based d on pet trol leum f feed dst tock ks - this is not sustainable www www.greenchemistry .netPetroleum Refinery Fuels Fuels Solvent Bulk chemicals Plastics Fibres Petroleum feedstock feedstock Fi Fine ch hemiicalls Oils Oils www www.greenchemistry .netBio-refinery Fuels Solvent Plastics Biomass Biomass Bulk chemicals Fine Fine chemicals chemicals Fibres Oils Don’t use food quality feedstocks www www.greenchemistry .netIt’s not just about how safe the product is…. Or how clean the manufacturing is…….. Or how sustainable the feedstocks are We We need need to to introduce introduce Green Chemistry concepts and practices across th the supplly ch haiin( (s) ) www www.greenchemistry .netWhat What is is Green Green Chemistry? Chemistry? Sustainable Development and Business Energy Non-renewables ECONOMIC cost water REDUCE ENVIRONMENTAL waste risk SOCIAL SOCIAL SD www www.greenchemistry .netClean Synthesis & Platform Platform Molecules Training, Education and Networks Natural Natural Solvents Solvents Microwave Microwave & Processing Biolubricants www www.greenchemistry .netADDING G VALUE Biomass including including food food and and agro-wastes Extractables Extractables BBl ulkk C Chhemiicalls (secondary metabolites ((Bio)chemical processing of from straw) Materials bulk materials/residues) ( (priimary mettab bolit lites – starch, cellulose) Selective Selective F Fermentation ermentation Bi Benign E Exttractition MMeththod ds Controlled Pyrolysis Separation/Purification Extraction Technology Green Chemical Transformation (Bio)platform molecules Green Chemistry/technology Expansion Methods Green Green Chemical Chemical Modification Composites www www.greenchemistry .net TEC CHNOLO OGIES CHE EMICAL POTENT TIALFood waste…. Food waste…. Porous polysaccharide- Porous polysaccharide-derived materials derived materials Native Star Native Starch ch Ex Exp p p panded Star anded Starch ch 10 µm 2 µm 2 -1 2 -1 Surface Area 1 m g Surface Area 180 m g 3 -1 3 -1 Pore Volume 0.5 cm g Pore Volume 0.002 cm g„„„„„„„„„„ „„„„„„„ ® STARBONS A An n e ex xcit citi ing ng new c new cl lass of ass of car carbonaceous ma bonaceous mat te erials rials Properties Adjustable Adjustable surface surface A Applica pplicat tions ions energies and polarities High mesoporocity and Separation media surface areas Catalysis Catalysis Readily functionalisable Absorbency with acid/base/metal functionality Water purification Excellent Excellent solvent solvent stability stability Fuel Fuel cells cells Good chemical and heat resistance Controllable electrical conductivity 200C-0.12g/cm3 Formation of composites 550C - 0.29 g/cm3 and blends P Parttiicullatte// monolithi lithic 0.07 g/cm3 forms www www.greenchemistry .netMaking use of food wastes….. SSwi itthb chablle adh dhesiives ffor carpett til tiles (I(IntterffaceFl Flor)) Rl Recyclab blle Diverting millions of Kg pa from landfill www www.greenchemistry .netMore uses for food waste and for ashes….. Bio-silicates (B&Q) Bio-based composite materials for structural and furniture applications Future construction materialb ls basedd on 100% green and sustainable components www www.greenchemistry .netUsing plant extracts…. Eco-waxes Charles Jackson Farms - Botanix - Croda - L’Oreal - Processum Cosmetic Products Semiochemic Semiochemica als ls (Rothamsted) Wheat straw ScCO extraction Wax products 2 2 Health Products “Natural Natural” products products are are very very desirable…they desirable…they need need to to be: be: - derived from natural resources - extracted using “natural” solvents (H O, EtOH, CO ) 2 2 - modified only be “natural” methods (biocatalysis) www www.greenchemistry .netMaking your process greener greener Chemical manufacturing is largely based on chemistry that is complex, energy- , solvent-, and water-intensive and produces a a l lot ot of of CO CO and and considerably considerably mor more e 2 (often hazardous) waste than product www www.greenchemistry .netGreener Solvents Inorganic Petroleum Biomass Solvents Solvents Conventional Ethanol + Ethyl acetate Neoteric (e.g. Ionic Ethyl lactate CO + Water 2 2 Li Liquid ids) ) 2 2-MeTHF MeTHF limonene ‘Natural Natural’ solvents solvents www www.greenchemistry .netAi Amiddatiion and d EEi sterifificatiion iin Bi Bio‐SSl olvents O O O O O O O O 100 °C 50 °C Bu R OH R N Ph Pr O Pr Pr O H R R = = 4 4‐Phen Phenylpr ylpro opyl pyl B Bu u O OH H P Ph h N NH H 2 D‐Limonene          p‐Cymene scCO extraction      O + Pd‐γ‐Al O 2 2 2 3 Orange peel        Eucalyptus oil www www.greenchemistry .net® STARBON ACIDS as cataly ysts direct downstream chemistry on fermentation broths ESTERIFICA ESTERIFICAT TIONS IONS R-COOCH -CH R-COOH 2 3 Et EtO OH H A A A A L L C C K K R-O R-OA Ac c R Y Y Y Y Y Y L L CH Cl 2 L L HAc A A A A Starbon T T T T R RO -OH H ® T T Acid R I I I I O O O O N N N N N N N N RCO H RCONH S S 2 2 S S AMIDATIONS www www.greenchemistry .netStarbons- a new generation of water-tolerant catalysts catalysts -Acid catalysis directly on fermentation broths Esterification of succinic acid. 26 www www www www.greenchemistry .greenchemistry .greenchemistry .net .net .netMicrowave activation of biomass development of an alternative method of decomposing biomass www www.greenchemistry .netOne One t type ype o of f f future uture b biorefinery iorefinery based on single large volume feedstock and and u using sing green green chemical chemical technologies technologies to make a range of products www www.greenchemistry .netIntegrated Integrated wheatstraw wheatstraw bior biorefinery efinery www www.greenchemistry .netAAO new OPECPEC- Oranggp e Peel Exploitation Comp pany y Valorisation of a million ton scale pre-consumer waste to bio-chemicals, bio-materials and bio-fuels. BIO‐CHEMICALS Bio‐solvents Natural fragrance chemicals Chemical intermediates 50% 50% juice juice 50% 50% wa waste ste acid acid catalysts catalysts BIO‐FUELS chars bio bio‐e etthanol hanol sugars liquid fuels BIO‐MATERIALS 8,,, 069,705 T/y /y  catalysis catalysis separations water purification of waste orange peels  available in Brazil www www.greenchemistry .netPersonal care  product  Waxes, alkanes,  additi dditives Bio p‐cymene  surface  sulphonic acid:  hydrophobes,  Oranges organic acid  Flavours &  insect repellant catalyst fragrances Bio Bio α α‐te terrp piin ne eo oll Ch Chemiicalls & &  solvents Orange  Juicing  Bio‐plastics  juice process SO H 3 (i.e. PET) Bio Bio d d‐limonene limonene Bi Bio p‐cresoll & & bi bio‐ acetone:  commodity  Bio p‐cymene chemicals 8,069,705 T/y Bio‐ethanol off wastte  HO OH orange peels  O available  in  Other platform  Sugars Brazil for  molecules  i.e. HMF example p‐α‐dimethyl  styrene Pectin thickening  agentt iin fd food  products Pectin Mesoporous carbonaceous  material for catalyysis, metal  support, water purification  Cellulose and separation www www.greenchemistry .netRecent developments in the press: PepsiCo looks to reuse plant waste Mar 14,,p 2011 6:10pm EDT CHICAGO ((Reuters)) PepsiCo Develops World's First 100 Percent Plant-Based, Renewably Sourced PET Bottle PepsiCo Inc is working on ways to reuse waste like like o oat at husks husks and and orange orange peels peels. www www.greenchemistry .netMicrowaving orange peel Or Orang angee  peel peel Original Mass: 40g. Dry mass: 8.6g + Sugars 2.2g + Po Poro rou uss + + Bi Bio‐oilil 22 2.2g + + Cellulose 1g Pectin 0.15g Fragrances Water treatment Fuels Fuels Chemicals www www.greenchemistry .net™ ™™™ York York, the the University and University and Green Chemistry at Green Chemistry at York York One of Europe’s most beautiful York k and historic cities Top p 100 World- and Top p 10 UK-ranked University University of the Year 2010 Top Top 5 5 UK UK-ranked ranked Chemistry Chemistry Department Department World-leading Green Chemistry Centre dedicated to creatingg g genuinelyy sustainable supply chains for chemical and related products; -associated activities include Centre for Novel Agricultural Products (white biotechnology) and St Stockh khollm E Enviironment t IInstit titut te www www.greenchemistry .netBib iorenewablles Devellopment CCentre + New New Chair Chair in in Green Green Chemistry Chemistry + New Green Chemistry Centre + +….. = Ge Greeen C Cheemist istryy Yook rk www www.greenchemistry .netA collaboration between the Green Chemistry Centre CNAP, FERA and Science City York www www.greenchemistry .netAt Acti ivit ity A Areas The The Centre’ Centre’s s Activities Activities can can be be groups groups into into 4 4 a areas: reas: • Research • Industry collaboration • Education,g , including development of teaching and promotional materials • Networking with all chemical stakeholders www www.greenchemistry .netNORSC MUSC Combining the expertise of the The Chemical Industries Association ld leading NNorthhern EEngllandd UUniversities andh d the G Green C Chhemistry C Centre to provide sustainable chemistry working together to create new solutions to industry green and sustainable supply chains ffh or chemiicall prodductts Anglo-French collaboration Promoting awareness and chemicals f from biomass facilitating facilitating, education education, using green chemistry training and practice and white biotechnology of green chemistry worldwide worldwide SUST SUSTOIL OIL Gr Green een Chemistry Chemistry and and the the Green Chemistry networks The international Consumer worldwide Network for Green chemistry solutions alternatives to Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Japan, for for petroleum USA, the retailer and producer Korea, Brazil…….. www www.greenchemistry .netMSc in Green Chemistry & Sustainable Industrial Technology gy Principles & Technologies T Principles Principles, Environmental Environmental Impact Impact, C Chemical hemical Engineering Engineering, r Catalysis for Green Chemistry, a n Alternative Reaction Media, Energy, S s k Clean Clean Synthesis Synthesis, Renewable Renewable R Resources esources, f i Greener Products e l r l a Supp pporting g Courses s b IP, Business Opportunities, Green Chemistry Presentations, l Legislation Presentations and Literature Research e Research Project & Oral Presentation In collaboration with Industry www www.greenchemistry .netG C Green Ch hemi ist try N Net twork k • Est. 1998 with funding from the Royal Society of Chemistry y • Not-for-profit CLG • One of the largest international networks networks of of this this type type in the world • International membership • Excellent forum for information exchanges and collaboration collaboration www www.greenchemistry .net„„„ Networking Projects Green Chemistry & the Consumer Engaging the retailers through low technical aw awar areness of eness of g gr reener c eener chemistr hemistry y “Research shows that 80% of the 16 Million people visiting our stores each week want sustainable products” Environmentally friendly bitter-taste “A clear majority (of our customers) customers) want want this this process process to to be be blockers blockers for for d dr rug gs s simplified” “Green Chemistry is not only a Biodegradable Surfactants solution, it is the solution” Mike Barry, Mark & Spencer Head of CSR Halogen-free flame retardants We must encourage mechanisms for engaging the (very many) users of the chemical industry www www.greenchemistry .netPre – HE: Education and Outreach Aims •To excite young people about chemistry and the positive impact it can have. •To enable young people to critically engage with ideas ideas and and solutions solutions Impacts/areas of work • lots of projects and funding at key stage 2 - Discovery Days, Countryside Days Days, Science Science D Days ays iin n P Primary rimary Schools - High awareness about environment environment at at young young age age, interest and enthusiasm • opportunities at GCSE/A level level s stage tage www www.greenchemistry .netwww www.greenchemistry .net(some (some of) of) the the Yo York rk Green Green Chemistry Chemistry Centre Centre staf staff f and and graduate graduate students students www www.greenchemistry .netIndustry Education Research Networking www www.greenchemistry .net
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