WSN Deployment

random deployment wsn and wireless sensor networks node deployment with introduction to wireless sensor networks pdf
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Published Date:14-07-2017
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        Wireless Sensor Networks Prof. Jan Madsen Informatics and Mathematical Modelling Technical University of Denmark Richard Petersens Plads, Building 322 DK2800 Lyngby, Denmark Agenda for today  Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN)  What? Why? and How?  WSN Deployment  Localization  WSN Networking  Routing protocols  MAC protocols  WSN Platforms  Hardware and software components  WSN Design methods  Summary and Future of WSN Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 2      "  %&%%'         Towards Ambient Intelligence Weiser  Wireless network delivers infotainment, communication, navigation, ... anyplace, anytime, for every citizen ...  Hidden, pervasive computing. IT to background, people in the foreground, improves quality of life in non-invasive way ...  Things see, listen, feel, becomes sensitive and adaptive to people ... Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 4 What is a sensor network? Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 5      "  %&%%'         Sensor Network? Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 6 intelligent dust? 1 mm Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 7      "  %&%%' (        3 1 mm computer Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 8 3 1 mm computer Thickfilm battery Solarcell Power capacitor Analog I/O, DSP, Control Sensors Passive optical transmitter Active optical transmitter Optical receiver RF radio Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 9      "  %&%%' )        3 1 mm computer 3 Thick-film battery 1 J/mm 2 2 Solar cell 1 J/day/mm 1-10 mJ/day/mm 3 Power capacitor 10 mJ/mm Analog I/O, DSP, Control 1 nJ/sample 1 pJ/inst Sensors 0.1 nJ/bit Passive optical transmitter Active optical transmitter 1 nJ/bit Optical receiver Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 10 3 1 mm computer still science fiction – but …  computations  1000 operations per sample  Indoor  one sample, compute and send per second Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 11      "  %&%%'         The technology behind sensor networks Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 12 CMOS Trends: miniaturization Itanium2 (241M ) nearly a thousand 8086’s would fit in a modern microprocessor S P C Actuation Communication Sensing Processing & Storage I Σ∆ Q Σ∆ baseband PLL filters mixer LNA Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 13      "  %&%%' '        New Technology SweetSpot (uW – mW)  CMOS miniaturization 2  1 M trans/ = tiny (mm ), inexpensive processing and storage  1-10 mW active, 1 µ W passive (at 1% use 100 µ Wave)  Micro-sensors (MEMS, Materials, Circuits)  acceleration, vibration, gyroscope, tilt, magnetic, heat, motion, pressure, temp, light, moisture, humidity, barometric  chemical (CO, CO2, radon), biological, microradar, ... S P C  actuators too (mirrors, motors, smart surfaces, micro-robots)  Communication  short range, low bit-rate, CMOS radios (1-10 mW)  Power 3  batteries remain primary storage (1,000 mWs/mm ), fuel cells 10x 2,  solar (10 mW/cm 0.1 mW indoors), vibration (uW/gm), flow 3  1 cm battery = 1 year at 1 msgs/sec Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 14 Sensor Node Architecture rtos sensor cpu radio S P C Mem battery       Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 15      "  %&%%' +        CMOS trend: miniaturisering Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 16 How can we use sensor networks? Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 17      "  %&%%' ,        Where Computing is Done Number Crunching Data Storage productivity interactive streaming information to/from physical world year Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 18 Health monitoring ECG, Blood Blood Composition Pressure (e.g. lactate) Wearable Digital Wireless Assistant Link to Coach and Med Team Multiple Hop Position & BAN Force Sensors courtisy Rudy Lauwereins (MPSOC02) Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 19      "  %&%%' -        Smartshirt - wearable computing Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 20 ... or implants Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 21      "  %&%%' %        Electronic devices for diagnostics Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 22 Smart pills – 1st generation Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 23      "  %&%%'         Smart pills – 2nd generation Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 24 Examples of sensor networks Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 25      "  %&%%'         Sensor Network Dataopsamling Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 27 Sensor network sensor net sensor net sensor net gateway database internettet database Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 28      "  %&%%' (        Biologi Mainwaring(Intel),Anderson(COA),Szewczyk,Polastre(UCB) Acadia National Park Mt. Desert Island, ME 1000 ft Great Duck Island Nature Conservancy Leach’s Storm Petrel 2 ft Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 29 Biology: State of the Art Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 30      "  %&%%' )        Solution using sensor networks http://www.greatduckisland.net Processing, Storage Wireless network Light, Temp, Humidity, Barometer, Passive IR (occupancy) Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 31 Hierarchical deployment Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 32      "  %&%%'         Sensors  Mica platform – Atmel AVR w/ 512kB Flash – 916MHz 40kbps RFM Radio  Range: max 100 ft  Affected by obstacles, RF propogation – 2 AA Batteries, boost converter  Mica weather board – “one size fits all” – Digital Sensor Interface to Mica  Onboard ADC sampling analog photo, humidity and passive IR sensors  Digital temperature and pressure sensors – Designed for Low Power Operation  Individual digital switch for each sensor – Designed to Coexist with Other Sensor Boards  Hardware “enable” protocol to obtain exclusive access to connector resources  Packaging – Conformal sealant + acrylic tube – Placement – Place above ground and in burrows (propagation?) Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 33 Gateway  Communicate with sensor and base station.  Solar powered (sensors are just battery powered).  Directional antenna pointed toward base station. Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 34      "  %&%%' '        Base station  Laptops  In lighthouse keepers house.  Log all data and transmit via satellite to D.C. and then on to the Internet. Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 35 ZebraNet  Goal: Biologists want to track animals long-term, over longdistances  Interactions within a species?  Interactions between species?  Impact of human development? Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 36      "  %&%%' +        ZebraNet as Computing Research © 2006 Tracking node with Martonosi CPU, FLASH, radio and GPS Data Store-and-forward Data communications Data Data Base station (car or plane) ZebraNet vs. Other SensorNets  All sensing nodes are mobile Research Questions  Large area: 100’s-1000s sq. kilometers  Protocols and mobility?  “Coarse-Grained” nodes  Energy-efficiency?  GPS on-board  Software layering design?  Long-running and autonomous Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 37 ZebraNet basics F F F M F F F F F F M b F F F a F F F M F F F c Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 38      "  %&%%' ,        ZebraNet basics F F F F F F M M F F F F F a,b F F a,b F F M F F F c Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 39 Construction monitoring Wind Response Of Golden Gate Bridge Low resolution Sensor, Test4, Increasing frequency 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Time (sec) Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 41      "  %&%%' - Acceleration (g)        Construction monitoring Earthquake Response, Glaser et al. Mote 1 Layout 54 1 1 1 ` 12 5 5 6 3 9 1 1 8 Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 42 Industrial Automation: Predictive Maintenance                                   Dust Networks Graduate Course on Wireless Sensor Networks Jan Madsen 43      "  %&%%' %