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General and Inorganic Chemistry

General and Inorganic Chemistry
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Dr.LeonBurns,New Zealand,Researcher
Published Date:21-07-2017
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General and Inorganic Chemistry I Lecture 1 Istv an Szalai E otv os University Istv an Szalai (E otv os University) Lecture 1 1 / 45Outline 1 Introduction 2 Matter and energy 3 Foundations of Chemistry Istv an Szalai (E otv os University) Lecture 1 2 / 45Introduction Informations Lecture (3+2 hours/week) + laboratory practice (5 hours/week) Lecturers: Istv an Szalai (Monday 3 hours) nd contacts: ELTE Chemistry building 2 oor room: 241 email: szalai.istvanchem.elte.hu web: nlcd.elte.hu/szalai/teaching.html Szabolcs B eni (Tuesday 2 hours) rd  contacts: 1085 Budapest Ull oi ut  26 3 oor web: scholar.semmelweis.hu/beniszabolcs/oktatasi-tevekenyseg Laboratory supervisors: Anik o Vasanits, Katalin Per enyi and Viktor Mihucz Istv an Szalai (E otv os University) Lecture 1 3 / 45Introduction Informations Laboratory grade: average result of the three Major Tests and the short tests Theoretical grade: oral exam during the examination period (December-January). The registration for the exam can be made in the Neptun system. The theoretical exam covers the topics discussed during the lectures and the laboratory practices (calculations). Those who failed in laboratory not allowed to take the theoretical exam, they must repeat the whole semester Istv an Szalai (E otv os University) Lecture 1 4 / 45Introduction Lecture notes and books Slides: nlcd.elte.hu/szalai/teaching.html en.wikibooks.org/wiki/General_Chemistry Istv an Szalai (E otv os University) Lecture 1 5 / 45Matter and energy Chemistry Chemistry is the science that describes matter, its properties, the changes it undergoes, and the energy changes that accompany those processes. Inorganic chemistry Organic chemistry Physical chemistry Biochemistry Applied Chemistry: Analytical chemistry, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, . . . Istv an Szalai (E otv os University) Lecture 1 6 / 45Matter and energy Outline of the semester Introduction Structure of Atoms and Molecules Chemical Reactions and Equilibrium Thermochemistry Chemical Kinetics Istv an Szalai (E otv os University) Lecture 1 7 / 45Matter and energy Lecture 1: Introduction and properties of matter Reading: en.wikibooks.org/wiki/General_Chemistry/Properties_of_ Matter Istv an Szalai (E otv os University) Lecture 1 8 / 45Matter and energy Matter and Energy Matter: anything that has both mass and volume. Mass: a measure of an object's resistance to change in motion (inertia). F = ma Volume: a measure of the amount of space occupied by an object. States of matter: Gases: They occupy all parts of any vessel in which they are con ned. They are capable of in nite expansion and are compressed easily. The individual particles are quite far apart. Liquids: The individual particles are con ned to a given volume. A liquid assumes the shape of the container. They are very hard to compress. Istv an Szalai (E otv os University) Lecture 1 9 / 45Matter and energy Matter and Energy States of matter: Solids: They are rigid and have de nite shapes. Volumes of solids do not vary much with changes in temperature. In crystalline solids the individual particles occupy de nite positions in the crystal structure. Plasma: Like a gas, plasma does not have de nite shape or volume. Unlike gases, plasmas are electrically conductive, produce magnetic elds and electric currents, and respond strongly to electromagnetic forces. Positively charged nuclei swim in a "sea" of freely-moving disassociated electrons Istv an Szalai (E otv os University) Lecture 1 10 / 45Matter and energy Matter and Energy States of matter: Istv an Szalai (E otv os University) Lecture 1 11 / 45Matter and energy Matter and Energy Energy: is a conserved extensive property of a physical system, which cannot be observed directly but can be calculated from its state. 1 2 Forms of energy: kinetic energy (E = mv ), potential energy kin 2 (E = mgh), heat, electrical energy. . . pot Law of conservation of matter and energy: There is no change in the quantity of matter and energy during any chemical or physical change. Mass-energy equivalence is a concept formulated by Albert Einstein that explains the relationship between mass and energy. 2 E = mc Istv an Szalai (E otv os University) Lecture 1 12 / 45Matter and energy Law of conservation of matter and energy Chemical reaction: 2 H + O 2 H O 2 2 2 Conservation of Matter: 2 mol H + 1 mol O 2 mol H O 2 2 2 Conservation of Mass (mass is not generally conserved): 4 g H + 32 g O 36 g H O 2 2 2 2 H + O 2 H O + 572000 J (energy) 2 2 2 2 8 2 12 m = E=c = 572000 J=(3 10 m/s) = 6; 35 10 g The mass associated with chemical amounts of energy is too small to measure. Istv an Szalai (E otv os University) Lecture 1 13 / 45Matter and energy Physical Properties A physical change occurs with no change in chemical composition. e.g.: boiling, melting, vaporization. . . Physical properties altered signi cantly as matter undergoes physical changes. Extensive properties: quantity proportional to the quantity of material in the system. mass, volume, total energy Intensive properties: independent of the quantity of material density, pressure, temperature Istv an Szalai (E otv os University) Lecture 1 14 / 45Matter and energy International System of units (SI Units) length meter m mass kilogram kg time second s electric current ampere A temperature Kelvin K luminous intensity candela cd amount of substance mole mol meter: the lenght equal to the distance traveled by light in vacuum in 1/299,792,458 seconds. mol: the amount of substance that contains as many entities (atoms or 12 other particles) as there are atoms in 0.012 kg of pure C. 1 mole = 6 23 6:022 10 Istv an Szalai (E otv os University) Lecture 1 15 / 45Matter and energy Derived Units 2 area square meter m 3 volume cubic meter m 3 density kilogram/cubic meter kg/m 2 force newton N kgm/s 2 pressure pascal Pa N/m 2 2 energy joule J kgm /s electric charge coulomb C As electric potential di erence volt V J/(As) Istv an Szalai (E otv os University) Lecture 1 16 / 45Matter and energy Derived Units Density: m d = V 3 Suppose an object has a mass of 15.0 g and a volume of 10.0 cm . What is the density? m 15:0 g 3 d = = = 1:50 g/cm 3 V 10:0 cm Istv an Szalai (E otv os University) Lecture 1 17 / 45Matter and energy SI pre xes 12 1 10 tera T 10 deci d 9 2 10 giga G 10 centi c 6 3 10 mega M 10 milli m 3 6 10 kilo k 10 micro  2 9 10 hecto h 10 nano n 1 12 10 deka da 10 pico p 15 10 femto f 18 10 atto a Istv an Szalai (E otv os University) Lecture 1 18 / 45Matter and energy SI pre xes 1 kg=1000 g ( the mass of 1 L water) 6 1g=10 g=0.000001 g (a typical small sand grain mass is about 3g) 9 1 ng=10 g=0.000000001 g (mass of an average human cell) 9 1 nm=10 m=0.000000001 m (a strand of human DNA is 2.5 nm in diameter) Istv an Szalai (E otv os University) Lecture 1 19 / 45Matter and energy Measurement and signi cant gures If you repeat a particular measurement, you usually do not obtain precisely the same result, because each measurement is subject to experimental error. Precision refers to the closeness of the set of values obtained from identical measurements of a quantity. Accuracy refers to the closeness of a single measurement to its true value. Signi cant gures are those digits in a measured number (or in the result of a calculation with measured numbers) that include all certain digits plus a nal digit having some uncertainty. Istv an Szalai (E otv os University) Lecture 1 20 / 45