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Published Date:22-07-2017
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Chapter 3 MOTIVATION, LEADERSHIP AND ENTREPRENEURSHIPMotivation -course outline  Human needs  Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs  Motivation – Introduction  Types of Motivation  Attitude Motivation; Group Motivation; Executive Motivation  Techniques of Motivation  Motivation Theories www.ThesisScientist.com1. Motivation The term motivation is derived from the word ‘motive’ which may be defined as needs, wants, drives or impulses within an individual. ‘Motivation is a general term applying to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes and similar forces that induce an individual or a group of people to work.’ From the definitions, it is clear that motivation has two aspects: 1. The knowledge of human needs. 2. To inspire the employees to their best towards the goals of the enterprise. The employers use the finding of the study of motivation in making their employees’ work more and better in the accomplishment of the organization ‘s objectives through satisfaction of the employee’ needs. www.ThesisScientist.comI. Human Needs Expectation of the worker: 1. Certain goals to be fulfilled. 2. Right to choose a specific job. 3. Responsibility to fulfill his reasonable goals. Understanding human behavior: 1. Understand the behavior. 2. Integrate the interests and needs of the employers with the objectives of the organization. 3. Un co-operative, indifferent, unfriendly. 4. Have full knowledge of human behavior. 5. Know what satisfies the employee. 6. Co-operative working environment. www.ThesisScientist.comII. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Maslow advanced three important propositions about human behavior. 1. Men are wanting being: Their needs are unlimited and continuous. As soon as one need is satisfied, another appears in its place. The process is unending. It continues from birth to death. It keeps man to work continuously. 2. Fresh needs can motivate persons to work: A satisfied need is not a motivator of behavior, only the needs which are not satisfied are capable of motivating individuals. 3.Man’s needs have a hierarchy of importance: According to Maslow man’s needs are arranged in a series of levels. He classified the needs into five ascending levels, in which each level must be satisfied before going on to the next. The lower level needs have priority over higher level needs. www.ThesisScientist.comII. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs www.ThesisScientist.comII. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Needs can be broadly classified into two categories as follows: 1. Primary needs: i. Physiological (basic): Satisfying basic needs for food, shelter, clothing, water, air, sleep, sex etc. ii. Safety: Safety from physical harm. Protection against deprivation, danger, threat etc. 2. Secondary needs: i. Social: Desire to be accepted, liked and loved. ii. Ego/esteem: Recognition and need for self-respect, status, independence etc. iii. Self-realization: Ability to realize one’s capabilities and to work for one’s interest (self-development, self- advancement). www.ThesisScientist.comIII. Motivation- Introduction Motivation—the forces within the individual that account for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work. – Extrinsic rewards —valued outcomes given to someone by another person. – Intrinsic rewards —valued outcomes that occur naturally as a person works on a task. The following characteristics make the study of motivation very complicated: 1. One type of need is different individuals produce different behaviors. 2. Needs keep on changing absolutely and their intensity changes from time to time. 3. People cannot express some of their needs in specific terms for social, cultural and other factors. 4. In any situation more than one need may be operating. www.ThesisScientist.comIII. Motivation- Introduction Outcomes & Inputs – Regardless of the source of motivation, people seek outcomes. • Outcome: anything a person gets from a job. – Examples include pay, autonomy, accomplishment. – Organizations hire workers to obtain inputs: • Input: anything a person contributes to their job. – Examples include skills, knowledge, work behavior. – Managers thus use outcomes to motivate workers to provide inputs. www.ThesisScientist.comIII. Motivation- Introduction Motivation Equation www.ThesisScientist.comIV. Types of Motivation There are many different forms of motivation. Each one influences behavior in its own unique way. No single type of motivation works for everyone. People’s personalities vary and so accordingly does the type of motivation, that is most effective at inspiring their conduct. • Incentive: A form of motivation that involves rewards, both monetary and nonmonetary is often called incentive motivation. Many people are driven by the knowledge that they will be rewarded in some manner for achieving a certain target or goal. Bonuses and promotions are good examples of the type of incentives that are used for motivation. • Fear: Fear motivation involves consequences. This type of motivation is often one that is utilized when incentive motivation fails. In a business style of motivation often referred to as the, “carrot and stick,” incentive is the carrot and fear is the stick. www.ThesisScientist.comIV. Types of Motivation • Achievement: Achievement motivation is also commonly referred to as the drive for competency. We are driven to achieve goals and tackle new challenges. We desire to improve skills and prove our competency both to others and to ourselves. Generally, this feeling of accomplishment and achievement is intrinsic in nature. • Growth: The need for self-improvement is truly an internal motivation. A burning desire to increase our knowledge of ourselves and of the outside world can be a very strong form of motivation. We seek to learn and grow as individuals. • Power: The motivation of power can either take the form of a desire for autonomy or other desire to control others around us. We want to have choices and control over our own lives. We strive for the ability to direct the manner in which we live now and the way our lives will unfold in the future. • Social: Many people are motivated by social factors. This may be a desire to belong and to be accepted by a specific peer group or a desire to relate to the people in our sphere or in the larger world. We have an innate need to feel a connection with others. We also have the need for acceptance and affiliation. www.ThesisScientist.comV. Attitude Motivation, Group Motivation and Executive Motivation Attitude or self motivation: Being self-motivated means being ready for driven, focused discussion and behavior. It also means being sharp and smart enough not to be manipulated and to be open to positive learning. Being in this state of mind is the challenge Causes of decrease in self-motivation. 1. Monotonous work. 2. Driven by boss. 3. Bad physical condition. 4. Does not get along with associates. 5. Financial problem. www.ThesisScientist.comV. Attitude Motivation, Group Motivation and Executive Motivation Effects of decrease in self-motivation. 1. Unwilling to work. 2. Creates sympathy. 3. Inferiority complex. Solutions to decrease in self-motivation. 1. Making the job more interesting. 2. Thinking constructively. 3. Making the best possible use of one’s strong points and not dwelling on weakness. 4. Adopting oneself to the situation. 5. Acquiring the sensible and worthwhile principle of life. www.ThesisScientist.comV. Attitude Motivation, Group Motivation and Executive Motivation Necessities of Group Motivation • Fairness • Truthfulness • Honesty • Loyalty • Stability • Tolerance • Ability to assume responsibility and co-operation • Constructive criticism • Compromise when necessary • Orderliness in mind and action • A sense of humor www.ThesisScientist.comV. Attitude Motivation, Group Motivation and Executive Motivation Executive Motivation • Greater degree of the need for achievement. • Concerned more about actualization, esteem and social needs. Techniques  They are doing something that they call their own.  They do tasks they have set for themselves.  They can see what they have done.  They feel that their job is important.  They are secure.  Challenge in work.  Belief in the value of the work. www.ThesisScientist.comV. Attitude Motivation, Group Motivation and Executive Motivation Reasons for low executive motivation. Unsatisfactory bosses. Advancement is limited. Poor pay. Security threatened. www.ThesisScientist.comVI. Techniques of Motivation 1. Financial Motivators. a. Money 2. Non-financial motivators. a. Appraisal, praise or recognition. b. Status and pride. c. Competition. d. Delegation of authority. e. Participation. f. Job security. g. Job enlargement. h. Quality of work life. www.ThesisScientist.comVII. Motivation Theories • McGregor’s Theory X - Y • Fear and Punishment Theory • Alderfer’s ERG Theory • MacClelland’s Theory of learned needs • Herzberg’s Hygiene Maintenance Theory • Vroom’s Expectancy/ Valency Theory www.ThesisScientist.comA. McGregor’s Theory X - Y The concept of Theory X and Theory Y managers was first developed by Douglas McGregor. He was able to show that Theory Y managers are better able to create employee engagement. Theory X workers: • Don’t like working • Do as little as they can get away with • Don’t like things to change • Need to be told what to do • Cant be trusted to make a decision • Are only interested in MONEY • Must be closely watched • Cant be trusted or relied upon