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Introduction to Genome Biology

Introduction to Genome Biology
Introduction to Genome Biology Sandrine Dudoit and Robert Gentleman Bioconductor Short Course 2003 © Copyright 2002, all rights reservedOutline • Cells, chromosomes, and cell division • DNA structure and replication • Proteins • Central dogma: transcription, translation • Microarrays • PathwaysA brief history Gregor Mendel (18231884) Thomas Hunt Morgan (18661945) Francis Crick (1916 ) James D. Watson (1928 )From chromosomes to proteinsCellsCells • Cells: the fundamental working units of every living organism. • Metazoa: multicellular organisms. E.g. humans: trillions of cells. • Protozoa: unicellular organisms. E.g. yeast, bacteria.Cells • Each cell contains a complete copy of an organism’s genome, or blueprint for all cellular structures and activities. • Cells are of many different types (e.g. blood, skin, nerve cells), but all can be traced back to a single cell, the fertilized egg.Cell composition • 90 water. • Of the remaining molecules, dry weight – 50 protein – 15 carbohydrate – 15 nucleic acid – 10 lipid – 10 miscellaneous. • By element: 60 H, 25 O, 12C, 5N.The genome • The genome is distributed along chromosomes, which are made of compressed and entwined DNA. • A (proteincoding) gene is a segment of chromosomal DNA that directs the synthesis of a protein.The human genome • The human genome is distributed along 23 pairs of chromosomes –22 autosomal pairs; –the sex chromosome pair, XX for females and XY for males. • In each pair, one chromosome is paternally inherited, the other maternally inherited (cf. meiosis).ChromosomesChromosome banding patternsOf mice and menChromosomes and DNADNA structure “We wish to suggest a structure for the salt of deoxyribose nucleic acid (D.N.A.). This structure has novel features which are of considerable biological interest.” J.D. Watson F. H. C. Crick. (1953). Molecular structure of Nucleic Acids. Nature. 171: 737738.DNA structure •A deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA molecule is a doublestranded polymer composed of four basic molecular units called nucleotides. • Each nucleotide comprises – a phosphate group; – a deoxyribose sugar; – one of four nitrogen bases: • purines: adenine (A) and guanine (G), • pyrimidines: cytosine (C) and thymine (T).DNA structureDNA structureNucleotide bases Purines Adenine (A) Guanine (G) Pyrimidines Thymine (T) Uracil (U) Cytosine (C) (DNA) (RNA)DNA structure • Polynucleotide chains are directional molecules, with slightly different structures marking the two ends of the chains, the so called 3' end and 5' end. • The 3' and 5' notation refers to the numbering of carbon atoms in the sugar ring. • The 3' end carries a sugar group and the 5' end carries a phosphate group. • The two complementary strands of DNA are antiparallel (i.e, 5' end to 3' end directions for each strand are opposite) The human genome in numbers • 23 pairs of chromosomes; • 2 meters of DNA; • 3,000,000,000 bp; • 35 M (males 27M, females 44M); • 30,00040,000 genes.DNA replication “It has not escaped our notice that the specific pairing we have postulated immediately suggests a possible copying mechanism for the genetic material.” J.D. Watson F. H. C. Crick. (1953). Molecular structure of Nucleic Acids. Nature. 171: 737738.DNA replication Three possible modelsDNA replicationDNA replication • In the replication of a doublestranded or duplex DNA molecule, both parental (i.e. original) DNA strands are copied. • The parental DNA strand that is copied to form a new strand is called a template. • When copying is finished, the two new duplexes each consist of one of the original strands plus its complementary copy semiconservative replication.DNA replication Base pairing provides the mechanism for DNA replication.Æ DNA replication • Many enzymes are required to unwind the double helix and to synthesize a new strand of DNA. • The unwound helix, with each strand being synthesized into a new double helix, is called the replication fork. • DNA synthesis occurs in the 5' 3' direction.DNA replicationDNA replicationEnzymes in DNA replication 1. Topoisomerase: removes supercoils and initiates duplex unwinding. 2. Helicase: unwinds duplex. 3. DNA polymerase: synthesizes the new DNA strand; also performs proofreading. 4. Primase: attaches small RNA primer to single stranded DNA to act as a substitute 3'OH for DNA polymerase to begin synthesizing from. 5. Ligase: catalyzes the formation of phosphodiester bonds. 6. Singlestranded binding proteins: maintain the stability of the replication fork.ProteinsProteins • Proteins: large molecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids, polypeptides. • Amino acids: class of 20 different organic compounds containing a basic amino group (NH ) and an acidic carboxyl group ( 2 COOH). • The order of the amino acids is determined by the base sequence of nucleotides in the gene coding for the protein. • E.g. hormones, enzymes, antibodies.Amino acidsAmino acidsAmino acidsProteinsProteinsCell typesDifferential expression • Each cell contains a complete copy of the organism's genome. • Cells are of many different types and states E.g. blood, nerve, and skin cells, dividing cells, cancerous cells, etc. • What makes the cells different • Differential gene expression, i.e., when, where, and how much each gene is expressed. • On average, 40 of our genes are expressed at any given time.Central dogmaÎ Î Central dogma The expression of the genetic information stored in the DNA molecule occurs in two stages: –(i) transcription, during which DNA is transcribed into mRNA; – (ii) translation, during which mRNA is translated to produce a protein. DNA mRNA protein Other important aspects of regulation: methylation, alternative splicing, etc.Central dogmaRNA •A ribonucleic acid or RNA molecule is a nucleic acid similar to DNA, but – singlestranded; – ribose sugar rather than deoxyribose sugar; – uracil (U) replaces thymine (T) as one of the bases. • RNA plays an important role in protein synthesis and other chemical activities of the cell. • Several classes of RNA molecules, including messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and other small RNAs.The genetic code • DNA: sequence of four different nucleotides. • Proteins: sequence of twenty different amino acids. • The correspondence between DNA's four letter alphabet and a protein's twentyletter alphabet is specified by the genetic code, which relates nucleotide triplets or codons to amino acids.The genetic code Start codon: initiation of translation (AUG, Met). Stop codons: termination of translation. Mapping between codons and amino acids is manytoone: 64 codons but only 20 a.a.. Third base in codon is often redundant, e.g., stop codons.Protein synthesisTranscription • Analogous to DNA replication: several steps and many enzymes. • RNA polymerase synthesizes an RNA strand complementary to one of the two DNA strands. • The RNA polymerase recruits rNTPs (ribonucleotide triphosphate) in the same way that DNA polymerase recruits dNTPs (deoxunucleotide triphospate). • However, synthesis is single stranded and only proceeds in the 5' to 3' direction of mRNA (no Okazaki fragments).Transcription • The strand being transcribed is called the template or antisense strand; it contains anticodons. • The other strand is called the sense or coding strand; it contains codons. • The RNA strand newly synthesized from and complementary to the template contains the same information as the coding strand.TranscriptionTranscription • Promoter. Unidirectional sequence upstream of the coding region (i.e., at 5' end on sense strand) that tells the RNA polymerase both where to start and on which strand to continue synthesis. E.g. TATA box. • Terminator. Regulatory DNA region signaling end of transcription, at 3' end . • Transcription factor. A protein needed to initiate the transcription of a gene, binds either to specific DNA sequences (e.g. promoters) or to other transcription factors.TranscriptionExons and introns • Genes comprise only about 2 of the human genome. • The rest consists of noncoding regions – chromosomal structural integrity, – cell division (e.g. centromere) – regulatory regions: regulating when, where, and in what quantity proteins are made . • The terms exon and intron refer to coding (translated into a protein) and noncoding DNA, respectively.Exons and intronsSplicingTranslation • Ribosome: – cellular factory responsible for protein synthesis; – a large subunit and a small subunit; – structural RNA and about 80 different proteins. • transfer RNA (tRNA): – adaptor molecule, between mRNA and protein; – specific anticodon and acceptor site; – specific charger protein, can only bind to that particular tRNA and attach the correct amino acid to the acceptor site. Translation • Initiation – Start codon AUG, which codes for methionine, Met. – Not every protein necessarily starts with methionine. Often this first amino acid will be removed in posttranslational processing of the protein. • Termination: – stop codon (UAA, UAG, UGA) , – ribosome breaks into its large and small subunits, releasing the new protein and the mRNA.TranslationtRNA • The tRNA has an anticodon on its mRNAbinding end that is complementary to the codon on the mRNA. • Each tRNA only binds the appropriate amino acid for its anticodon.Alternative splicing • There are more than 1,000,000 different human antibodies. How is this possible with only 30,000 genes • Alternative splicing refers to the different ways of combining a gene’s exons. This can produce different forms of a protein for the same gene. • Alternative premRNA splicing is an important mechanism for regulating gene expression in higher eukaryotes. • E.g. in humans, it is estimated that approximately 30 of the genes are subject to alternative splicing.Alternative splicingImmunoglobulin • B cells produce antibody molecules called immunoglobulins (Ig) which fall in five broad classes. • Diversity of Ig molecules – DNA sequence: recombination, mutation. – mRNA sequence: alternative splicing. IgG1 – Protein structure: posttranslational proteolysis, glycosylation.Posttranslational processing • Folding. • Cleavage by a proteolytic (proteincutting) enzyme. • Alteration of amino acid residues – phosphorylation, e.g. of a tyrosine residue. – glycosylation, carbohydrates covalently attached to asparagine residue. – methylation, e.g. of arginine. • Lipid conjugation.Transcription and translation transcription translation DNA mRNA Protein Regulatory Organism networkControl of Gene Expression • there is strong evidence that the DNA content of most cells in a multicell organism is identical • different cell types synthesize different sets of proteins at different timesGene expressionControl of Gene Expression • there are at least six ways to control protein expression 1. control when and how often a gene is transcribed 2. control how the transcript is spliced 3. select which mRNA's are exported from the nucleus 4. control translationControlling Expression 5. selectively destabilize mRNAs in the cytoplasm 6. control protein activity (degradation, inactivate, isolate), posttranslational modifications • for most genes transcriptional control is the most importantGene Expression • for many diseases specific patterns of gene expression (mRNA expression) have been associated with the different phenotypesClass discovery Class discovery Different Tumors have Fig. from Pomeroy et al. Nature 415 (2002) different patterns of expressionDNA Microarrays • the data obtained from microarray experiments is a measure of the abundance of a nucleic acid • usually they are used for detecting mRNA levels • some of the issues mentioned previously can affect the observed abundance of mRNALow values of mRNA • the gene may be deleted • the gene may be being repressed • the gene may no longer be enhanced • the gene may be methylated • the mRNA may be kept in the nucleusHigh Levels of mRNA • the gene may be part of an amplicon • the gene may no longer be being repressed • the gene may be being enhancedOther Issues • was the right sequence applied to the chip • alternative splicing: which one are we measuring • crosshybridization – genes with similar sequences may hybridizeAn example of the interactions between some genes (adapted from Wagner 2001) protein transcription phosphatase factor transcription inactive inactive protein factor P kinase protein P active active Gene 1 Gene 2 Gene 3 Gene 4 Gene 5 DNADownstream Consequences • many genes fall into the class of genes called transcription factors • while most genes are transcribed by RNA polymerase II it cannot initiate transcription itself in eukaryotic cells • transcription factors identify and then bind to specific sites in the DNA • the TFs then guide and activate RNA polymeraseDownstream Consequences • TFs tend not to be specific for one gene • disregulation (or over or under production) of a TF can have large effects on gene expression • for example ESR1 (estrogen receptor 1) is a transcription factor • it affects production of cyclin d1 (CCND1)Downstream Consequences • CCND1 forms a complex with CDK4 and/or CDK6 • this complex inactivates the repressor function of pRb (retinoblastoma protein) which regulates cell proliferation • and so on….Functional genomics • The various genome projects have yielded the complete DNA sequences of many organisms. E.g. human, mouse, yeast, fruitfly, etc. Human: 3 billion basepairs, 3040 thousand genes. • Challenge: go from sequence to function, i.e., define the role of each gene and understand how the genome functions as a whole.Pathways • The complete genome sequence doesn’t tell us much about how the organism functions as a biological system. • We need to study how different gene products interact to produce various components. • Most important activities are not the result of a single molecule but depend on the coordinated effects of multiple molecules.TGFβ pathway • Transforming Growth Factor beta, TGFβ, plays an essential role in the control of development and morphogenesis in multicellular organisms. • The basic pathway provides a simple route for signals to pass from the extracellular environment to the nucleus, involving only four types of molecules.TGFβ pathway Four types of molecules •TGFβ •TGFβ type I receptors •TGFβ type II receptors • SMADS, a family of signal transducers and transcriptional activators.TGFβ pathwayTGFβ pathway • Extracellular TGF−β ligands transmit their signals to the cell's interior by binding to type II receptors, which form heterodimers with type I receptors. • The receptors in turn activate the SMAD transcription factors. TGFβ pathway • Phosphorylated and receptoractivated SMADs (RSMADs) form heterodimers with common SMADs (coSMADs) and translocate to the nucleus. • In the nucleus, SMADs activate or inhibit the transcription of target genes, in collaboration with other factors.Pathways • http://www.grt.kyushuu.ac.jp/spad/ • There are many open questions regarding the relationship between gene expression levels (e.g. mRNA levels) and pathways. • It is not clear to what extent microarray gene expression data will be informative.WWW resources • Access Excellence http://www.accessexcellence.com/AB/GG/ • Genes VII http://www.oup.co.uk/best.textbooks/biochemistry/genesvii/ • Human Genome Project Education Resources http://www.ornl.gov/hgmis/education/education.html • Kimball’s Biology Pages http://www.ultranet.com/jkimball/BiologyPages/ • MIT Biology Hypertextbook http://esgwww.mit.edu:8001/
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