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Fundamentals of Information Systems

Fundamentals of Information Systems
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RyanCanon,United Arab Emirates,Teacher
Published Date:21-07-2017
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Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition Chapter 1 An Introduction to Information Systems in Organizations 1 Principles and Learning Objectives •  The value of information is directly linked to how it helps decision makers achieve the organization’s goals –  Distinguish data from information and describe the characteristics used to evaluate the value of data Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 2 Principles and Learning Objectives (continued) •  Knowing the potential impact of information systems and having the ability to put this knowledge to work can result in a successful personal career and organizations that reach their goals –  Identify the basic types of business information systems and discuss who uses them, how they are used, and what kinds of benefits they deliver Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 3 Principles and Learning Objectives (continued) •  System users, business managers, and information systems professionals must work together to build a successful information system –  Identify the major steps of the systems development process and state the goal of each Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 4 Principles and Learning Objectives (continued) •  The use of information systems to add value to the organization can also give an organization a competitive advantage –  Identify the value-added processes in the supply chain and describe the role of information systems within them –  Identify some of the strategies employed to lower costs or improve service –  Define the term competitive advantage and discuss how organizations are using information systems to gain such an advantage Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 5 Principles and Learning Objectives (continued) •  Cooperation between business managers and IS personnel is the key to unlocking the potential of any new or modified system –  Define the types of roles, functions, and careers available in information systems Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 6 Information Concepts •  Data, information, and knowledge –  Data: Raw facts –  Information: Collection of facts organized in such a way that they have additional value beyond the value of the facts themselves –  Process: Set of logically related tasks performed to achieve a defined outcome –  Knowledge: Awareness and understanding of a set of information Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 7 Data, Information, and Knowledge Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 8 Data, Information, and Knowledge (continued) Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 9 Data, Information, and Knowledge (continued) Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 10 The Characteristics of Valuable Information •  If information is not accurate or complete –  People can make poor decisions, costing thousands, or even millions, of dollars •  Information can be of little value to the organization –  If information is not relevant, not delivered to decision makers in a timely fashion, or too complex to understand Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 11 The Value of Information •  Valuable information –  Can help people and their organizations perform tasks more efficiently and effectively –  Can help managers decide whether to invest in additional information systems and technology Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 12 What Is an Information System? •  Feedback mechanism –  The component that helps organizations achieve their goals, such as increasing profits or improving customer service Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 13 What Is an Information System? (continued) Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 14 Input, Processing, Output, Feedback •  Input –  Gathering and capturing raw data •  Processing –  Converting or transforming data into useful outputs •  Output –  Production of useful information, usually in the form of documents and reports •  Feedback –  Output that is used to make changes to input or processing activities Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 15 Manual and Computerized Information Systems •  An information system can be: –  Manual •  Example: Developing patterns and trends on graph paper for stock analysis –  Computerized •  Example: Using program trading to track the market and trade large blocks of stocks when discrepancies occur Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 16 Computer-Based Information Systems •  Single set of hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, people, and procedures configured to collect, manipulate, store, and process data into information •  Information technology (IT) –  Hardware, software, databases, and telecommunications Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 17 Computer-Based Information Systems (continued) Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 18 Computer-Based Information Systems (continued) •  CBIS components –  Hardware: Computer equipment used to perform input, processing, and output activities –  Software: Computer programs that govern the operation of the computer –  Database: Organized collection of facts and information –  Telecommunications: Electronic transmission of signals for communications –  Networks: Connect computers and equipment in a building, around the country, and around the world Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 19 Computer-Based Information Systems (continued) •  CBIS components (continued) –  Internet: World’s largest computer network –  People: Manage, run, program, and maintain the system –  Procedures: Strategies, policies, methods, and rules for using a CBIS Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 20