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Performance comparison of eigrp and isis/rip protocols
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocols (EIGRP) is a CISCO proprietary Protocol. performance comparison of eigrp/ is-is and ospf/ is-is.Download free ppt
A Detail Qualitative Performance
Evaluation of Integrated EIGRP/ISIS
and RIP/ISIS Routing Protocols in
This Research work presents a simulation
based analysis of Routing Information Protocol (RIP), Enhanced Interior
Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) and Intermediate System to
Intermediate System (ISIS) protocols. We used the combination of
EIGRPISIS, RIPISIS routing protocols on the Hybrid network in
order to reveal the advantage of one over the other as well as the
robustness of each protocol.
With Respect To Several Performance Metrics:
◎ (1) Database Query Response Time
◎ (2) Email Download Response Time
◎ (3) HTTP Object Response Time
◎ (4) Throughput
Simulation Tool Used: OPNET Modeller 14.5 and 16.0Thesis Aims and Objective
1. Develop and design a simulation model and scenarios
for integrated EIGRP/ISIS and RIP/ISIS routing
protocols in hybrid networks.
2. Perform a simulation on different scenarios and
evaluate via different metrics.
3. Analysis of the results in Hybrid environment.
4. Comparative study has been done on the basis of
5. Deriving a conclusion on basis of performance
evaluation.Open Shortest Path First (RFC 1247)
Uses IP, has a value in the IP Header (8 bit protocol field)
Interior routing protocol, its domain is also an autonomous system
Special routers (autonomous system boundary routers) or backbone
routers responsible to dissipate information about other AS into the
Divides an AS into areas
Metric based on type of service
Minimum delay (rtt), maximum throughput, reliability, etc..OSPF (type of links)
“OSPF (link state advertisement)
Router LinkCharacteristics of OSPF
OSPF provides load balancing by distributing traffic
through multiple routes to a given destination .
It allows maximum flexibility and provides transfer and
tagging of external routes injected into AS.
It helps exchange information obtained from external
Runs directly over IP.
Provides authenticated routing updates using different
methods of authentication.
It has low bandwidth utilization and ensures less
processing burden on routers because updates are only
sent when changes occur.ISIS (Intermediate System to Intermediate
System Routing Protocol)
◎ It is also a linkstate routing protocol with several
similarities with OSPF
protocol, such as the use of the same SPF algorithm.
◎ It was defined by ISO (International Organization for
◎ ISIS is based on the primer OSI (Open System
Interconnection) reference model.Simple ISIS NetworkAdvantages and Drawbacks of ISIS
◎ Fast convergence. For transmitting routing information, ISIS utilizes
a low number of packet types.
◎Support large areas of several intermediate systems without
degradation of SPF performance.
◎ It does not implement virtual links
◎ Scalable. Backbone is not an area in ISIS but instead is a collection
of contiguous ABRs.
◎Simple to implement.
◎Metrics are 6 bit wide (063). Default metric is 10 if it is not manually
◎All areas in ISIS networks are stub areas which may result in
suboptimal routing between areas.
◎All ISs must have identical views of an area.
◎For node identification, NSAP addresses are needed in combination
with Connectionless Network Protocol (CLNP) as an additional
network layer protocol.EIGRP
◎ Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocols
(EIGRP) is a CISCO proprietary Protocol
◎ It is an enhancement of the interior gateway
routing protocol (IGRP).
◎ EIGRP was released in 1992 as a more scalable
protocol for medium and large scale networks.
◎ It is a widely used interior gateway routing
protocol which uses Diffusion Update Algorithm
(DUAL) for computation of routes.
◎ EIGRP is also known as hybrid protocol
because it has the properties of a link state
protocol for creating neighbor relationships and
of a distance vector routing protocol for
advertisement of routes.Components of EIGRP
Reliable transport protocol (RTP)
Diffusion Update Algorithm (DUAL)
Protocol Dependent Modules (PDM) Advantages and Drawbacks of EIGRP
• EIGRP provides the following advantages :
Loop free routes are provided.
It additionally saves a back up path to reach the destination.
Multiple network layer protocols are supported
Convergence time for EIGRP is low which in turn reduces
the bandwidth utilization.
Supports VLSM, discontinuous network and classless
Routing update authentication is supported by EIGRP.
Topology table is maintained instead of the routing table
and consist of best path and an addition loop free path.
Drawbacks of EIGRP are
It’s a Cisco proprietary routing protocol.
Routers from other vendors cannot utilize EIGRP.Routing Information System (RIP)
RIP is a distance vector routing protocol and uses hop count as
it’s metrics for determining best path and also uses UDP (User
Datagram Protocols) port for message encapsulation.
Hop count measures the distance travelled by a data packet. The
maximum number of hop count is 15, thereby preventing routing
RIP updates its routing table after every 30 seconds.
Each router maintains its routing table by sending periodic
updates to communicate with its neighbor routers. RIP uses
BellmanFord Distance Vector algorithm to determine the best
RIP has three versions: RIPv1 (Routing Information Protocol
Version), RIPv2 ( Routing Information Protocol Version 2), RIPNG
(Routing Information Protocol Next Generation)Characteristics of Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
· RIP is easy and efficient in smaller networks and thus
require little management.
· RIP is mainly based on hop counts vector.
· A fixed subnet mask length is used.
· RIP supports IP and IPX routing.
· RIP routes have an administrative distance is 120.
Advantages of Routing Information Protocol
· Easy and efficient in smaller networks.
· Easy configuration.
· Low resource usage.
Disadvantages of Routing Information protocol
· Loop creation.
· Slow convergence.
· Scalability problem.
· Lack of metrics.Example of a domain using RIP◎ Literature Review
D. Pei et al. show the design and development of a method for detecting RIP
routing updates. Specifically, RIPTP protocol is presented. It uses hop
count as routing metric. The authors emphasize its efficiency, simplicity,
low operating cost and compatibility with the standard RIP. In order to
assess the design efficiency, they show a series of experimental simulations
to demonstrate that it is possible the improvement of fault detection in
routing protocols. They particularize these evidences with RIP.
A. Basu et al., studies the stability of the OSPF protocol under steady state
and with interferences. In this study we will see what effects are given by the
TE (Traffic Engineering) extensions on the stability of a network when
OSPF is running. OSPF TE extensions provide mechanisms for ensuring that
all network nodes have a consistent view of the traffic parameters associated
with the network. The authors also analyze whether it is possible to
accelerate the convergence time of the network, analyzing the Hello packets
and the number of route flaps.B. Albrightson et al. They explain that EIGRP is a protocol based on a hybrid
routing algorithm, sharing some properties of distance vector and link state
algorithms. This protocol is the first Internet protocol that addressed the loop
problem. Other aspects which shows are the type of metrics, the transport
mechanisms and the methods used to discover the networks, among other
Ittiphon krinpayorm et al. applied the EIGRP algorithm to an application
based on Maude. Maude is a programming language for formal specifications
using algebraic terms. It is an interpreted language that allows the verification
of properties and transformations on models that can run the model like a
prototype. The authors show how to build an infrastructure of processes
implemented by Maude, giving the chance to send a message directly to a
neighbor or broadcast to all neighbors. EIGRP protocol implements the top of
this basic infrastructure. Finally, the global system is tested and analyzed.Simulation Tool Used
This Dissertation work using OPNET Modeler16.0 Network
OPNET Modeler16.0 is a Commercial Network Simulator.
Designed for modelling communication devices, technologies, and
protocols and to simulate the performance of these technologies.
Figure : OPNET 16.0◎Proposed MethodologyEIGRP/ISIS ScenarioRIP/ISIS TopologyRESULTSRIP Traffic
0 min. 5 min. 10 min. 20 min. 25 min 30 minEIGRP Traffic
0 min. 5 min. 10 min. 20 min. 25 min 30 minEIGRP Convergence Time
0 min. 5 min. 10 min. 20 min. 25 min 30 minISIS Convergence Time
0 min. 5 min. 10 min. 20 min. 25 min 30 minDatabase Query Response Time
0 min. 5 min. 10 min. 20 min. 25 min 30 minEmail Download Response Time
0 min. 5 min. 10 min. 20 min. 25 min 30 minHTTP Object Response Time
0 min. 5 min. 10 min. 20 min. 25 min 30 minThroughput
0 min. 5 min. 10 min. 20 min. 25 min 30 minConclusion
The objective of this thesis was to configure multiple routing protocols
on a selected network topology and analyze the performance of the
We aimed to configure RIP and ISIS together in one network, then
EIGRP and ISIS together in one another network.
After configuring the protocols we analyzed the network performance
improvements as compared to the network that use RIP alone, EIGRP
alone or ISIS alone.
The RIP traffic in the network using RIP/ISIS is smaller than of
network using only RIP.
This indicates that the bandwidth utilization of RIP is better and the
link congestion probability is smaller in RIP/ISIS network than that of
network using only RIP.Conclusion ….
The EIGRP traffic in the network using EIGRP/ISIS is lower than of
network using only EIGRP.
This indicates that the bandwidth utilization of EIGRP is better in the
EIGRP/ISIS network than that of network using only EIGRP.
Convergence time of EIGRP in the network using EIGRP/ISIS
network is much faster than in the network using only EIGRP.
Therefore the nodes in EIGRP/ISIS network learn the topology faster
than the nodes in the EIGRP network.
ISIS convergence time in EIGRP/ISIS network is much faster than in
ISIS network or RIP/ISIS network. On the other hand, ISIS network
shows lower convergence time than the EIGRP/ISIS network or the
EIGRP/ISIS network learns all nodes in the whole network faster than
of ISIS network or RIP/ISIS network.
And ISIS network learns slower than of the other two networks.“
◎ In future work, werecommend any interested
researcher to combine EIGRP and ISIS routing
protocols performs on MANET and Hybrid
networks, and make one advanced routingprotocol.
◎ This can be doneby analyzing the source code of
each protocoland make a modificationon the
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