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Teaching Public Speaking in the Undergraduate Classroom

Teaching Public Speaking in the Undergraduate Classroom 34
Teaching Public Speaking in the Undergraduate Classroom Amy Young Communication Theatre„„„ Challenges for Faculty Most teachers have received no formal training in public speaking and even fewer have received training in teaching public speaking Public speaking is a key skill in virtually every job role and is vital to democratic participation To do as the discipline does or follow best practices„„„„„ Best Practices Extemporaneous speaking: Practiced but not memorized or read Formal outline for crafting a presentation, keyword outline for speaking Visual aids should comprise no more than 20 of speaking time (e.g. video, audio) Verbal Delivery: Elevated conversation Nonverbal Delivery: 75/25 rule, “touch the ring”, plant friendlies„„„ „ Challenges for Students 3 main issues: Organization, Delivery Anxiety Organization: Researching and putting together and outline with appropriate introduction, signposts, transitions and conclusion Delivery: Verbal and nonverbal Anxiety: Probably the biggest issue students face in speaking in public„„„„„ „„„ Resources Amy Young (youngamplu.edu or 5365165) Melissa Franke (mfrankeplu.edu or 5358175) Presentation Resource Center: Begins in October Consultants are trained by faculty Consultants can come to your class Consultants will meet with students oneonone in their office hours Faculty resources include: classroom visits, sample assignments, sample outlines, sample rubrics, videos of what we consider an “A” speech Students schedule appointments by calling x7761. Faculty email Amy Young or Melissa Franke.„„ The Rest… The rest of this slideshow is a set of slides that you can use (or riff off of) to teach the basics of public speaking in your classroom. Based on my ten years of experience, I focus this PowerPoint on the 3 biggest issues for novice public speakers: Organization, Delivery Anxiety. Enjoy„„„ „ Presentation Skills: Cliff’s Notes Version Agenda: We will address the 3 biggest challenges in public speaking Organization: creating an outline, the basic parts of a speech Delivery: verbal and nonverbal Anxiety: what causes it and how to reduce it„„„ „„„„ „ Basic Presentation Outline for a 10 Minute Speech (adjust accordingly) Introduction (about 2 minutes) Get audience’s attention Appropriate: Startling fact, quote, narrative, thoughtful question Inappropriate: Your name, topic Tell audience why they should care—make it meaningful—it is your job to do this How might you do this Provide thesis Preview presentation„„„„ „„„ „ The Body Body (7 minutes) Issue/Topic 1 Transition statement: Now that we understand X, let’s move on to discuss Y. Issue/Topic 2 Transition Issue/Topic 3 Stop at 3 major points—our brains remember and sort information in groups of 3 Weakest or least significant point should go in the middle—primacy and recency„„„ „„ „ The Conclusion Conclusion (1 minute) Review of 3 major points/issues End with a statement of closure A great way to do this is to return to the way you opened to bring it full circle Ex: Attention getter: Former NFL players’ number one cause of death Sleep deprivation. Closure: If sleep deprivation is enough to kill a 300 lbs. lineman, we should all be vigilant about getting at least 8 quality hours a night.Problems with Conclusions 1. Nonexistent: Some speakers use all of their time for the message and offer no conclusion at all—huge mistake. 2. Afterthought: Some conclusions may as well not be there because it was such an afterthought. Be strategic— “thanks” doesn’t count. 3. Introduce new idea: Never introduce a new idea in the conclusion. It is for summarizing and providing closure.„„„„ Memory and Recall Recall: Americans have very poor recall in general because we have short cultural attention spans. Grouping elements correctly (in 3’s) can help your audiences recall your message. Transitions, signposts assist in making sense of speeches. Introductions and conclusions count— primacy and recency again.„„„„ „ Delivery Verbal Delivery Issues: You'll want to work towards an elevated, conversational style. The audience wants you to talk to them not at them. Use a sincere tone that lets the audience know you're that you are invested in the material. Be yourself.„ „„„ Verbal Delivery Word choice: Know your definitions, avoid speaking like a thesaurus Avoid jargon and technical terms when possible—if they are necessary, define any terms people might not know Use vivid, colorful language Fix this: The city is a nice place to visit.„ „„„„„ Nonverbal Delivery Eye contact: strategically place friendly faces Gesture: Try to be natural; “touch the ring” Stance: Don’t lock your knees, don’t put your hands in your pockets or behind your back Vocalics: Pause, up or down in volume Rate: Not so fast we can’t follow, not so slow we feel like its patronizing Know you will speak faster in front of people than you do in practice by yourself„„ Presenting in a Group Rehearse the entire presentation including slides, handouts, etc. Look engaged in the presentation even if you are not the one speaking at the time (we can still see you).„„ Communication Apprehension An individual’s level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons. Empathy„„„ „„„ Causes of CA Excessive activation: occurs when the normal increase in activation in anticipation of a performance continues beyond the point where an individual is able to control it. regurgitating meals, fainting Inappropriate cognitive processing: depends on the way activation is interpreted—everyone feels activation, but some “read” it as “getting amped” and others read it as “I’m going to die.” people who “choke” in a game because any activation is perceived as negative Inadequate communication skills: person feels that they do not know how to communicate effectively. perception of your skills more important that your actual skill level„„ „„ Treatments Systematic Desensitization (Wolpe, 1958; McCroskey 1972) Several steps that involve moving from talking about an activity of least apprehension to the activity of greatest apprehension Ex: talking to your friend on the phone appearing on TV Deep muscle relaxation„„ „ Treatments Visualization (Hopf Ayres, 1992) Encourages people to think positively about communication by taking them through a carefully crafted script Picture the day full of confidence and energy, ending with a successful presentation—student should congratulate him/herself on a job well done„„„„„„„„„„ Tips for Reducing Anxiety: Control what you can Breathe—breathing exercise Plant friendly faces Know your stuff—practice, practice, practice Know the room DO NOT MEMORIZE OR READ YOUR SPEECH Sleep and water Notes to yourself on your notes—smile, breathe, etc. What to wear, what to put your notes on, etc. Perfection is the enemy Keep at it—it will get better