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Instrumentation: Pressure, Flow, & Level

Instrumentation: Pressure, Flow, & Level
4.2 Instrumentation: Pressure, Flow, LevelPressure •  Piezoresistive transducers –  Resistance bridge – 4 active arm straingauge –  Calibration required at temperature –  Example: Endevco 8510B –  Typical price: 1K per each •  Pressure capillary extension –  Extend capillary from cold environment up through cryostat to room temperature environment –  Ensure leaktight –  Check mean free path length for low pressure (vacuum) applications Pressure •  Variable reluctance transducers –  Magnetically permeable stainless steel diaphragm clamped between inductive pickup coils –  Diaphragm displacement changes induction of both coils –  AC bridge / amplifier circuit converts inductive change to proportional DC output voltage Cryogenic flow metering techniques Single phase flows 1.  Pressure drop devices based on Bernoulli Principle a)  Venturi b)  Orifice plate c)  Pitot tube 2.  Friction pressure drop (packed screens) 3.  Hot wire anemometers based on h = f(v) 4.  Acoustic flow meters based on Doppler effect 5.  Turbine flow meters where frequency velocity 6.  Optical techniques (Laser Doppler) These techniques are for the most part all used in Two phase flows classical fluid flows. 1.  Void fraction measurement (A /A) v The unique “cryogenic” a)  Capacitance measurement features have to do with b)  Optical characterization instrumentation used to 2.  Quality measurement (m /m) v detect signal and need for low heat leak. Pressure drop devices Δp Δp Venturi Orifice •  Venturi flow meters have advantage over orifice plate due to low loss coefficient where β = D /D t •  C is the discharge coefficient ( 1 for venturi 0.6 for orifice) d •  Pressure transducer should be located at low temperature, if possible •  Requires determination of density at meter inlet Packed Screen (AC) Gas flow meters •  Pressure drop is proportional to, and in phase with the mass flow rate •  Other impedance contributions to pressure drop are negligible •  Pressure transducers (Endevco, PCB Piezotronics) can be calibrated for use at cryogenic temperatures Hot Wire Anemometers Turbine flow meters •  Rotation speed is proportional to volumetric flow rate •  Linear response function allows a wide range of operation n . V Two phase flow measurement •  Measurement of flow quality (m /m) in a two phase mixture (liquid + v vapor) is difficult. –  Vapor velocity and liquid velocity may be different –  Flow regime is not known •  Measurement of void fraction (A /A) is more straightforward v –  Capacitive meter based on different dielectric constant Coaxial capacitor –  Optical techniques •  Total mass flow rate can be determined in some part of the circuit where the fluid is single phase using a conventional flow meter RF Void Fraction Measurement Liquid Helium Flow Visualization •  Heat transfer in superfluid observed by PIV technique –  This is the first time motion of fluid components in superfluid helium has been observed Optical cryostat Optics camera Laser Normal fluid convection around cylinder Diameter = 6.35 mm 2phase Helium Flow Visualization 2phase Helium Flow Visualization CHF Investigation: modeling •  A physical description of void fraction growth or force balance requires knowledge of bubble size, frequency, spacing and velocity θ Visualization: Optical fibers –  Fiber bundle: 40,000 20 µm strand bundle chosen over solid core •  Avoid multimode distortion in larger diameters •  Maximum flexibility –  PVC protective sheath replaced by braided fiberglass sheath in LN 2 –  Fused ends covered by stainless steel tubes for mounting focusing Visualization: Image Capture •  Phillips CCD camera –  Direct fiber to fiber image transfer. –  Camera pixel density provides 10,000 pixels for 1.9 mm diameter image. –  Minimal illumination required: 4 LED array provides more illumination than necessary (especially with illumination increase when submerged in LN ). 2Visualization: Image Capture •  Questar QM100 Images SLR: • Ektachrome P1600,   Digital camcorder ‘still’ pushed to 6400. •  1/3000 s shutter speed •  1/250 s shutter speed • halogen lamp illumination   • halogen lamp illumination   •  black line spacing in upper right is 1 mm. • horizontal channel slow   • vertical channel ‘fast’ bubble capture   bubble motion Visualization: Image capture •  CCD Images •  Aperature speed of 1/500 s •  Excellent image quality captured on vhs tape quality reduced upon digitization • Note regular spacing of bubbles (vertical channel flow)   Visualizing Phase Change Liquid level measurement techniques   Continuous level measurement   Superconducting wire level device  Capacitive level measuring systems    Transmission line system     Ultrasonic level measurement   Hydrostatic (head) level measurement   Discrete level measurement  Liquidvapor detectors (resistive, superconducting)     Acoustic “Dip stick” method   Mass measurement (gauging) Superconducting wire level meters Normal  Developed by Efferson   Zone (1970), but now a commercial product  Heater drives the normal   LHe level zone of SC wire to the liquid interface, where it stops due to improved heat transfer   Units are most often calibrated in LHe at 4.2 K  Variable performance in He   II due to improved heat transfer   Some SC level meters based on HTS materials have been developed for LN 2 Capacitive Level Gauges Most are custom, some are available as a prototype commercial units, particularly for high dielectric constant fluids (e.g. LN ) 2 Measurement Methods: • AC Bridge • High frequency oscillator • Time constant method • Phaselock loop technique Insitu calibration necessary Sensitivity = Differential pressure (head) gauge Requirements Q •  No liquid in vertical leg of lower capillary tube •  dp/dL = Δρ g = 1.06 (Pa/mm) helium •  Heat load may be large to keep vapor line dry He H Ne N O Ar 2 2 2 125 70.8 807 1141 1240 1394 ρ l 16.7 1.33 9.4 4.6 4.47 5.77 ρ gUltrasonic level measurement Signal travels at sound speed ≈ 200 m/s for LHe Level resonant frequency Discrete level measurement techniques •  Liquid vapor detection (LVD) •  Types of devices: –  Superconducting thin films (SnAu) –  Hot wire or film –  Semiconductors •  Operating current must be sufficient to self heat the sensor in vapor, but not in liquid •  Sensor must be small to minimize heat generation in liquid “Dip Stick” level measurement p p t Acoustic oscillation changes frequency amplitude when capillary leaves liquid Heat Pulse Mass Gauging  Measurement of He II volume (mass) by heat pulse technique   mass = Q/∆h   Technique used extensively for space based He II cryostats but also pressurized He II systems for superconducting magnets From Volz, et al Advances in Cryo. Engn. Vol 35 (1990) Summary of Level Measurement Techniques Readout Range of heat Deposition Availability Continuous Level Measurement Capacitive gauge Prototype Frequency Less than 1mW Superconducting wire Commercial Voltage Tens of mW’s Transmission line Development Frequency On the order of µW Heat transfer based Development Power/temperature Tens of mW’s Floats Development Visual/voltage Negligible Hydrostatic Development Pressure On the order of mW’s Ulrasonic Development Frequency Less than 1 µW LiquidVapor Detectors SC wire Development Voltage On the order of mW’s Resistive Development Voltage On the order of mW’s Ultrasonic Development Frequency Less than 1 µW Optical Development Light intensity Less than 1 µW Mass gauging Internal energy change Development Temperature On the order of 1 Joule
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