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An Introduction to Organic Chemistry

An Introduction to Organic Chemistry 8
An Introduction to Organic Chemistry 81 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry Organic Chemistry Organic chemistry is the study of compounds containing carbon with the exception of simple 2 compounds e.g. carbonates (CO ), carbon 3 dioxide (CO ) and carbon monoxide (CO). 2 Nomenclature There are over 6 million known organic compounds. Nomenclature is therefore very important. Here are some basic guidelines that should help in the naming of the simple compounds you will come across during this course. You will get practice at this in your tutorials. 1) Find the longest carbon chain in the molecule. This will give you the base of the name: No of C atoms Name 1 methane 2 ethane 3 propane 4 butane 5 pentane 6 hexane 7 heptane 8 octane 9 nonane 10 decane 82 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry 2) Determine the principle functional group and its position. principal ending functional group formula becomes alkane CC ane alkene C=C ene alkyne C≡C yne alcohol OH anol aldehyde CH=O anal ketone C=O anone carboxylic acid COOH anoic acid Position is indicated, where necessary, by numbering the carbons in the main chain. Position need not be indicated for alkanes, as they have no functional group, and aldehydes and acids, as they are terminal functional groups. Positioning numbers are flanked by dash signs. Multiple positions for a given functional group are separated by commas and indicated by the prefixes di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa , nona and deca. 3) Ancilliary functional groups are given in alphabetical order, with their position at the beginning of the name. ancilliary functional group formula prefix methyl CH methyl 3 ethyl C H ethyl 2 5 83 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry propyl C H propyl 3 7 butyl C H butyl 4 9 pentyl C H pentyl 5 11 hexyl C H hexyl 6 13 heptyl C H heptyl 7 15 octyl C H octyl 8 17 nonyl C H nonyl 9 19 decyl C H decyl 10 21 fluorine F fluoro chlorine Cl chloro bromine Br bromo iodine I iodo amine NH amino 2 hydroxyl OH hydroxy cyanide CN cyano benzyl CH C H benzyl 2 6 5 phenyl C H phenyl 6 5 Empirical and Molecular Formulae Quantitative elemental analysis tells us what elements make up a compound and in what proportions. The percentage of each element present in a compound is determined by total combustion. C, H, S and N burn to give CO , H O, SO and NO . 2 2 2 2 The quantities of these gases may readily be measured and this leads to information that can be used to calculate the composition and hence empirical and molecular formulae. 84 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry How is this done First some definitions: 23 One mole of a substance is 6.02 x 10 particles of that substance. This huge value is termed Avogadro’s number. One mole of any substance has a mass equal to the relative molecular mass (RMM) of that substance in grams. Relative molecular mass is the sum of the relative atomic masses (RAMs) of the constituent elements in the compound. e.g. for ethanol C H OH 2 5 1 1 1 RMM = (2 x 12.010 g mol ) + (6 x 1.006 g mol ) + (15.999 g mol ) 1 = 46.057 g mol 0.152 g of an organic compound X containing only C, H and O produces: 0.223 g of CO 2 0.091 g of H O 2 upon total combustion. Calculate the empirical formula of the compound X. Consider the CO 2 1 1 1 CO RMM = 12.010 g mol + 2 x 15.999 g mol = 44.008 g mol 2 1 3 0.223 g of CO = 0.223 g / 44.008 g mol = 5.07 x 10 mol 2 3 3 5.07 x 10 mol of CO were produced from 5.07 x 10 mol of C 2 3 1 The mass of C = 5.07 x 10 mol x 12.010 g mol = 0.061 g C in X = 100 x 0.061 g / 0.152 g = 40.1 85 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry Consider the H O 2 1 1 1 H O RMM = 2 x 1.006 g mol + 15.999 g mol = 18.011 g mol 2 1 3 0.091 g of H O = 0.091 g / 18.011 g mol = 5.05 x 10 mol 2 3 2 5.05 x 10 mol of H O were produced from 1.01 x 10 mol of H 2 2 1 The mass of C = 1.01 x 10 mol x 1.006 g mol = 0.010 g C in X = 100 x 0.010 g / 0.152 g = 6.7 Consider the O O in X = 100 40.1 6.7 = 53.2 Mass are used to calculate mole which yield the empirical formula or simplest ratio of the elements present. C H O relative mass 40.1 6.6 53.2 divide by RAM 12.010 1.006 15.999 relative mole 3.3 6.6 3.3 divide by smallest 1 2 1 This gives the ratio 1:2:1 and the empirical formula CH O. The molecular formula could be 2 any multiple of the empirical formula e.g. C H O , or C H O since these would all have 2 4 2 3 6 3 the same percentage mass ratios. 3 3 5.05 x 10 mol of C means 5.05 x 10 mol of X in 0.152 g 3 1 1 RMM of X = 0.152 g / 5.05 x 10 g mol = 30.10 g mol The molecular formula is also CH O and X is 2 actually methanal or formaldehyde. 86 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry Structural and Isomerism Structural Formulae Different arrangements of atoms for a given molecular formula are often possible. Such compounds are called isomers. Example one: C H 4 10 CH CH CH CH CH CHCH CH 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 H H H H H H C C H C C H H H C C H H C H H H H H H C H H 87 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry Example two: C H O 2 6 CH CHOH CH OCH 3 2 3 3 H H H H H H H C C C O H O H H C H H OH O Both exemplify structural isomerism. C H is a 4 10 molecular formula as it shows constituent atoms. CH HC CH CH is a structural formula as it 3 2 2 3 shows constituent atoms AND connectivities. Stereoisomerism It is also possible to arrange the atoms in molecules with the same structural formulae such that they have different spatial orientation. This is known as stereoisomerism. There are two distinct types of stereoisomer: geometric and optical. 88 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry Geometric isomerism It is possible for single CC bonds to rotate freely, however, double C=C bonds cannot. Thus if the two carbon atoms of a C=C bond carry different groups, it becomes possible to orientate these groups in two ways to create geometric isomers. H COOH HOOC H H COOH H COOH cisisomer transisomer Z ( Zusammen together) E ( Entgegen opposite) Geometric isomers have different physical and chemical properties 89 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry Optical isomerism A carbon atom attached to four different groups (substituents) is termed a chiral centre. Two different nonsuperimposable mirror images are possible. These mirror images are called enantiomers. Enantiomers have identical physical properties, except for the direction in which they rotate the plane of plane polarised light. Rotation to right termed dextro or d Rotation to left termed laevo or l They have identical chemical properties except towards optically active reagents. 90 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry If a compound contains a chiral centre but does not rotate the plane of plane polarised light then it must be an equal mixture of d and lenantiomers. Such a mixture is termed a racemic mixture or a racemate. Stereochemistry is crucially important to the pharmaceutical industry. The drug thalidomide, prescribed to pregnant women as a powerful sedative from 1956 exists as two enantiomers. One was the powerful sedative. The other caused human transmutation… 91 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry Hybridisation The simplest organic molecule is methane CH . 4 The ground electronic state of carbon suggests it should form 2 bonds as there are two unpaired electrons. How and why does carbon form 4 bonds Promotion of one of the two 2s electrons increases energy but the formation of four bonds causes a fourfold decrease. How can the four bonds formed be identical 92 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry This mixing of an s orbital and three p orbitals to 3 produce four hybrid orbitals is called sp hybridisation. ALL tetrahedral carbon and 3 nitrogen atoms in organic chemistry are sp hybridised. ALL trigonal carbons such as those found in 2 double bonds are sp hybridised. The unused p orbital on each carbon overlaps to form the π part of the double bond, e.g. ethene. 93 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry ALL linear carbons such as those found in triple bonds are sp hybridised. The unused p orbitals on each carbon overlap to form the π parts of the triple bond, e.g. ethyne (acetylene). 94 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon. There are two main classes: aliphatic and aromatic Within the aliphatic class there are both saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The Alkanes A homologous series of saturated compounds with general molecular formula C H (where n n 2n+2 is an integer). methane CH , ethane C H , propane C H , butane C H , pentane 4 2 6 3 8 4 10 C H , hexane C H , heptane C H , octane C H , nonane C H , 5 12 6 14 7 16 8 18 9 20 decane C H , etc. 10 22 Homologous series: a series of compounds in which each successive compound differs from the previous one by a CH unit. 2 At n = 4 it becomes possible to arrange the carbon skeleton differently i.e. it becomes possible for structural isomers to exist. The result is termed branching of the CC backbone. 95 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry How does this affect a physical property such as the boiling point npentane 2methylbutane 2,2dimethylpropane 36 °C 28 °C 9 °C As branching increases, the strength of the van der Waals interactions between molecules decreases, resulting in the lowering of boiling points. Occurrence Natural gas principally methane CH 4 Petroleum oil mixture up to ca. n = 40 Separation of crude oil is achieved by fractional distillation. This forms the basis of the petroleum and petrochemical industries. Chemistry Relatively, alkane chemistry is very limited. Their main use is as fuels for combustion or oxidation. Methane domestic gas supply Propane LPG (liquid propane gas) Butane camping stove gas 96 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry Octane petrol Complete combustion yields carbon dioxide and water. Incomplete combustion is dangerous as it produces carbon monoxide. Always provide a good supply of air to any process in which a hydrocarbon is being burned 2C H (g) + 7O (g) Æ 4CO (g) + 6H O(l) 2 6 2 2 2 2C H (g) + 5O (g) Æ 4CO(g) + 6H O(l) 2 6 2 2 Chemically this is more accurately described as oxidation. Both reactions produce energy in the form of heat and are said to be exothermic. Halogenation In the presence of a halogen and ultraviolet light a series of reactions take place: Cl Æ 2Cl· I 2 Cl· + CH Æ CH · + HCl P 4 3 CH · + Cl Æ CH Cl + Cl· P 3 2 3 Cl· + CH Cl Æ CH Cl· + HCl P 3 2 CH Cl· + Cl Æ CH Cl + Cl· P 2 2 2 2 Cl· + CH Cl Æ CHCl · + HCl P 2 2 2 CHCl · + Cl Æ CHCl + Cl· P 2 2 3 Cl· + CHCl Æ CCl · + HCl P 3 3 CCl · + Cl Æ CCl + Cl· P 3 2 4 Cl· + Cl· Æ Cl T 2 CH · + CH · Æ C H T 3 3 2 6 97 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry The first step is homolytic fission of the halogen to produce halide radicals. This is termed the intitiation step, I. Radicals are extremely reactive species with single unpaired electrons denoted ·. Radicals react with nonradical and radical species in propagation and termination steps, P and T respectively. The result is an extensive, indiscriminate mixture of halogenated hydrocarbons that is very expensive to separate. Reactivity: F Cl Br I 2 2 2 2 Provides an albeit prohibitively expensive route to useful compounds since polarity (and thus chemical reactivity) has been introduced. Cracking This is enormously important industrially. The bonds in longer chain alkanes are cleaved using heat in a process called pyrolysis. The process produces smaller more useful hydrocarbon molecules. 98 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry The Alkenes A homologous series of unsaturated compounds with general molecular formula C H (n is an integer n 2n greater than 1) that contain a double bond. ethene C H , propene C H , butene C H , pentene C H , hexene 2 4 3 6 4 8 5 10 C H , heptene C H , octene C H , nonene C H , decene C H , 6 12 7 14 8 16 9 18 10 20 etc. Preparation Alkenes are defined by the presence of a C=C double bond. In the laboratory, they can be prepared via the dehydration of alcohols by strong acid. + H (aq) CH CH OH Æ CH =CH + H O 3 2 2 2 2 One of the most important principles in organic chemistry is the understanding of how reactions happen at a molecular level. This is termed the reaction mechanism. Mechanisms are represented by "pushing electrons" between and/or around molecules. The arrows MUST be accurately drawn to show both the origin and destination of the electrons. 99 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry So what is the mechanism for the dehydration of ethanol + H H H H H H H H H H H + + H H H O H O H H H H H H H H + H A mechanism can NEVER be proven, only supported by experimental evidence. The mechanism shown above may be applied to the dehydration of any alcohol with acid to yield any alkene. Chemistry Alkenes are much more reactive than alkanes. Most of their chemistry involves addition to the C=C double bond. Hydrogenation (Addition) Addition of H to C=C in the presence of a 2 suitable catalyst e.g. Pd activated charcoal or Raney Ni (treat nickel aluminium alloy with hot NaOH) H C=CH + H Æ H CCH 2 2 2 3 3 100