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PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT

PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
Chapter 2 PERSONNEL MANAGEMENTPersonnel Management course outline  Introduction  Functions of Personal Management  Development of Personal Policy  Manpower Planning  Recruitment and Selection of manpower – Scientific selection  Training and Development of manpower  Job Analysis, Job Evaluation and Merit Rating  Wages and Incentives www.ThesisScientist.com1. Introduction Personnel Management is that part of total management of an organization which specifically deals with human resources of i. their procurement, ii. their development in terms in skills, knowledge and attitude, iii. their motivation towards the attainment of organizational objectives, by creating and maintaining an organizational climate conductive to such development. “Personnel Management is the planning, organizing, directing and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration, and maintenance of personnel of an organization for the purpose of contributing towards the accomplishment of the organizational, individual and social goals.” – Edwin B. Flippo www.ThesisScientist.com1. Introduction Aims/Objectives of Personnel Management i. Aims at getting the best out of personnel. ii. Maximum individual development. iii. Improves the services rendered to the society. Characteristics i. Part of general management. ii. Certain specific principles and policies. iii. Humanistic behavior. iv. Philosophy of management. www.ThesisScientist.com2. Functions of Personnel Management Personnel management is a managerial activity involving advisory, executive and administrative responsibilities and functions as given below. i. Development of personnel policy. ii. Manpower planning. iii. Recruitment and selection of manpower. iv. Analysis, description and valuation of the work. v. Compensation and schemes of appraisal of the work. vi. Keeping records of personnel. vii. Welfare and safety programs. viii. Training and development of manpower. ix. Wages and salary administration. x. Collective bargaining (negotiations with trade unions). xi. Promotions, transfers and retirement of employees. www.ThesisScientist.comPrinciples of Personnel Management Principles of personnel management are the rules which help the personnel managers to conduct and direct the policies in a proper way. I. Principle of Maximum Industrial Development. II. Principle of Scientific Selection. III. Principle of High Morale. IV. Principle of Dignity of Labor. V. Principle of Team Spirit. VI. Principle of Effective Communication. VII. Principle of Joint Management. VIII. Principle of Fair Award. IX. Principle of Effective Utilization. X. Principle of Contribution of national prosperity. www.ThesisScientist.com3. Development of Personal Policy Personnel policies serve as a guide to the subordinates in taking quick decisions. Policies are not objectives. They are only means to end. Policies are formulated to achieve personnel and organizational objectives. For example, the policy of promotion from within may be formulated with the objective of individual development. The chief objectives of personnel policies are: maximum development of workers, maximum use of their abilities, skill and talents. Good labor relations. safeguard the interest of labor and customers etc. www.ThesisScientist.com3. Development of Personal Policy A good personnel policy must include the following: i. Company name, history and structure. ii. Sources of recruitment, selection procedure. iii. Training and welfare. iv. Wages and Incentives. v. Promotion policy. vi. Retirement plan. vii. Collective bargaining. www.ThesisScientist.com4. Manpower Planning Manpower planning may be defined as, the scientific process of allocating the right quantity of right men to be required in future at right time on the right job. Manpower planning is done to fulfill the two main objectives namely, i. To utilize the present employees fully, and ii. To fill up future manpower requirements. Types of manpower planning can be distinguished: i. On the basis of the level at which it is done, a. Macrolevel (national level) b. Microlevel (Industrial unit level) ii. On the basis of the period for which it is done. a. Short period b. Medium period c. Long period. www.ThesisScientist.com4. Manpower Planning Factors affecting Manpower planning. i. Working hours. ii. Number of shifts. iii. Nature of production. iv. Product mix. v. Performance rate. vi. Hours lost. Steps in Manpower planning. i. Understanding the business activities. ii. Identification of tasks. iii. Manpower forecast. iv. Job analysis v. Reviewing the existing manpower. vi. Anticipating the availability of manpower from external sources. vii. Manpower management. www.ThesisScientist.com5. Recruitment and Selection of manpower “Recruitment is the development and maintenance of adequate manpower resources. It involves the creation of a pool of available labor upon whom the organization can depend when it needs additional employees.” – Dales S. Beach The sources of manpower supply for different categories of workers (unskilled, semiskilled and highly skilled) can be broadly classified as: i. Internal i.e. recruitment from within the industry. ii. External i.e. recruitment from outside. (former employees, recommendations, employment exchange, advertisement, applications at the gate, educational and academic institutions, labor unions). www.ThesisScientist.com5. Recruitment and Selection of manpower Scientific selection A scientific selection procedure ensures the selection of suitable candidate for a particular job. The object of scientific selection is to place on each job a worker who can maintain a given output with minimum expenditure of energy and who will be best fitted to the job, “right person for the right job”. The major factors in individual fitness for a job are: I. Physical characteristics: sound body, limbs, height, weight, eye sight etc. II. Personal characteristics: age, sex, marital status, previous experience, place of birth, number of children etc. III. Proficiency or skill and ability: This is the basic characteristic in fitting worker to a job. IV. Competency: Potentiality of an individual for learning and becoming proficient in a job. It points out the capacity to acquire knowledge and skill for success on the job. V. Temperament and character VI. Interest in vocational fitness. www.ThesisScientist.com5. Recruitment and Selection of manpower Methods of Selection (Selection procedure) 1. Receipt of applications. 2. Scrutiny of applications (preliminary screening) 3. Preliminary interview. 4. Application blank. 5. Employment (intelligence, trade, psychological, aptitude, interest, personality) test 6. Employment interviews. 7. Reference check. 8. Medical examination. 9. Final Selection. www.ThesisScientist.com6. Training and Development of manpower Training may be defined as “ a well thought and well planned processes of conscious learning of new knowledge and skills for improving the learner’s ability to perform certain tasks and activities, more efficiently and effectively, in immediate/near future, with active support of some other individuals.” Development is a long term educational process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which managerial personnel get conceptual and theoretical knowledge. An executive development program aims at increasing the capabilities of the individuals to achieve the desired objectives. Objectives of training and development 1. Disseminating of knowledge. 2. Development of skills. 3. Change of attitudes. www.ThesisScientist.com6. Training and Development of manpower Benefits/advantages of training 1. Increased productivity. 2. Higher Employee morale. 3. Reduced accidents. 4. Reduction in spoilage, wastage and optimum utilization of resources. 5. Reduced supervision. 6. Increased organizational stability and flexibility. 7. Self Development versatility and adaptability. 8. Reduced turnover and absenteeism. 9. Reduction in machine breakdown and maintenance cost. 10. Increase in earning of the employees. www.ThesisScientist.com6. Training and Development of manpower Methods of training workers 1. Demonstration: In this, the supervisor/instructor actually demonstrates how to do a certain task which can be seen in small concerns like workshops, auto repair shops etc.. E.g. the instructor shows how to perform a certain job on a center lathe. 2. Onthejob training: In this, the supervisor gives instructions to a new worker, explains the nature of work, the use of machine and tools, safety precautions etc. and shows how it is being done by an experienced worker. 3. Vestibule training: It is a special training school for training the employees. An attempt is made to duplicate as nearly as possible the actual equipment, material and conditions in a real work situation. 4. Apprenticeship: It is used to develop all round craftsmen (machinist, tool makers, mill wrights, fitters, welders). It is generally best suited to the large firm with a steady demand for skilled labor. www.ThesisScientist.com6. Training and Development of manpower Methods of training supervisors 1. Induction and Orientation. 2. Lecture (classroom) methods. 3. Conference. 4. Written instructional method. 5. Training within the industry. Methods of training executives 1. Onthejob training Understudies (appointment as an assistant to). Membership of the committee. Job rotation. Job enlargement, job enrichment. Management by objectives. 2. Offthejob training Lecture method. Case study method. Business games Role playing. www.ThesisScientist.com7. Job Analysis, Job Evaluation and Merit Rating A job may be defined as a regular assignment to individual employee involving a set of duties, responsibilities and conditions entirely different from those of other assignments. Job analysis is a detailed and systematic study of job to determine the tasks, skills, knowledge, abilities and responsibilities required for their successful performance. In this procedure the job analyst (or a supervisor properly trained in the technique): 1. Collects information. 2. Prepares job description. 3. Works up job specification. www.ThesisScientist.com7. Job Analysis, Job Evaluation and Merit Rating The data collected during job analysis may be classified as: 1. Job identification. 2. Nature of the job (major duties, other duties) 3. Operations to be performed. 4. Materials and equipments to be used for performing the job. 5. Skill involved to determine degree of difficulty (education, training, responsibility, job knowledge, mental capabilities, desired accuracy). 6. Physical demands to determine physical effort required (physical activities, working conditions, hazards). 7. Relation with other jobs. www.ThesisScientist.com7. Job Analysis, Job Evaluation and Merit Rating Job analysis can be divided into two main groups: I. Job description: It is an abstract of information received from the job analysis report. It is an organized statement of duties, responsibilities, working conditions, and other essential facts about a job. Job description comprises of three parts: job identification, job summary and work performed. II. Job specification: It is an outcome of job analysis and description. The job specification is a statement of qualities or abilities that an employee must posses to perform the job in a satisfactory manner. www.ThesisScientist.com7. Job Analysis, Job Evaluation and Merit Rating Job evaluation: Its main objectives is to formulate an appropriate and uniform wage structure and determine relative value of different jobs in an organization. War Man Power Commission, USA proposes four points for accurate and useful job study 1. What does the worker do 2. How does he do it 3. Why does he do it 4. The skill involved in doing it. Principles of job evaluation are 1. Rate the job and not the man. 2. Uniformity of understanding. 3. Cooperation from employees. www.ThesisScientist.com7. Job Analysis, Job Evaluation and Merit Rating Methods of job evaluation I. Nonquantitative methods 1. Ranking method (grading method): In this, the jobs are ranked from the most important one to least important one. Each departmental head arranges the jobs in their department in the order of importance. The individual departments pass on their rakings to a central committee who groups the jobs into grades/classes. 2. Classification method: In this, jobs are classified or graded or levels of equal skill, difficulty, responsibility, importance and requirements. It may be production job, a sales job or an office job. II. Quantitative methods 1. Factor comparison method: In this, detailed analysis of the jobs is carried out by employing following five main factors i.e. skill, mental effort, physical effort, responsibilities, working conditions. 2. The point rating method: Certain points is assigned to each grade. When such points for all the factors are added they indicate the importance of the job in the organization. www.ThesisScientist.com7. Job Analysis, Job Evaluation and Merit Rating Merit rating is a systematic and orderly approach to assess the relative worth of an employee working in an organization in terms of job performance, integrity, leadership, intelligence, behavior, aptitude and other qualities which are necessary to carry out his job successfully. The differences between job evaluation and merit rating are 1. Job evaluation evaluates job, merit rating evaluates the performance of a person doing the job. 2. Job evaluation determines suitable wage structure for the job while, merit rating decides the reward an employee should get in addition to his wages depending upon his merit. www.ThesisScientist.com7. Job Analysis, Job Evaluation and Merit Rating The frequently used factors or set of characteristics which determine the merit of the person are: 1. Quality of work. 2. Quantity of work. 3. Job knowledge. 4. Dependability. 5. Attitudes. 6. Initiative and judgment. 7. Versatility. 8. Quality of leadership. www.ThesisScientist.com7. Job Analysis, Job Evaluation and Merit Rating Methods of merit ranking 1. Ranking method. 2. Paired comparison method: In this, each man is compared with every other man, one at a time. Comparison is done with one trait (i.e. ability to perform the job). 3. Man to man comparison: Comparison is done based on five characteristics (physical qualities, personal qualities, intelligence, general value to service, leadership). Each of the characteristics is subdivided into five degrees and values assigned to each degree 4. Check list plan: These are the lists made up of series of questions or statements which concern the importance of the employees performance on the job. 5. Scale plan: There are many variants of a scale plans and all consist of list of attributes or traits, each being accompanied by scale, for rating the workers. www.ThesisScientist.com8. Wages and Incentives The remuneration paid to the worker is called wage. Wages should be sufficient to satisfy the ordinary needs and necessities of the worker provide him some comforts of life and help him in maintaining his standard of living. Wages may be classified as 1. Nominal wages: These are paid in the form of a cash and do not include other benefits given to the workers. This is also called as money wage. 2. Real wages: In addition to the cash payment real wages include the amount of necessaries, comforts, luxuries and other benefits which a worker gets in return of his effort and work. The three concepts (layers) of wages are I. Minimum wage to improve the standard of living of people who live below the poverty line. II. Fair wage assuring equal pay for equal work and III. Living wage assuring maintenance of living standards in a locality www.ThesisScientist.com8. Wages and Incentives Factors affecting wages 1. Demand and supply position in labor market. 2. Legal or statutory provisions. 3. Capacity to bargain. 4. Cost of living index. 5. The nature of employment/the nature of risk involved. 6. Organization’s ability and willingness to pay. 7. Regularity and irregularity of employment. 8. Supplementary incomes. 9. Working hours. 10. Prospects of promotion. 11. Period and cost of training. www.ThesisScientist.com8. Wages and Incentives Types of wage plans (methods of wage payment) 1. Time rate system: In this, the wages are based on the time (number of hours for which the worker works) and not on the number of units produced by the workers. Daily wages, weekly wages, monthly wages or hourly wages are the types which show time duration for which payment is to be made. 2. Piece rate system: In this, the wages are based on the quantity of work completed satisfactorily by the worker. A fixed rate per unit produced or operation completed is paid to the worker. 3. Combined of piece rate and time rate system: Under this, minimum weekly wages are fixed for each worker, which shall be paid to him irrespective of this output during the week, provided he has worked for the full working hours required in a week. The wages for the period of his absence are deducted from the total amount of his wages. www.ThesisScientist.com8. Wages and Incentives An incentive scheme may be defined as, ‘a system of wage payment under which the earnings of an employee, or a group of employees, or all employees in an organization is directly related to the output of an acceptable quality and over and above a standard laid down by means of predetermined formula.’ 1. Financial incentives Bonus Profit sharing 2. Nonfinancial incentives (praise of work, service security, training) 3. Semi financial incentives (subsidized lunch, recreational and medical facilities, pension) 4. Individual incentive scheme (based on the individual performance) 5. Group incentive scheme (based on the collective performance of his work group) www.ThesisScientist.com8. Wages and Incentives Taylor’s Differential Piecerate system: This incentive plan was developed by Taylor, the father of Scientific Management. This system provides for two piece rates. The workers who produce more than the standard units are paid at a higher piece rate, and those who produce less than the standard output are paid at low piece rate. The scheme thus rewards efficient workers and penalizes sluggish workers. Example: Two workers A and B while working on two identical machines produced respectively 75 and 85 numbers of the same job whose standard production is 80 jobs per day. From the following data calculate the earnings of each worker. Labor hourly rate Rs. 12/ Rate differential to be applied = 80 of standard piece rate for below standard performance 120 of the standard piece rate for standard and above standard performance. www.ThesisScientist.com8. Wages and Incentives Solution: Standard output per hour = 80/8 = 10 jobs. Standard piece rate (R) =12/10 = Rs. 1.20 Lower piece rate = 1.20 0.80 = 0.96 Higher piece rate = 1.20 1.20 = 1.44 Earning of operator A = 0.96 75 = Rs. 72/ per day Earning of operator B = 1.44 85 = Rs. 122.40/ per day  Standard piece rate = (labor hourly rate)/ (No. of production per hour)  Lower piece rate = (standard piece rate) ( given for below standard performance)  Earning of less production operator = Lower piece rate No. of production by him. www.ThesisScientist.com8. Wages and Incentives Hasley Incentive Plan: The Hasley plan was introduced by Fredrick A. Halsey, an American engineer, in 1891. In this system a minimum wage is guaranteed to the workers. A standard time is fixed for the performance of each job. If a worker completes his job before the standard time, he gets guaranteed wage plus incentive bonus at fixed percentage of earnings for the time saved. The most common percentage is 50 percent. Let, hourly rate (Rs.) = R Standard time (hrs.) = Ts Time actually taken (hrs.) = Ta Then, Time saved (hrs.) = (Ts – Ta) Bonus earned = (Ts – Ta) R 50/100 = ½R(Ts – Ta) Wages earned by the worker = Ta R + ½R(Ts – Ta) www.ThesisScientist.com8. Wages and Incentives Example: The standard time of a job is 8 hours and the hourly rate of payment is Rs. 10/. The worker completes the job in 6 hours. Calculate the bonus and the total wages earned by the worker. Solution: Given: R = Rs. 10.00, Ts = 8 hours, Ta = 6 hours Now, Time saved = (Ts – Ta) = 8 – 6 = 2 hours. Bonus = ½ (Ts – Ta) R = ½ (8 6) 10 = Rs. 10/ Total wages earned = Ta R + ½ (Ts – Ta) R = 6 10 +10 = Rs. 70/ www.ThesisScientist.com8. Wages and Incentives The Rowan system: This plan was introduced by James Rowan of Glasgow in 1901. The plan provides each workman guaranteed minimum wage plus incentive bonus for certain portion of the time saved. In this scheme the proportion of the time payable for incentive being the ratio of actual time taken to the standard time. Therefore, Bonus = ((standard time – actual time)/standard time)) actual time ratio = ((Ts – Ta)/Ts) Ta R Earning = Ta R + ((Ts – Ta)/Ts) Ta R Example: In a manufacturing firm, the standard time to complete the job is 8 hours and the hourly wage rate is Rs. 10/ per hour. Workers are promised to pay incentive according to Rowan plan. Find out the bonus payable to the operator of time to complete the job is 8,7,6…1 hours respectively. www.ThesisScientist.com8. Wages and Incentives Solution: Table below is developed to compute incentive bonus for different values of time taken to complete the job. Under Rowan system, incentive bonus earned by the operator is maximum when the operator completed the task in 50 but decreases beyond fifty percent. www.ThesisScientist.com8. Wages and Incentives Emerson’s Efficiency Plan: The Emerson’s efficiency plan was introduced by Harrington Emerson. In this plan wages are calculated on the basis of efficiency of performance. Daily wages are guaranteed irrespective of the output. Less efficient workers are not put to loss, but at the same time workers who prove their efficiency are paid bonus. A standard of performance is based on past performance (previous records) is taken as 100 efficiency. The actual output of the worker is compared with the standard output to calculated his efficiency for the day. i.e. Efficiency = (actual output for the period/standard output for the period) 100. In this scheme, an incentive bonus is paid to the worker if his efficiency exceeds twothirds (66.67) of the standard performance (100). The remuneration under this method is computed as under. 1. Efficiency below 66.67 = no bonus. Only time wages 2. Over 66.67 to 100 = time wages + bonus at different percentages increasing rapidly to 10 at 90 efficiency and 20 at 100 efficiency. 3. Over 100 = time wages + 20 bonus + 1 bonus for each 1 increase in efficiency beyond 100. www.ThesisScientist.com8. Wages and Incentives Example: There are three workers X,Y and Z manufacturing steel pins. They are paid at a standard rate of Rs. 40 per day and are supposed to produce 50 pins a day. If they are producing 30, 50 and 60 pins respectively, calculate their earnings on the basis of Emerson’s efficiency plan. www.ThesisScientist.com8. Wages and Incentives The Scanlon Plan: The Scanlon plan was developed by Joe Scanlon of United States. This is a group incentive plan wherein all the employees receive a guaranteed time wage. In this method, a standard for the ratio of labor cost to the total sales value is set as an index of total labor effectiveness. For determining the bonus actual labor cost to the total sales is calculated for the assessment period. Then an incentive bonus, equivalent to percentage reduction in the labor to sales ratio, is paid to each employee. Let, Lb = labor cost during the base month, Sb = total sales during the base month, La = labor cost for the assessment month, Sa = total sales during the assessment month, Then, reduction in the labor index = ((Lb/Sb) – (La/Sa)) 100/(Lb/Sb) www.ThesisScientist.com8. Wages and Incentives Example: A company employs 800 workers and is a job order production unit. The sales during the base month was valued at Rs. 12.40 lakhs. Rs. 1.35 lakhs were send by as a labor cost to achieve the above mentioned sales figure. Calculate incentive bonus paid to each employee if the net sales during the assessment month was valued at: a. Rs. 15.50 lakhs for the expenditure of Rs. 1.45 lakhs towards labor cost. b. Rs. 15.50 lakhs for the expenditure of Rs. 2.15 lakhs towards labor cost. Solution: a) Standard labor to sales ratio = (Lb/Sb)100 =(1.35/12.40)100 =10.887 Actual labor to sales ratio for the assessment month = (1.45/15.50)100 =9.355 Since actual labor to sales ratio is lower than the standard rates each employees is entitled to get incentive bonus Inventive bonus payable to each employee = (10.8879.355)100/10.887= 14.07 b) Actual labor cost to sales ratio for the assessment month = (2.15/15.50)100= 13.870 In this case actual labor cost to sales ratio is higher than the ratio of standard labor cost to sales, hence no incentive bonus is payable. www.ThesisScientist.com8. Wages and Incentives The Priestman Production Plan: It is also a group incentive plan. In this method, standard output to be achieved during the period by the factory (or department) is agreed upon between the employer and employees. The standard of output may be fixed in terms of units in case of firms manufacturing single product (tractors, fans, lathes etc.) or in terms of points in case of multiproduct plants. The number of workers employed is taken into account to determine the standard output. The actual output is compared with the standard output and if the actual output exceeds the standard output, each employee is paid production hours in proportion to the increase in the output per worker. Let, standard production in the base month = Pb Actual output during the assessment month = Pa Number of workers in employment during the base month = Wb Number of workers in employment during the assessment month = Wa Standard production per worker during the base month = (Pb/Wb) Actual production per worker during the assessment month = (Pa/Wa) Production bonus will be payable. If, (Pa/Wa) (Pb/Wb) and productivity bonus payable to each employee = ((Pa/Wa)(Pb/Wb))100/(Pb/Wb) www.ThesisScientist.com8. Wages and Incentives Example: An automobile manufacturer employs 500 workers. The standard output of production is 1200 cars per month. Each worker is paid incentive bonus as per Priestmen Production Plan. Calculate bonus payable to each worker if the output in the next month is 1400 cars for the employment of a) same number of workers b) 600 workers. Solution: Data: Standard output in the base month(Pb) = 1200 No. of workers in the base month(Wb) = 500 Actual production, Pa = 1400 a) No. of workers during assessment month(Wa1) =500 Percentage productivity bonus payable to each employee = ((Pa/Wa1) (Pb/Wb))100/(Pb/Wb) = 16.67 A productivity bonus, equivalent to 16.67 of the employees’ basic wage of the month, is payable to each employee. b) No. of workers in assessment month(Wa2) = 600 Percentage productivity bonus payable to each employee = ((Pa/Wa2) (Pb/Wb))100/(Pb/Wb) = 2.91 There is a decrease in productivity per employee, therefore bonus is not payable. www.ThesisScientist.comwww.ThesisScientist.com