Networking basics ppt

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Published Date:12-07-2017
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Networking Networking Networking Networking Basics Basics Basics Basics Raj Jain 1 http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/jain/ JainCIS.Ohio-State.Edu Columbus, OH 43210 The Ohio State University Raj JainOverview Overview q q q q q q q Raj Jain 2 Domain Name System TCP Internet Protocol (IP), IPv6 Ethernet, HDLC, PPP Flow and Error Control ISO/OSI and TCP/IP Reference Model Standards OrganizationsInternational Standards Organizations International Standards Organizations q q m m m m q Raj Jain 3 IEC: International Electrotechnical Commission www.itu.ch Example Standards: G.724, X.25, Q.931 Radio (CCIR) ITU-R: Consultative Committee on International Telephone and Telegraph (CCITT) ITU-T: Consultative Committee on International ITU: International Telecommunications Union Chartered by United Nations ISO: International Standards OrganizationNational Standards Organizations National Standards Organizations q m m m m Raj Jain 4 Represents USA in ITU, IEC, and ISO ANSI X3.131-1994 SCSI-2 ANSI T1.105-1995 SONET Non-governmental, nonprofit, over 300 committees www.ansi.org ANSI: American National Standards InstituteProfessional Associations Professional Associations q m m ⇒ ISO (via ANSI) m ⇒ ⇒ q m q m q q Raj Jain 5 www.frforum.comFrame Relay Forum, www.atmforum.comATM Forum, www.tiaonline.org TIA: Telecommunications Industries Association, Example: EIA-232 (RS-232) www.eia.orgEIA: Electronic Industries Association, ISO 8802-3:1998 IEEE 802.3 Ethernet IEEE standards.ieee.org IEEE: Inst of Electrical and Electronic Engineers,Professional Communities Professional Communities q m m m m m q q Raj Jain 6 draft-bhani-mpls-te-eval-00.txt draft-ietf-diffserv-framework-02.txt ftp.ietf.org/internet-drafts/Internet Drafts: = TCPwww.ietf.org/rfc/rfc0793.txtE.g., Request for Comments (RFC), Now chartered by Internet Society development Originated by DARPA for TCP/IP protocol www.ietf.orgInternet Engineering Task Force, IETF:ISO/OSI Reference Model ISO/OSI Reference Model 3 ASCII Text, Sound Session 2 Transport Network 1 Physical Raj Jain 7 How to transmit signal: Coding Two party communication: Ethernet Datalink Routing, Addressing: IP End-to-end communication: TCP Establish/manage connection Presentation File transfer, Email, Remote Login ApplicationTCP/IP Reference Model TCP/IP Reference Model q q TCP/IP ProtocolsOSI Ref Model HTTP Session TransportUDP Transport IPNetwork Host to NetworkRadio Physical Raj Jain 8 Pointnet Point-to-PacketEther Datalink Internetwork TCP Presentation TelnetFTPApplication Application TCP/IP Ref Model IP = Internet Protocol (Routing) TCP = Transport Control ProtocolLayered Packet Format Layered Packet Format q FTP Raj Jain 9 TrailerHeader Ethernet Data EthernetEthernet Header IP Data IP Header TCP Data TCP Header FTP Data data. passed as N-1th layer Nth layer control info isFlow Control Flow Control q q q SenderSender DataDataData Ack Ack Data Data Ack Ack Raj Jain 10 ReceiverReceiver Methods: Stop and wait, Sliding window Sender throttled until receiver grants permission receiver, but maximizes throughput Flow Control = Sender does not flood theError Control Error Control q q q 11 1 Ack 2 Ack 3 233 2Ack 5 Ack 5 Raj Jain 11 Timeout Srej 3 Stop and Wait, Go back n Selective Reject Error Recovery: Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) Numbers, Ack/Nak, Time-out Error Detection: Cyclic Redundancy Check, Sequence error, in the proper order to network layer Error Control = Deliver frames withoutConnection-Oriented vs Connection-Oriented vs Connectionless Connectionless q m m q m m Raj Jain 12 The address decides the next hop at each router Complete address on each packet Connectionless: Postal System. sufficient. Data need not have address. Circuit number is Path setup before data is sent Connection-Oriented: Telephone SystemMultiple Access Protocols Multiple Access Protocols q q q q Raj Jain 14 Standardized by IEEE 802.3 committee. Ethernet uses CSMA/CD. Stop if you hear someone else. Listen while transmitting. CSMA/CD: CSMA with Collision Detection Listen before you transmit CSMA: Carrier Sense Multiple Access Worst case utilization = 1/(2e) =18% Transmit whenever you like Aloha at University of Hawaii:Ethernet Standards Ethernet Standards q q q q q q q Raj Jain 15 repeaters). Also, known as synchronous Ethernet. 10BASE-FB: 10 Mb/s fiber optic backbone (between 10BASE-FL: 10 Mb/s fiber optic point-to-point link 10BASE-T: 10 Mb/s over 2 pairs of UTP (ThinWire), 185 m max segments 10BASE2: 10 Mb/s over thin RG58 coaxial cable 1BASE5: 1 Mb/s over 2 pairs of UTP max segments 10BROAD36: 10 Mb/s over broadband cable, 3600 m 10BASE5: 10 Mb/s over coaxial cable (ThickWire)HDLC Family HDLC Family q q q q ISDN q q q q q q Raj Jain 16 V.120 and Frame relay also use HDLC Advanced Data Comm Control Proc (ADCCP): ANSI Logical Link Control (LLC): IEEE Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP): Internet Teletex Link Access Procedure for half-duplex links (LAPX): Link Access Procedure for modems (LAPM): V.42 Link Access Procedure for the D channel (LAPD): Link Access Procedure-Balanced (LAPB): X.25 High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC): ISO Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC): IBMHDLC HDLC q q q q q q q q Raj Jain 17 may respond before command Asynchronous Response Mode (ARM): Secondary Station Asynchronous Balanced Mode (ABM): Combined secondary Normal Response Mode (NRM): Response from Balanced Configuration: Two combined station Unbalanced Configuration: One or more secondary Combined Station: Both primary and secondary Secondary Station:Issue responses Primary station: Issue commandsHDLC Framing: Bit Stuffing HDLC Framing: Bit Stuffing q q q 0 11111 11111 11111 10010 01111110 0 111110 111110 111110 10010 01111110 0 11111 11111 11111 10010 Raj Jain 18 Receiver Flag Transmitter Remove stuffed bits at destination Stuff bits if pattern appears in data HDLC frames are delimited by flags: 01111110HDLC Frames HDLC Frames q m m q m m ⇒ q m m m m Raj Jain 19 Miscellaneous commands and responses Recovery commands and responses Information transfer commands and responses Mode setting commands and responses Unnumbered Frames: Control No more data to sendFinal Go back N and Selective Reject Supervisory Frames: Flow and error control Poll/Final = Command/Response Piggybacked Acks: Next frame expected Information Frames: User dataPPP: Introduction PPP: Introduction q q q q q q q Raj Jain 20 Uses byte stuffing in stead of bit stuffing Uses flags like HDLC PPP is a variation of HDLC provider (ISP) via modem PPP is used when you connect to an internet service Now being used for router-router connection also Originally for User-network connection Point-to-point Protocol