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Innovation in English Language Teacher Education

Innovation in English Language Teacher Education 35
Innovation in English Language Teacher Education Edited by George Pickering and Professor Paul Gunashekar Selected papers from the fourth International Teacher Educator Conference Hyderabad, India 21–23 February 2014Innovation in English Language Teacher Education Selected papers from the fourth International Teacher Educator Conference Hyderabad, India 21–23 February 2014 Edited by George Pickering and Professor Paul Gunashekar ISBN 978-0-86355-765-1 © British Council 2015 British Council 17 Kasturba Gandhi Marg New Delhi 110001 India www.britishcouncil.in 2 Innovation in English Language Teacher EducationContents Foreword Michael Connolly 7 Introduction Paul Gunashekar 9 Preface George Pickering 13 OVERVIEW: Innovation in English language teacher education Teacher research for professional development Simon Borg 23 Teacher development as the future of teacher education Rama Mathew 29 Innovation in the provision of pre-service education and training for English language teachers: issues and concerns Julian Edge and Steve Mann 38 THEME ONE: Innovations in Continuing Professional Development for English language teacher educators and teachers The House of Dos and Don’ts: teachers, self-access and learner autonomy Andy Keedwell and Sayed Najeem 49 Generating content through online collaborative writing: a study Arindam Sengupta 56 Using Web 2.0 tools for teacher professional development: a case study Santosh Mahapatra 65 Professional development programme for British Council Training Consultants – KELTEP 2013 Shefali Kulkarni and Allwyn D’Costa 73 Mobile embedded self-study materials for CPD: the use of English language for teachers (EL4T) in Bangladesh Farhan Azim and Mir Md. Saifur Rahman 79 ‘The Jamaican Fragment’: using video to add a new dimension to the lesson Ravinarayan Chakrakodi 87 Innovation in English Language Teacher Education 3THEME TWO: Learning from experience Critical reflection for Continuing Professional Development: using the SOAP strategy to analyse pedagogical experience Padmini Boruah 97 Tasks as tools to trigger reflection in pre-service teachers K. Padmini Shankar 105 Using evaluation criteria to plan writing performance: a study of pre-service teachers of English Lina Mukhopadhyay 116 Facebook Interaction (FBI) and essay writing pre-task: Yemeni EFL students’ perceptions, attitudes and challenges Mohialdeen Alotumi 125 Assessment literacy for teachers: how to identify and write a good test Elaine Boyd 134 Innovations in pre-service second language teacher education for the elementary level in West Bengal Kuheli Mukherjee 140 The role of printed materials in promoting reflection in distance ELT teacher education programmes Pranjana Kalita Nath 148 Developing academic reading skills through strategy training Sruti Akula 156 Reciprocal teaching in a pre-service teacher education context Susmita Pani 164 Modifying ELT tasks to include the blind/visually impaired: an exploration at the tertiary level Shree Deepa 170 English language teacher educators’ feedback experience as a teaching-learning tool in Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria Alice Udosen and Wisdom Jude 176 The use of observation – feedback cycles as a method of teachers’ continuous professional development in the context of TE:ST Joy Townsend 184 Defossilising the errors of ESL learners through feedback Sanjay Arora 192 4 Innovation in English Language Teacher EducationTeaching ESL beginners effectively using corpus linguistics and the lexical approach Adam Scott 199 Teaching science through co-operative learning strategies Geetika Saluja 213 THEME THREE: Technological resources for language education The Pedagogy of Collaboration: teaching effectively within an evolving technology landscape Dawn Bikowski 223 Digital literacies Nicky Hockly 232 Do online group tasks promote effective collaborative learning experiences? Teacher perceptions Meera Srinivas 237 Reflective feedback using video recordings in ELT pre-service teacher training programmes Bose Vasudevan 249 Using audio lessons for the visually impaired in inclusive classrooms: an exploratory study Priyank Varma and Madhavi Gayathri Raman 254 Testing reading abilities of the visually impaired using scribes/technology Ramraj M 261 Technology-mediated language teaching through a Kindle-based mobile learning initiative in India: the access experience Raashid Nehal 267 Exploring whole class to one feedback and revision using technology in a writing classroom Akhil Jha 275 Contributors 284 Innovation in English Language Teacher Education 56 Innovation in English Language Teacher EducationForeword Michael Connolly, Assistant Director English Partnerships, British Council India The theme of the 2014 edition of the Teacher Educators Conference was 'Innovation in English Language Teacher Education'. In the field of English language teacher education, any innovation has to be practical. It has to meet the needs of the teacher educators it is aimed at, but more importantly it must develop skills and knowledge which will improve the quality of teaching in the classroom and ultimately impact on learner outcomes. Innovation can be revolutionary and abrupt, but more often it is part of an evolutionary process: small, forward-thinking changes that cumulatively have a big effect. Though I have worked for the British Council for over 13 years, and in countries as varied as Jordan, Japan and Spain, I often tell colleagues that I had two distinct careers: one before I arrived in India and the other one which started the moment I landed in Delhi. When I arrived in India in 2011 I was thrown into the deep end, developing the concept of what would become the Bihar Language Initiative for Secondary Schools (BLISS) – a teacher education project funded by the UK Department for International Development (DfID). This has grown to be one of our most high-profile projects, thanks to the work of local colleagues and the support we receive from the Bihar state government and DfID. Working on BLISS, I have not only experienced the real India first hand, with all its excitement, diversity and challenges, but also saw from close quarters both revolutionary and evolutionary innovation at play. At the start of the project, fewer than 5% of our teacher educators had email addresses. Very few had access to the Internet, mediated by clunky desktops, expensive laptops and landline-based modems in a region with variable power supply. Within a short few years, our team witnessed almost every teacher educator going online thanks to the sweeping changes brought in by the smartphone revolution in India. Teacher educators – and much of Bihar’s population as a whole – leapfrogged intermediate technologies and started speeding along the information highway on their handheld devices. This change allowed us to make a number of innovative changes to the way that we communicated with the teacher educators. We started communicating key project information by text message and began a Facebook group, bringing the geographically dispersed team together in an online community. Knowledge and information sharing became much easier. Technology also enabled us to assess and evaluate the impact of our training more effectively as teacher educators shared their experiences more quickly and we experimented with using technology to collect monitoring and evaluation data. Innovation in English Language Teacher Education 7But innovation is not always centred around technology. As a teacher and teacher educator, I firmly believe that every lesson and every training session has the potential to be innovative as each lesson or session is unique. Each lesson builds on previous knowledge and introduces something new. Many of the papers presented at the 2014 Teacher Educator Conference were focused on sharing experiences and delegates and speakers alike debated the merit of different approaches and collected ideas to fuel their own innovative practices. At the same time, it’s important to recognise that innovation cannot be thrust upon unwilling participants. Often, there is good reason for participants to resist top-down initiatives, however innovative their proponents believe them to be. This is particularly so in education. Participatory events such as this year’s conference can go some way towards ensuring a feeling of ownership as the participants construct their own knowledge and understanding of innovation as a concept, and the potential for innovating within their own sphere of work. One obvious measure of the relevance of the theme of a conference is the participation of the target audience during the event. By that reckoning, our 2014 conference was an unqualified success with over 110 speakers delivering sessions attended by 1,200 delegates from 27 countries. Our webcast sessions reached a further 3,012 viewers from 104 countries across the globe. The choice of the conference theme and the decisions around the relevant sub-themes were made along with our colleagues at the English and Foreign Languages University, Hyderabad, without whom not only this but previous editions of the Teacher Educator Conference would not have been possible. We have published select presentations from all three previous Teacher Educator Conferences. However, this publication is not merely one more in a series, but part of the British Council’s ongoing and expanding work in English language policy, research and publications, a critical area of our activity in India and worldwide. Through this stream of our work, we work with local and international partners with the aim of providing an evidence base for interventions and innovations that work in language teaching and teacher education. All our publications, including this one, are freely available for download from our website www.britishcouncil.in/teach/resources/publications-research I would love to hear from you and your colleagues about this volume and our other publications. 8 Innovation in English Language Teacher EducationIntroduction Paul Gunashekar, Professor, The English and Foreign Languages University, Hyderabad Innovations can cover a very broad range of areas – some of which may include methods for systematic assessment of student learning, improved teacher training, innovative pedagogies in the classroom including those that leverage technology in the classroom, supplemental instruction for first-generation learners, methods for improving teacher motivation and effectiveness, and methods for leveraging resources from third parties for improving education (Twelfth Five Year Plan Vol 3: 65). I am delighted to be associated with the publication of a select clutch of papers presented at the Teacher Educator Conference 2014 (TEC14), co-hosted by the British Council and my university, EFLU. The theme of the conference – Innovation in English Language Teacher Education – was an excellent choice because it has been an essential attribute in the profile of both institutions and in teacher education enterprises across the country. The National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education (2009) in India posits: ‘Any system, in order to be forward looking, must be bold in encouraging experimentation and innovation and also be involved with a constant review of the outcomes of such efforts. The field of teacher education should be no exception’ (p. 83). By choosing innovation as its central focus, TEC14 hoped to provide a forum for teacher educators and teachers of English to showcase their innovative practices in the training classroom and the language classroom respectively. Given the extraordinary diversity of teaching contexts in India, the practices and experiences that were highlighted at the conference would have equipped the delegates with skills and strategies to deploy creatively in solving common classroom problems that they as practitioners regularly confront. English in India represents a wide range of use and ownership: from a foreign language through to a second language and a first language. Consequently, the contexts in which English is taught reflect this range and diversity, and have implications for the teacher’s linguistic proficiency and professional competence. In this regard, the National Focus Group on the Teaching of English Position Paper (2006) envisions the route teacher education should take: ‘Teacher education needs to be ongoing and onsite as well as preparatory. Emphasis must be laid on teacher proficiency in or familiarity with the language, as the teacher is often a role model … Proficiency and professional awareness are equally to be promoted, the latter to be imparted where necessary through the teachers’ own languages’ (p. 14). The National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education (2009) elaborates this national vision of teacher education by foregrounding five principles that should inform the enterprise: the integrative and eclectic nature of teacher education; its liberal, humanistic and non-didactic underpinnings; its Innovation in English Language Teacher Education 9multicultural and context-sensitive facets; the necessity for it to be transacted in a diversity of learning spaces and curriculum sites apart from the classroom; and, most importantly, reflective practice to be its chief aim. ‘Pedagogical knowledge has to constantly undergo adaptation to meet the needs of diverse contexts through critical reflection by the teacher on his/her practices’ (pp. 19-20). TEC14 was therefore a suitable occasion for the delineation of the five principles. EFLU Of the 39 central universities in India, EFLU is unique in its conception and function: a university that has over two hundred faculty members across three campuses, all of whom have specialised in different aspects of language study and language education. From small beginnings 56 years ago as the Central Institute of English, we have now become synonymous with Indian ELT. A key mandate of EFLU is to train language teachers in methods and approaches appropriate to the Indian context, and it has been in the vanguard of teacher education enterprises and research since its founding. This is an opportunity to highlight the more innovative work that the university has been doing in the area of teacher education and language teaching. EFLU innovative practices ELTI Support Scheme The English Language Teaching Institutes Support Scheme (ELTISS), a Government of India sponsored project, was launched in 1985 at the beginning of the seventh Five-Year Plan and has continued since. English Language Teaching Institutes are set up by the state governments; however, central assistance is provided to augment state resources for teacher development at the school level. Currently, there are 15 State Institutes of English and two Regional Institutes of English. EFLU monitors the academic programmes of the 17 ELTIs, and provides academic support to them in the form of syllabus design, materials development and train- the-trainer courses. District Centre Scheme Begun in 1985, the District Centre Scheme (DCS) is a UGC-sponsored programme that aims to impart saturation-level training to teachers of English in secondary schools so that a qualitative improvement can be made in the teaching of English across the country. At present there are 14 centrally-funded and 15 state-run District Centres spread across the country. These centres are staffed by resource persons who have received specialized training at EFLU. CELT in Sri Lanka In 2009 India and Sri Lanka signed a Memorandum of Understanding to establish the Sri Lanka-India Centre for English Language Training (SLICELT). Under the MoU, the Government of India appointed EFLU as the technical consultant for the project and funded the deputation of two experts from EFLU to SLICELT for a period of two years. In addition, a Digital Language Laboratory was set up in Sri Lanka with the assistance of the Government of India. 10 Innovation in English Language Teacher EducationCELTs in other countries EFLU has been identified as the nodal agency for setting up permanent centres for English language training abroad. As part of this initiative, CELTs have been established in Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam with the objective of equipping teachers of English, students, civil servants, professionals and businesspersons in these countries with adequate English language and communication skills. Two experts were deputed from the university to each of these centres for two years to launch turnkey projects. International Training Programme In the last decade the university has developed into a renowned training centre for foreign professionals seeking to improve their proficiency in English. It has set up an International Training Programme (ITP), which offers the course Progress to Proficiency three times a year. ITP receives its impetus from ITEC/SCAAP scholarships offered by the Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India, to developing countries in Africa, South Asia, South-East Asia, Central Asia and South America. Teacher education programmes For the last three decades, EFLU has regularly organized teacher education programmes for teachers of English in schools affiliated to national and state organizations: the Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangatan, the Navodaya Vidyalaya Sangatan, the Andhra Pradesh Residential Schools Society, the Andhra Pradesh Social Welfare Residential Educational Institutions Society, and the Andhra Pradesh Tribal Welfare Residential Schools Society. The university has signed an MoU with the Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangatan to train a large number of teachers of English and develop teaching and training materials. EFLU-British Council partnership I cannot overestimate the immense potential for an abiding partnership between the British Council and an institution that has a stake in languages and language education. Of immediate relevance is TEC14 as well as the Directory of ELT Research in India – both outcomes of the close ties between the two organizations. Research into English language teaching is visibly on the increase in India. However, there has been little attempt to compile information about and ascertain the value of the research that is being undertaken. It is therefore gratifying that the two organizations and the University of Warwick have initiated a partnership to engage in a survey of ELT research in India from 2005 to date. An EFLU team has compiled a directory of ELT research that was carried out at the university itself between 2005 and 2013. This initiative is a step towards the larger survey planned and is the first tangible output of the collaborative project. In this regard, I am underlining the prospective opportunity for even closer collaboration with the British Council on the basis of two factors. Firstly, the rich source of ELT research in India as demonstrated by EFLU’s contribution. And secondly, the findings of the British Council’s timely online study titled ELT Innovation in English Language Teacher Education 11Partnerships in India that was conducted recently. If our endeavour to establish sustainable collaboration does succeed, the results will be most rewarding. As the British Council online study has established, the impact on the ELT practitioner would manifest itself in terms of academic and professional development while the impact on the institution would be demonstrated in terms of capacity building, professional networking, and increased understanding of different cultures. The initial funding for the Central Institute of English came from the Ford Foundation, and, notably, faculty support from the British Council in the form of Bruton, Barron and George – the big three of British ELT at the time. We are therefore delighted that 56 years later the relationship between the university and the British Council continues to flourish. The landmark TEC14 conference and this ensuing publication are a celebration of the many successes in teacher education that we have enjoyed, and a timely reminder of what remains to be done. In Five Minds for the Future (2008), Howard Gardner indentifies innovation and creativity as central to education. He describes the disciplined mind and the synthesizing mind before introducing the creating mind. He says that in the future anyone who aspires to success will need to master at least one discipline and learn to work steadily over time to improve skill and understanding. The synthesizers will need to be able to obtain information from disparate sources, understand and evaluate that information objectively and put it together in ways that work for themselves and for other persons. Using discipline and synthesis as the base, the creating mind ‘puts forth new ideas, poses unfamiliar questions, conjures up fresh ways of thinking, and arrives at unexpected answers’ (p. 3). Happily, TEC14 brought together a host of creating minds. References Gardner, Howard (2008) Five Minds for the Future. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Publishing. Government of India (2012) Twelfth Five Year Plan. Available at: http:// planningcommission.gov.in/plans/planrel/12thplan/pdf/12fyp_vol3.pdf National Curriculum Framework 2005 Position Paper: National Focus Group on the Teaching of English (2006) New Delhi: NCERT. National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education (2009) New Delhi: NCTE. 12 Innovation in English Language Teacher EducationPreface George Pickering, Education Consultant and Academic Lead Consultant for the TEC14 Conference This publication is born out of the ongoing shared interest and partnership of the British Council India and the English and Foreign Languages University, Hyderabad in exploring the key role of teacher educators in English language teaching and learning. Previous collaboration, with the support of IATEFL (International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language) and ELTAI (English Language Teachers’ Association of India), has led to three previous conferences and publications related to teacher education issues (2011-2013). One of the key issues confronting policy makers, academics, teacher educators and teachers is how to plan, implement, evaluate and sustain effectively innovation from the policy to the classroom levels. Nicholls (1983) defines innovation as ‘an object or practice perceived as new by an individual or individuals, which seeks to introduce improvements in relation to the desired goals, and that is planned and deliberate’. Despite the passage of time this definition remains valid today. Edge and Mann (2013: 5) point out that a new idea is in itself not an innovation: Innovation demands concentration on process; it demands that we pay as much attention to how we teach or train as to which topics get covered along the way, or the tools that we employ. They go on to suggest that whether an activity counts as an innovation depends on where and when that action takes place. An activity can count as an innovation if it is new-in-context, so the introduction of peer observations – an established practice in some contexts – might be considered as an innovation in a situation where it has not taken place previously. The 2014 Teacher Educator Conference – ‘Innovation in English Language Teacher Education’, held in Hyderabad from 21 to 23 February 2014, sought to examine the concept and practices of innovation from different perspectives. The principal themes explored at the conference were: 1. Innovations in Continuing Professional Development for English language teacher educators and teachers • technology and CPD • social media and networking for CPD • online and face-to-face mentoring • teacher motivation through technology Innovation in English Language Teacher Education 13 2. Learning from experience • reflection as a tool for growth • classroom-based research • alternative practices in assessment and evaluation • feedback as a teaching-learning tool 3. Technological resources for language education • m-learning in teacher education • online teacher education • interface of technological and traditional resources • digital course design and delivery • technology for inclusive and special education • technology enabled in-service teacher training (INSETT). The challenges confronting educators in effecting innovations is well documented (Waters 2009; Wedell 2009). Rather than focusing on learning lessons from the sometimes catatastrophic, sometimes heroic past failures of innovation in education, the conference sought to highlight the examples of successful good practices and effective implementations that might have applications and implications for innovation attempts elsewhere. The conference was an opportunity for leading academics, teachers, students, managers, teacher educators, researchers and policy makers to discuss and debate their perspectives and experiences on innovation through a variety of conference forums, including a keynote address, plenaries, featured talks, panel discussions, a debate, presentations, workshops, poster presentations and informal networking. Many of the conference sessions were web broadcast to a wider audience who could contribute to conference discussions through tweets and Facebook posts. The collection of papers in this publication reflects the diverse backgrounds, contexts and perspectives assembled at the conference. One of the most notable features of many of the papers is that they are based on bottom-up, grass roots research conducted by practitioners in their own classroom contexts. As Waters (2014) has pointed out, this kind of research is often not captured in the formal innovations literature. In many cases practitioners, whose research is reported in this publication, experimented with a new methodology or technology using an action research methodology and recorded the results of their interventions for the benefit of themselves, their students and other stakeholders. Fullan (2007) and others have viewed innovating as comprising three broad phases: 1. initiation (deciding to go ahead with an innovation), 2. implementation (attempting to put the innovation into practice), and 3. institutionalisation (seeking to achieve sustainability). Most of the papers in these proceedings fall into the first two categories. 14 Innovation in English Language Teacher EducationThe contributions to this publication have been classified into four parts: The Overview section presents the plenary talks which address themes that cover more than one sub-theme of the conference including teacher research, CPD practice and research in India and elsewhere and innovations in pre-service INSETT. Simon Borg’s paper, based on his keynote plenary talk at the conference, examines teacher research as a strategy for professional development which teachers can apply in their working contexts. The key questions he seeks to address are: 1. What is teacher research? 2. What does doing teacher research involve? 3. Why is teacher research a valuable activity for English language teachers? Rama Mathew examines the extent to which education policies support teachers’ continuing professional development (CPD). She reviews some models of teacher development that are in use in and outside India. She then revisits some of the CPD work she has personally been involved in. Her examples help to indicate what kind of CPD work is meaningful to teachers and what is sustainable. She believes that an approach that creates opportunities for reflection and theorising from practice, while continuing to learn about language teaching/learning and about teacher development, is satisfying and sustaining. Julian Edge and Steve Mann reflect on how successful innovations have been in ELT in their paper entitled ‘Innovation in the provision of pre-service education and training for English language teachers: issues and concerns’. They explore the meaning of the notion of innovation and discuss some of the themes of their recent book on pre-service innovations. The authors also invite us to reflect on our role as teacher educators and whether or not we are reviewing our own practice and location in a world of hegemony. Theme one discusses various aspects of innovations in CPD for teacher educators and teachers. Andy Keedwell and Sayed Najeem review the introduction of self-access systems in two contexts, Ethiopia and Afghanistan, where self-access and autonomy remain unfamiliar concepts. They propose ways in which the potential obstacles to effective implementation can be mitigated through systematic CPD and examine in depth the rationale, design and impact of a CPD programme designed to support all involved with self-access systems. Arindam Sengupta reports on a project he conducted in a government Bengali-medium school in Kolkata. Language learning content was generated by encouraging a group of young ESL learners to write in an online students’ magazine. His findings indicate that, by engaging with the collaborative writing task, the learners generated content through a relevant lexical search and Innovation in English Language Teacher Education 15writing coherent paragraphs to describe and/or interpret the artworks. Santosh Mahapatra outlines a case study of an online teacher development programme that focused on familiarising a group of ESL teachers located in diverse contexts with Web 2.0 tools for language teaching purposes. One of the most important pedagogical implications of the study is that Web 2.0-enabled online teacher education holds great potential in ESL contexts like India, but that it should be conducted carefully and in consultation with teachers. Shefali Kulkarni and Allwyn D’Costa outline an innovation in continuing professional development for British Council training consultants working on the Karnataka English Language Teacher Education Project (KELTEP) and review its impact on their development. The paper aims to motivate both individual practitioners as well as heads of institutions to think of collaborative and individual tasks for the development of training consultants. Farhan Azim and Mir Md. Saifur Rahman report on their research into the suitability of self-study materials used by teachers in a CPD programme for primary school teachers involved in the English in Action educational programme implemented in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Ravinarayan Chakrakodi discusses teacher motivation through the use of a video film that was prepared on a particular text used in the Grade VIII English textbook being used in government schools in Karnataka. The impact of the video on the teaching- learning processes in the classroom was analysed and presented in the paper. Theme two explores learning from experience including reflection as a tool for growth, classroom-based research, alternative practices in assessment and evaluation and feedback as a teaching and learning tool. Padmini Boruah reviews the SOAP procedure (Subjective/Objective/Analysis/ Planning) as an effective model for critical reflection that makes practitioners analyse their experience by revisiting it critically and referring it to research in the field before planning the next step in their development. She argues that critical reflection helps professionals question their pedagogical practices through objective procedures, thus leading to healthier classroom interaction and continuous professional development. K. Padmini Shankar reviews the role of tasks in triggering reflection in pre-service teachers. Four tasks related to critical moments in the classroom are used to encourage trainees to reflect on the actions that they would take. Her findings indicate that tasks related to critical classroom moments have the potential to trigger reflection and prepare pre-service teachers to face challenges in their future careers. Lina Mukhopadhyay’s contribution explores the use of evaluation criteria as a scaffolding device to help adult ESL learners plan their writing performance. Her findings indicate that if teachers design, share, and train learners to use evaluation criteria to plan their performance, then learners will be more likely to experience academic benefits. Mohialdeen Alotumi investigates Yemeni EFL students’ perceptions, attitudes and challenges on integrating Facebook Interaction (FBI) to improve their essay writing. The teacher researcher conducted their study to 16 Innovation in English Language Teacher Educationuncover what would allow students to improve their writing skills in a Yemeni EFL context. Elaine Boyd’s reflective paper is designed to help teachers identify and write good tests. The paper describes the importance of validity, reliability and impact and considers their relationship to ethical practice and how this impacts on the teacher’s responsibility to their students. Kuheli Mukherjee reviews a recently revised curriculum for the Diploma in Elementary Teacher Education in West Bengal designed to improve the quality of English teaching. The researcher investigates the current reality of Second Language Teacher Education (SLTE) at the elementary level to explore the conditions necessary for successful implementation of the innovations. The paper discusses three areas: content, approach and the evaluation of elementary SLTE, where innovations have been proposed. Pranjana Kalita Nath’s paper focuses on promoting reflective skills among trainee teachers for their professional growth in distance ELT teacher education programmes. It is an attempt to analyse how activities in print materials in such programmes can be designed effectively to stimulate reflection, as these are still the dominant medium of instruction in distance ELT programmes in India. The paper offers some suggestions on how teacher support can be built into distance- learning print materials to encourage trainees to reflect. Sruti Akula argues that explicit strategy training can be used to develop the higher-order academic reading skills of adult learners. She reports on research in which college students were asked to read a range of texts and guided to match strategies with reading purposes. The learners used a variety of strategies such as predicting, re-reading, underlining and listing key ideas to comprehend texts at both factual and inferential levels. Susmita Pani also refers to the reading problems that many students have at the university level, as they have very limited experience of engaging with texts directly. The paper presents a study that was conducted in Odisha using reciprocal teaching as a classroom procedure. The scaffolding inherent in the procedure and later the clear role distribution involved in reciprocal teaching ensured learner participation and appeared to make this procedure effective. Shree Deepa points out that tasks used in the language classroom normally have visual inputs and that such tasks exclude blind/visually impaired students as they do not perceive them fully. An attempt is made in this paper to explore the possibilities of changing tasks so that the goal of inclusiveness is realised. The study has implications for minimising the exclusion of blind/visually impaired students and facilitating their participation in the tasks with modes that are meaningful and useful. Alice Udosen and Wisdom Jude’s study, conducted in the Akwa Ibom state of Nigeria, sought to explore English language teacher educators’ knowledge of Innovation in English Language Teacher Education 17feedback, and the type and quality of feedback they utilised with their teacher trainees. The results of the study indicated that teacher educators’ perceptions of what constitutes feedback were different from those of their trainees. The researchers recommend that teacher educators be exposed through workshops to understanding what constitutes feedback and how they can implement it as an innovation to achieve the aims of teacher education. Joy Townsend explores the use and effectiveness of observation and feedback in the context of TE:ST (Total Evaluation:School Transformation), an evaluation service conducted in a school. The TE:ST process involved an initial evaluation of the school, including observations of teachers with feedback, interviews, questionnaires and evaluation of documents. A subsequent report with recommendations was then fed into the formulation of a school development plan. In his paper Sanjay Arora proposes ways of defossilising the errors of ESL learners coming from rural backgrounds in Rajasthan through using a variety of classroom strategies. The concluding part of the paper reviews some strategies that may work in other situations beyond the one mentioned above. Adam Scott’s paper outlines the findings and practical applications of his action research project with ESL beginners in a language school in Brighton, UK. The research investigated the effectiveness of teaching corpus-driven content delivered using a lexical teaching approach and found that this resulted in faster language acquisition and more successful interaction, enabling learners to make quicker progress to elementary level and beyond. Geetika Saluja presents a study carried out to implement the principles of co- operative learning (CL) structures in the curriculum transaction of Science in grade VIII students and to study its effect on achievement in Science as well as any changes in communication and interpersonal skills. The results indicated that students who studied by the CL method had a higher level of achievement than students in the control group. Theme three covers various aspects of technological resources for language education. Dawn Bikowski’s paper outlines a framework that guides educators in using technologies in ways that meet students’ communicative competence and digital literacy needs. Resources and guidelines for integrating them into the classroom effectively are discussed and the framework she offers consists of ten guiding principles, which she outlines in the paper. Nicky Hockly’s paper on digital literacies reviews the theory underpinning them, explores how teacher training courses can address them, and considers the challenges involved in operationalising digital literacies in the low-resource classroom. Hockly argues, among other things, that institutions would be well advised to allocate 80% of their budgets to teacher training and development and 20% of their budgets to technology. 18 Innovation in English Language Teacher EducationMeera Srinivas investigates whether the participants of e-teacher courses consider their experience of participating in group tasks to be collaborative. Based on the author’s own experience of participating in a course, and the perceptions of e-teachers obtained through a survey questionnaire, the paper argues that, while there are a few factors that promote positive interaction in the discussion board tasks, certain factors impede effective collaboration and learning in small group projects. The paper discusses these factors and the implications for the design and implementation of collaborative tasks in online teacher education courses. Bose Vasudevan posits that video recordings of the micro teaching of ELT teacher trainees can help them reflect on their own teaching. The paper, which was based on research conducted with a group of ELT teacher trainees at the Institute of Language Teaching, Jamnagar, presents the possibilities of using video recordings of sequences of teaching language as tools for reflection to assist trainees to become insightful and realistic about their own teaching. Priyank Varma and Madhavi Gayathri Raman explore the possibility of making print materials, specifically the language textbook, more accessible to visually impaired learners who attend mainstream classes. Three lessons from the English textbook used by schools affiliated to the Andhra Pradesh State Board syllabus were presented in an audio format to eleven visually impaired learners from nine schools. Their analysis indicates that the target group performed better when provided with the necessary support using advancements in the print media and audio technology. Ramraj M’s paper highlights that whilst reading is a complex and cognitively demanding process that requires chunking, visually impaired learners have to read a text word by word whether read out by a scribe or with the use of technology. The researcher compares the differences in the performance of sighted and visually impaired students using three parallel reading comprehension texts, read out by scribes and by technology, with and without numbering and indication of answer location. Raashid Nehal documents a pilot study project funded by the Regional English Language Office (RELO), American Centre, New Delhi and facilitated by the Academic Staff College of the Aligarh Muslim University as part of the Kindle Mobile learning initiative in India. The paper is based on the use of Kindle technology by 337 young learners enrolled in four English Access Microscholarship programmes at Aligarh, Bhubaneswar, Kochi (Aluva) and Kolkata. Akhil Jha reports on research into developing the the writing skills of first year engineering students at the Indian Institute of Technology, Indore. Through ‘peer group writing’, students with better writing skills provided a scaffold for learners who did not have appropriate writing skills. Secondly, technology was used to enable peers and the teacher to provide opportunities for whole class feedback and revision. It is hoped that this publication will feed into the current and growing literature on innovation in English language teaching and teacher education in diverse contexts (Edge & Mann 2013; Hayes 2014). Waters (2014) has recently argued for the research agenda on innovations to include: Innovation in English Language Teacher Education 19 1. investigations concerning the further application of established theoretical frameworks; 2. others involving concepts from innovation theory which have not yet been applied to English language education (ELE); and 3. research into under-researched aspects of ELE innovations. We very much hope that this publication stimulates others to become more involved in this agenda. The editors would like to express their sincere thanks to the contributors to this publication for conducting their innovations and for communicating them so eloquently to others. We are very grateful that so many of the authors have agreed to provide their email addresses so that individuals can follow up specific points with them. We hope that readers will find that the range of practices and perspectives encompassed in this publication will encourage them: • to reflect on their own experiences of innovation • to carry out their own research and • to identify ‘bright spots’, examples of best practices, often carried out in challenging contexts (Heath and Heath 2011). The British Council and the English and Foreign Languages University, Hyderabad welcome your responses to this publication and to the ongoing development of research, planning, implementation and the institutionalisation of innovation in English language teaching and English language teacher education. References Edge, J. and Mann, S. (Eds.) (2013) Innovations in Pre-Service Education and Training for English Language Teachers. London: British Council. Fullan, M. (2007) The new meaning of educational change (Fourth edition). Abingdon: Routledge. Hayes, D. (Ed.) (2014) Innovations in the continuing professional development of English language teachers. London: British Council. Heath, C. and Heath, D. (2011) Switch. London: Random House. Nicholls, A. (1983) Managing educational innovations. London: Allen & Unwin. Waters, A. (2009) ‘Managing innovation in English language education’. Language Teaching 42/4: 421-458. Waters, A. (2014) ‘Managing innovation in English language education: A research agenda’. Language Teaching 47/01: 92-110. Wedell, M. (2009) Planning for educational change: putting people and their contexts first. London: Continuum. 20 Innovation in English Language Teacher EducationOverview: Innovation in English language teacher education Innovation in English Language Teacher Education 2122 Innovation in English Language Teacher EducationTeacher research for professional development Simon Borg, ELT Consultant Abstract Conventional notions of teacher development are based on training models which very often take teachers away from the classroom. This paper examines teacher research as a strategy for professional development which teachers can apply in their working contexts. Key questions I address are: 1. What is teacher research? 2. What does doing teacher research involve? 3. Why is teacher research a valuable activity for English language teachers? My aim here is to demonstrate that teacher research is a feasible and valuable professional development strategy that English language teachers can engage in and which can contribute to improvements in the quality of the educational experience they provide for their learners. Introduction Teachers spend the bulk of their time in the classroom, yet professional development typically involves activities that occur away from the classroom, such as workshops, lectures, courses and conferences. There is of course value in all such activities; however, exclusive reliance on external opportunities for professional development has several drawbacks, summarized in Table 1: Table 1: External teacher development Infrequent Teachers cannot attend external events on a regular basis Costly Teachers or their schools must pay to attend Disruptive Teachers are taken out of school and lessons must be rearranged Generic External training may not address individual teacher needs Decontextualized Learning is not situated in teachers’ classrooms Receptive Teachers receive knowledge from more ‘expert’ trainers Not ‘owned’ Teachers have minimal say in decisions about the training Teacher research provides an alternative to external training and in the rest of this paper I will explain what it is and what doing it involves. Teacher research Teachers often react negatively to the suggestion that they can use teacher research to support their professional development. These reactions are caused Innovation in English Language Teacher Education 23by misconceptions of what research is and Figure 1 shows six common ideas about research that teachers often have. Research very often does have one or more of these characteristics; however, none of them are defining features of research. For example, although teachers often see research as an activity that is academic (i.e. done to obtain a degree or by someone working in academia), research can also be done by teachers to support their professional development. And, to take two further examples, while research may be large-scale and statistical, it can also be small-scale and qualitative. In introducing teacher research, then, it is important to ensure that research is not being conceived of by teachers in ways which make it appear to be an unfeasible and irrelevant activity. Research should not be defined with reference to its scale, its methodology or the status of the researcher; rather, I find it useful to see it more generally as planned, systematic, purposeful, empirical inquiry which is made public. This definition of research is an appropriate way into a more specific definition of teacher research, which can be distinguished from other forms of research in three particular ways: 1. It is done by teachers – i.e. teachers are the researchers. 2. It takes place in teachers’ working contexts – the site for teacher research is the school or classroom. 3. Its purpose is to enhance teachers’ work – teacher research allows teachers to understand themselves, their teaching and their students; such understandings can also contribute to the growth of the organization teachers work in. Figure 1: Six misconceptions about the defining features of research 24 Innovation in English Language Teacher EducationIt is important to stress that teacher research is not simply research done by teachers; a teacher doing research for their MA degree who studies other teachers (e.g. through a questionnaire) is not doing teacher research because the focus is not on themselves; similarly, not all research done in the classroom is teacher research – e.g. an academic who visits a school to collect classroom data is not investigating their own teaching but studying others in the way that research conventionally does – this is not teacher research. Doing teacher research The process of teacher research is typically visualized as a cycle of some kind (this is especially true in the case of action research, which is one particular type of teacher research). Figure 2 highlights key elements in the teacher research process. Figure 2: Components in teacher research The starting point for teacher research is a question of some kind – an issue that the teacher wants to learn more about or understand better. Although this initial question is often driven by a problem, teacher research is not simply a strategy for solving problems. For example, teachers may want to develop a better understanding of something that works well. The questions that drive teacher research will also be very practical, stemming from teachers’ experiences in the classrooms. How can I integrate pair work activities into my lectures? What kind of feedback on writing do my students prefer? How do my learners react to the use of self-assessment? These are examples of questions teachers have investigated using teacher research (see http://www.cambridge.org/elt/blog/2014/02/teacher- Innovation in English Language Teacher Education 25research-practical-relevant-classroom-inquiry/ for more examples of the kinds of questions teacher research can explore). Returning to Figure 2, once teachers have a question the next step is to act – to collect some information (or data) relevant to it. This is a central part of the process – teacher research is empirical (i.e. it relies on the collection and analysis of data). The information that is collected needs to be analysed and evaluated, and teachers then use the insights emerging from these processes to make pedagogical decisions. The cyclical nature of the diagram implies that the process is an ongoing one; this does not mean that teachers will be doing teacher research all the time, but more generally the idea is that it is not a linear process through which definitive solutions or answers will be discovered after one cycle of inquiry. Figure 2 also highlights four additional processes which can enhance teacher research: • reflection, because teacher researchers are by definition being systematically thoughtful about their work in an ongoing manner; • reading, because it can be useful to know about what others have already written about the issues teachers are interested in (there is no suggestion here, though, that teacher research should involve the kind of reading that would be required for an academic degree); • communicating, because by talking to colleagues about their inquiries teachers can receive useful feedback and advice and also motivate others to engage in inquiries of their own; • and finally, collaborating, because teacher research will be enhanced when teachers work together on a shared project rather than alone. As noted above, teachers need to collect data to help them examine the questions they are pursuing. Various strategies for data collection are available to teachers – e.g. journal writing, surveys, drawings and photos, video, observation, interviews, class discussions, student work, and lesson plans. One key consideration which should influence which options teachers employ is feasibility – teacher research must be feasible, as it is an activity which teachers do as part of their normal teaching duties; data collection, then, should be integrated as far as possible into teachers’ regular work (as opposed to creating large amounts of extra work for them). The further reading listed at the end of this paper includes many examples of published teacher research projects. Benefits of teacher research Numerous benefits of teacher research have been identified in the literature. For example, teachers engaged in teacher research have said they feel more confident, motivated and autonomous; they also feel they are more knowledgeable and have a better understanding of their students. Where teacher research is collaborative, teachers have also reported improvements in their relationships with colleagues. Teacher research allows teachers to be more optimistic; as one 26 Innovation in English Language Teacher Educationteacher I worked with said, “I look upon problems as challenges to be overcome through research not hurdles to cry about”. Renewed enthusiasm is another benefit that teachers derive from teacher research, as illustrated in this comment: “We have been teaching the same way we taught ten years ago but now we have an urge to experiment with new ideas in our teaching”. It is clear then that teacher research offers many potential benefits to teachers; their students also benefit from more informed pedagogical decisions while organizations can benefit too where a culture of teacher research exists across a school. As evidence of these many benefits grows, teacher research is becoming increasingly visible as a professional development strategy for teachers. For example, Cambridge English and English Australia run a teacher research scheme for ELT professionals in Australia; Cambridge English and English UK run a similar scheme for teachers of English in the UK; while Cambridge University Press has also recently launched its own teacher research scheme. The British Council is also supporting teacher research, as for example in the project I facilitated with teachers of English in Pakistan in 2012-13 and which resulted in a publication containing the reports of teachers’ work (see further reading below). Conclusion I started this paper by arguing that exclusive reliance on external forms of professional development has several drawbacks. In contrast, teacher research provides an option which allows professional development to be ongoing, inexpensive, integrated into teachers’ routine work, personalized and practical. Teacher research also gives teachers a strong sense of ownership in shaping the direction their professional development takes. I am not of course suggesting that teacher research is the right or only option for all teachers – teachers in different contexts and at different stages of their career will benefit in varying ways from different approaches to professional development; however, where the conditions are appropriate and teachers have suitable skills, knowledge and dispositions, teacher research has significant transformative potential. Further reading Allwright, D. and Hanks, J. (2009) The developing language learner: An introduction to exploratory practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Altrichter, H., Feldman, A., Posch, P. and Somekh, B. (2008) Teachers investigate their work: An introduction to action research across the professions (Second edition). London: Routledge. Borg, S. (2006) ‘Conditions for teacher research’. English Teaching Forum 44(4): 22–27. Available at: http://americanenglish.state.gov/files/ae/resource_files/06- 44-4-d_0.pdf Borg, S. (2010) ‘Language teacher research engagement’. Language Teaching, 43(4): 391-429. Borg, S. (2013) Teacher research in language teaching: A critical analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Innovation in English Language Teacher Education 27Borg, S. and Liu, Y. (2013) ‘Chinese college English teachers’ research engagement’. TESOL Quarterly 47(2): 270-299. Borg, S. (Ed.) (2014) Teacher research in Pakistan: Enhancing the teaching and learning of English. Lahore: British Council. Brindley, G. (1991) ‘Becoming a researcher: Teacher-conducted research and professional growth’ in E. Sadtono (Ed.), Issues in language teacher education. Singapore: RELC. Burns, A. (2010) Doing action research in English language teaching. A guide for practitioners. New York: Routledge. Burns, A. (2011) ‘Embedding teacher research into a national language programme: Lessons from a pilot project’. Research Notes 44: 3-6. Carter, K. and Halsall, R. (1998) ‘Teacher research for school improvement’ in R. Halsall (Ed.), Teacher research and school improvement: Opening doors from the inside. Buckingham: Open University Press. Davies, P., Hamilton, M. and James, K. (2007) Practitioners leading research. London: NRDC. Available at: http://tinyurl.com/n35jutv Ebbutt, D. (2002) ‘The development of a research culture in secondary schools’. Educational Action Research 10(1): 123–142. Halai, N. (2011) ‘How teachers become action researchers in Pakistan: Emerging patterns from a qualitative metasynthesis’. Educational Action Research 19(2): 201- 214. Oolbekkink-Marchand, H. W., van der Steen, J. and Nijveldt, M. (2014) ‘A study of the quality of practitioner research in secondary education: Impact on teacher and school development’. Educational Action Research 22(1): 122-139. Rickinson, M., Clark, A., McLeod, S., Poulton, P. and Sargent, J. (2004) ‘What on earth has research got to do with me?’ Teacher Development 8(2/3): 201-220. Rust, F. and Clark, C. M. (2007) How to do action research in your classroom. New York: Teachers Network. Available at: http://teachersnetwork.org/tnli/Action_ Research_Booklet.pdf Sharp, C. (2007) Making research make a difference. Teacher research: a small-scale study to look at impact. Chelmsford: Flare. Wyatt, M. (2010) ‘Teachers researching their own practice’. ELT Journal, 65(4): 417- 425. Zeichner, K. M. and Noffke, S. E. (2001) ‘Practitioner research’ in V. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (Fourth edition). Washington, D.C.: American Educational Research Association. Visit http://simon-borg.co.uk/free-sources-of-language-teaching-research/ for a list of free sources of language teaching research, including several volumes of teacher research. 28 Innovation in English Language Teacher EducationTeacher development as the future of teacher education Rama Mathew, Professor, Department of Education, Delhi University, Delhi Abstract Available evidence about teachers’ professional development generally paints a rather gloomy picture, especially in India. While some pockets can be identified where good teacher development practices are in operation, reports from schools and school boards indicate a contrary view: hardly any provision for teacher development, either in terms of time given to the teacher for his/her own development or any acknowledgement of how some teachers are making efforts to develop on their own. In this paper, I would like to first examine whether and to what extent education policies provide for teachers’ continuing professional development vis-à-vis its actual realisation in school contexts. Then I would like to look at some models of teacher development that are in use outside India. With this as the backdrop, I would like to revisit some of the CPD work I have been involved in to understand the nuances of this construct. The examples I discuss indicate what kind of CPD work is meaningful to teachers and more importantly what is sustainable. I would like to suggest that an approach that creates opportunities for reflection and theorising from practice while continuing to learn about language teaching/learning and about teacher development is satisfying and sustaining. Teacher Training (TT), Teacher Education (TE) and Teacher Development (TD) It is necessary to understand key terms such as TT, TE and TD before we go on to discuss Teacher Development. Training, according to Widdowson (1983) and Richards and Nunan (1990), deals with familiarising student teachers with techniques and skills to apply in the classroom whereas education involves teachers in ‘developing theories of teaching, understanding the nature of teacher decision making and strategies for self-awareness and self-evaluation...’ (Richards and Nunan ibid: xi). TT is one-off, usually short-term and compulsory for getting a job. On the other hand, TD is seen to be a voluntary process, ongoing, bottom-up, since the starting point is the teachers’ own experience where new information is sought, shared, reflected on, tried out, processed in terms of personal experience and finally ‘owned’ by the teachers (Ur 1997). For the purpose of this paper, TT is an officially mandated programme that may or may not have elements that promote TD. When development is not required on a TT programme, it becomes a goal which a teacher engages in of his/her own volition; and understandably not many teachers will want to take on anything ‘extra’. Regardless of low salaries, inadequate resources and lack of incentives, some teachers set up a Innovation in English Language Teacher Education 29developmental agenda and engage in activities because they see personal value in it (see Head and Taylor 1997 for a discussion of this point). Teacher development: a policy perspective This section attempts to provide a brief summary and a critique of what various committees and commissions have recommended especially for CPD of teachers. This is done in order to understand the policy perspective that informs school education vis-à-vis CPD in India. Beginning with the University Education Commission (1948-49) which emphasised the need to supplement experience with experiment, the different advisory bodies have continually stressed the importance of different aspects of in-service teacher education (Secondary Education Commission 1952-53, Education Commission 1964-66, Yashpal Committee 1993, National Commission on Teachers 1983-85, National Curriculum Framework for School Education 2000). Experts seem to agree that teacher education is a continuous process and that its pre-service and in-service components are inseparable. However, there seems to be some confusion/contradiction in the way TE has been conceptualised: on the one hand, terms such as CPD, sharing of practice, need-based programmes, self-learning and independent thinking, and on the other, notions such as training, reorientation of teachers, equipping which implies a skill-based approach, are interchangeably used. The more recent policy frameworks, e.g. the National Curriculum Framework (2005) and the National Knowledge Commission (2006- 2009) see CPD as the most important measure to bridge the gap between pre-service and in-service TE. The Commission also recommends peer feedback, especially in rural areas, as a support system for TD. The National Council of Teacher Education (NCTE), a statutory body of the Government of India, has made specific recommendations about in-service TE (1998, 2009). One of the aims of CPD programmes according to the 2009 document is for teachers to ‘break out of intellectual isolation and share experiences and insights with others in the field, both teachers and academics ….’ (p. 65). For this, the need to create ‘spaces for sharing of experiences of communities of teachers’ (p. 66) is emphasised. In sum, the terms training and development have been interchangeably used, as a result of which even short, expert oriented, one-off in-service programmes are seen as TD activities. The earlier recommendations saw a need for CPD but did not articulate its ramifications clearly enough for implementation. The more recent ones seem to spell out more details that render CPD achievable in more concrete terms in school as well as in TEIs (Teacher Education Institutions), but do not have a corresponding provision in school-practice. There are several unanswered questions: How is the space to be created in the teacher’s busy schedule for teacher reflection, sharing, mentoring and learning from one another? Who should create it? What is the role of a TEI in CPD? Is there a provision for acknowledging 30 Innovation in English Language Teacher Educationteacher’s own efforts at engaging in CPD activities? Can NCTE, school boards and TEIs work collaboratively to make this policy a reality? CPD in schools: what do teachers say? A small questionnaire-based study of some thirty teachers in Delhi, with school- teaching experience of 2 to 20 years, was carried out to find out their perceptions of what their job entailed and of possibilities that exist for their professional development. For a few it was a profession of their choice; for the rest it was by accident or the last option as a career. However, if they were to make a choice now, almost all of them felt that they would choose this profession; one of them, in fact, said, ‘I wish I had become a teacher sooner’. The study revealed that most teachers had settled into the profession even though it may not have been their first choice. They do not like non-academic activities, but derive a lot of satisfaction when students show interest in learning. They would like to be up to date in their subject, but in-service programmes don’t seem to help them with this, nor with how to become better teachers; they have to themselves find ways of doing this. Clearly they have not heard of TD and long for a forum and an outlet where they can express and share their experience with each other. Thus, while in policy there is a strong suggestion for creating space for teachers to share experience with peers, from what obtains in schools, it seems clear that except for short, discrete programmes which are mandatory, there is nothing that helps teachers to keep themselves alive or motivated in their busy schedule. Many of them have learnt to ‘survive’ in their own ways, since there is no system-support for ongoing professional development. Some success stories around the world There are quite a few initiatives elsewhere that not only visualise comprehensive models for developing education professionals but also ensure that these models are implemented in actual practice. The TE model for the 21st century (TE²¹) suggested by the National Institute of Education in Singapore comprises various components unified by the overarching purpose of equipping teachers with competencies that will enable them to respond proactively to the responsibilities of the classroom and the school. The TE²¹ model takes into account the entire spectrum of TE from the stage of initial teacher preparation through to the continuing journey of teacher professional development (see National Institute of Education 2009 for details). The Professional Standards for Teachers (2007) designed by Ofsted (Office for Standards in Education, Children’s Services and Skills) in the UK is a basic framework within which all teachers should operate from the point of initial qualification. The five stages identified are: • Qualified Teacher Status • Core Innovation in English Language Teacher Education 31• Post Threshold • Excellent Teacher • Advanced Skills Teacher Appropriate self-evaluation, reflection and professional development activity are critical to improving teachers’ practice at all career stages. The standards demonstrate clearly the key areas in which a teacher should be able to assess his or her own practice, and receive feedback from colleagues. As their careers progress, teachers are expected to extend the depth and breadth of knowledge, skill and understanding that they demonstrate in meeting the standards appropriate to the role they are fulfilling and the context in which they are working. Stages in Professional Development conceptualised by the British Council’s new CPD framework focus on the level of understanding and ability that teachers have in different areas of their professional practice. These stages are articulated as: • Awareness • Understanding • Engaged • Integrated. These are only a few examples that offer a roadmap for teacher development. We do not have in India a roadmap that delineates the different stages of development let alone provides accreditation and acknowledgement to a teacher who traverses the path of development. The next section discusses briefly examples of work done in India and tries to understand what lessons we can learn from them. Some examples from India Here I would like to draw on work that I have been part of in the last twenty years to highlight as well as critique some of the key features in in-service TE and CPD projects. The CBSE-ELT Curriculum Implementation Study (1993-1998) This aimed to monitor and evaluate how the Interact in English books at Grade 9 and 10 levels within a communicative curriculum were used in actual classroom contexts across the country and to provide ongoing support with a view to strengthening the curriculum. This phase involved many teachers in studying their own and colleagues’ classrooms in a research-based way and conducted need- based workshops whenever the ongoing feedback indicated it. Teachers took on different roles: i.e. that of researcher, resource person, materials writer, assessor and mentor. This phase, that lasted five years, clearly indicated that an insider- oriented monitoring and evaluation phase supported by ‘outside experts’ was indeed meaningful to teachers and sustainable. By the end of the project, it was clear that a top-down as well as a bottom-up approach to curriculum renewal is important to bring about change in schools. However, the project had a finite time- line and funds and therefore had to end. 32 Innovation in English Language Teacher EducationThe tracer study I undertook this to evaluate the project’s impact after three years and addressed the following questions: 1. the nature and extent to which the communicative curriculum introduced in 1993 continued to be communicative and learner-centred, taking into account the kind of support available in school; 2. the nature and extent to which the teacher-research approach to ongoing curriculum renewal and professional development had been sustained. The findings from the tracer study revealed the following: the role of teachers-as- researchers during the monitoring and evaluation phase gave teachers a broader perspective on the curriculum in different contexts. Before the project, they merely taught the ‘lesson’, did the exercises, and conducted tests and were happy. Now their work did not end with a class. They could observe colleagues’ classes in a non-judgemental way and it ‘worked wonders’ (in a teacher’s own words) with colleagues. Many of these teachers managed these ongoing professional activities in spite of the school’s (unwritten) rules and conventions. There were ‘silent innovators’, albeit very few, who did things that they felt needed to be done, in spite of school constraints. This study underlined the need for building on existing school/Board structures to support the teacher in her ongoing professional development (see Mathew 2006 for details). Case study (six teachers) I undertook a case study of six such ‘silent innovators’ (2003). The study explored the following questions: • How does the pedagogical understanding of teachers develop and change over time? • What personal and professional influences impact teachers’ pedagogical understanding? • What kind(s) of inputs are self-sustaining and generative? • How do teachers build on these inputs to become ongoing learners? Four important themes that shape teacher development emerged from the case study (see Mathew 2005 for details): 1. Certain personality traits that enable the teacher to see teaching as a vocation 2. A propensity for reflective thinking 3. The need for ongoing professional development activities, and 4. The importance of school support. Mentoring in Delhi schools (2008–2010) This project in in-service education aimed to arrive at a model of mentoring and to create a community of teachers who support each other, keep growing and help bridge the gap between teacher education institutions and schools (Mentoring in Delhi Schools 2010). Innovation in English Language Teacher Education 33We supported the teachers by developing a self-instructional handbook on mentoring, giving them a hands-on orientation to how they could observe each other’s classes and discuss them, and enabling them to read and discuss some articles/papers in the area. Of the 80 teachers in 11 schools that participated in this CPD project, we found the following: • About 25-30 managed to do most of the things and saw value in it. There were mainly two kinds: where, because of school managements and leadership, a model of CPD already existed; and where, in spite of a not-so-supportive environment, teachers engaged in the work because they saw meaning in it. • About 25 of them gave it a try with different degrees of success. • The rest were non-starters: not volunteers, inadequate school support, not motivated enough. The project revealed that a framework for CPD was clearly necessary for teachers to first of all take on work beyond their regular schedule and then to continue with it. Self-motivation alone was not sufficient to pursue CPD. Diary study with teachers Ten volunteer teachers in Delhi took up a diary study that involved writing diaries, looking at each other’s diaries and commenting on them in a non-judgemental but a critical way. This three-month study resulted in the presentation of a paper based on it at TEC12 and a subsequent publication in the British Council’s CPD book (Mathew 2013). The diaries indicated that although quite a few of them began at the descriptive reflection level, over the three months of diary writing they had reached the dialogic level; there were also instances of critical reflection (see Hatton and Smith’s (1995) stages of reflection in the Appendix). These teachers wanted to do diary writing and contribute chapters to a book on teachers’ voices and professional development. Now we are working on a project involving young learners as researchers (in collaboration with Warwick University) and hope to write a book on our work. Conclusions The work during the last twenty years shows that some things about CPD have indeed changed: while the policy on TE appears to have become more sophisticated, schools make heavier demands on teachers’ time, thus neutralising the implementation of the policy. For example, the work on CCE (Continuous Comprehensive Evaluation) has increased tremendously reducing the teacher to the status of an assembly-line worker. Clearly school boards and policy makers need to collaboratively arrive at a workable model for CPD. If not, while a few teachers will struggle to stay growing and motivated, the large majority who do not have the will and/or the energy to struggle give up and settle down to a ‘normal’ routine. 34 Innovation in English Language Teacher EducationWhere do we go from here? I recommend the following: • We need to encourage teachers to theorise from their practice and articulate their understanding in their own words and not pursue a theory-first-and- then-practice approach. The school’s agenda and TE policy provisions seem to by and large contradict. While good initial TT programmes can well initiate teachers to take on the path of CPD, unless (i) drastic changes are made to the existing TT programmes with corresponding improvement in teacher educators’ competence resulting in more learner-centred approaches to TE, and (ii) schools put in place a strong CPD model and make it work, this will remain a distant dream. • On our part, we need to accord the status to teachers as knowers, as producers of legitimate knowledge, and as capable of constructing and sustaining their own professional development over time. For this to happen, we need to have a support system in schools which means that they are given time and space to reflect, observe each other’s classes, engage in a professional dialogue, read and write about education, share their experience in seminars/workshops and carry out a host of other professional activities. The stages of professional development, as envisioned by Ofsted, NIE’s TE²¹ or the British Council, will need to chart the pathways for professional development and lay out clear benchmarks to achieve and appropriately reward those teachers who achieve those targets. Such a scheme will alleviate the problem of teachers attending in-service programmes because their Principals asked them to or because they will get a show-cause notice. It will encourage teachers to take charge of their professional growth and will help them to plan and organise their learning in a way they can manage what is meaningful to them. After all, development is a highly personal experience and each of us derives benefit from opportunities that we encounter/create for ourselves in ways that are meaningful to us. And intriguingly, we should have the choice not to develop if we don’t wish to; the only question is, what is the proportion of developing and not-developing teachers that a school system can afford? Clearly it is imperative that we put in place a workable model that helps teachers to keep growing. We need to create a workable CPD model that makes teaching a profession of choice. The following observation provides a befitting endnote to what I have tried to say here: In order for change to become self-sustaining, teachers must begin to engage in practices that have built-in support for the changes they have made; otherwise, the changes are likely to erode over time…for change to become generative, teachers must engage in practices that serve as a basis for their continued learning (Franke, Carpenter, Fennema, Ansell and Behrend 1998: 67). Innovation in English Language Teacher Education 35References CBSE-ELT Curriculum Implementation Study (1993-97) Final Report 1997. Unpublished. Hyderabad: Central Institute of English and Foreign Languages. Education Commission (1964-66) Govt. of India, New Delhi, beta.metastudio.org/ gstudio/page/gnowsys-page/6605/ Franke, M.L., Carpenter, T., Fennema, E., Ansell, E. and Behrend, J. (1998) ‘Understanding teachers’ self-sustaining, generative change in the context of professional development’. 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Available at: http://www.ncte-india.org/pub/policy/policy_0.htm 36 Innovation in English Language Teacher EducationNCTE (2009) National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education: Towards Preparing Professional and Humane Teacher. New Delhi. Available at: http://www. ncte-india.org/publicnotice/NCFTE_2010.pdf Richards, J.C. and Nunan, D. (Eds.) (1990) Second Language Teacher Education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) Govt. of India, New Delhi. Available at: http://www.teindia.nic.in/Files/Reports/CCR/Secondary_Education_Commission_ Report.pdf University Education Commission (1948-49) Govt. of India, New Delhi. Available at: http://www.southasiaarchive.com/Content/sarf.145194/214974 Ur, P. (1997) ‘The English teacher as professional’. English Teaching Professional 1/2: 3-5. Widdowson, H.G. (1983) Learning Purpose and Language Use. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Yashpal Committee (1993) ‘Learning without Burden’. Govt. of India, New Delhi. Available at: http://www.teindia.nic.in/Files/Reports/CCR/Yash%20Pal_committe_ report_lwb.pdf Appendix Stages of Reflection (Hatton and Smith 1995) • Descriptive, factual writing: Not reflective. • Descriptive reflection: Reflective, not only a description of events but some attempt to provide reason/justification for events but in a reportive way. • Dialogic reflection: Demonstrates a ‘stepping back’ from the events/actions leading to a different level of mulling about, discourse with self and exploring the experience, events and actions using qualities of judgement and possible alternatives for explaining and hypothesising. • Critical reflection: Demonstrates an awareness that actions and events are not only located in, and explicable by, reference to multiple perspectives but are located in, and influenced by, multiple historical and socio-political contexts. Innovation in English Language Teacher Education 37Innovation in the provision of pre-service education and training for English language teachers: issues and concerns Julian Edge, University of Manchester, UK Steve Mann, University of Warwick, UK Innovation: some issues from Steve The British Council has invested some serious energy in the last decade in promoting innovation. Taken as a whole, most of these efforts have been worthwhile. Some might think that the ELTON awards (awards for innovation in ELT) are a pale imitation of the Oscars but they are the closest that teachers, publishers and those involved in teacher education will ever get to a red carpet and some kind of recognition The ELTONs are the only international awards that recognise and celebrate innovation in the field of English language teaching. What is good about the ELTONs is that they promote ideas that are new and above all ideas that are practical and usable. This is the kind of philosophy that Julian and I adopted for our Innovations book (Edge and Mann 2013). We wanted accounts of practice which foregrounded practical steps and procedures. This is also the rationale for other contributions in the Innovations series (British Council 2013). How successful have innovations been in ELT? I now want to focus on innovation. The first question to consider is how successful innovations have been in ELT. Obviously in an article of this length we have not time for an exhaustive survey but, although innovation in ELT has grown apace in recent years, much of it has been unsuccessful (see, for example, Waters 2009). Wedell (2009) argues that this is because of a failure to take into account lessons from innovation theory. He is referring to thinking about who will use the innovation, how they will use it and what barriers there might be in successful adoption of an innovation. In simple terms, he is talking about who is likely to be using these innovations and under what conditions. This consideration of innovation and its relation to context is ‘situated’ and therefore should be concerned with the development of an appropriate methodology (Holliday 1994). Innovation in PreSETT At this point in the article, it might be useful to tell you more about the British Council publication we have been involved in. Edge and Mann (2013) includes 14 different articles that feature an innovation in a PreSETT context. Initially there were over 150 proposals (showing a huge level of interest in the project), confirming the British Council view that there were plenty of practitioners who would like to share practice in this area. When we sent guidelines to the authors 38 Innovation in English Language Teacher Educationwe asked for specific detail of the innovation. In other words, we wanted clarity in description of the procedures and process. It was also important that we heard from those on the receiving end of the innovation: What were their views? How had it gone for them? In addition, we wanted practitioners to be reflexive about the process; that is: What had they learned? How had they changed? What is important in the accounts we chose was that they provide the detail of innovation and evaluation in a context of reflective practice (RP). This is important because it gives a detailed, situated view and it also makes possible replication, or at least informed action, on the part of other practitioners. The importance of context Innovations are not easily generalisable, because each context has its own constraints, affordances and dynamic. This is why an in-depth appraisal of the innovation context is vital before introducing an innovation. The ‘hybrid model’ (Henrichsen 1989) provides a thorough system for identifying contextual factors likely to facilitate or hinder the change process and this gives us a good start in responding to Holliday’s (1994) call for the recognition of the importance of a detailed, ethnomethodological understanding of the innovation situation in making judgements of appropriacy. The idea of being ‘appropriate’ chimes with ideas of ‘situated learning’. If we embrace the ideas of appropriate methodology both in what we are aiming to get our teacher-trainers to achieve and in what we aim for it, this moves us away from ideas of generalised ‘best practice’ towards ‘praxis’. This is essentially where we currently ‘live’ in a period of ‘post-method condition’ (Kumaravadivelu 2001). This is a time when there needs to be a renewed and corresponding recognition of the importance of situated learning and appropriate methodology. Developing situated or appropriate tools In order for appropriate and situated methodology and learning to happen, tools need to be sufficiently flexible that they can be tailored to specific contexts and facilitate the kind of up-close professional understanding that RP was originally designed to foster. This is why some of the accounts in Edge and Mann (2013) are important. For example, Kurtoglu-Hooton (2013) shows that RP can and should be taught on pre- and in-sessional teacher education programmes but in a more systematic way. Her tools enable close-up and data-led attention to teaching. New in context One of the key ideas of Mann and Edge (2013) is that a new idea is not the same as an innovation. Innovation demands that the practitioner concentrates on process; it demands ongoing self-evaluation and reflection; it asks that we pay as much attention to how we teach or train as to which topics get covered along the way, or the tools that we employ. This is why we asked contributors to make clear the steps and detail of introduction, implementation and evaluation of their efforts, because it is the realisation of an ‘idea in action’ that constitutes ‘genuine innovation’. Mawa Samb’s (2013) article on formative assessment would not be seen as a new idea in most contexts. However, it is an innovation in Senegal. Innovation in English Language Teacher Education 39Likewise Lesley Dick’s (2013) work in Sri Lanka may not immediately sound like a headline-grabbing innovation. We have all used ‘top tips’ haven’t we, with our teacher-trainees? However, the innovative aspect of Dick’s work is that these top tips are an outcome of a bottom-up process of discussion. They are renewed and revisited with each new group. We get a sense from Lesley that the reflective process (stepping back) has established the nature of the task itself: I have used Top Tips in input sessions and in teaching practice feedback sessions for years but have never really taken a step back and queried why it worked and what it did. (Dick 2013: 143) Kaizen There is a Japanese concept that is used in management and business called ‘kaizen’ and I think it is useful as a metaphor for the kind of innovation that we are promoting in this chapter. ‘Kaizen’ can be translated as kai (“change”) and zen (“good”) and, taken together has the meaning of something like “improvement”. Its intended effect on the ‘workforce’ is to engage all workers in the continuous improvement of design. The ‘workers’ are not only encouraged to engage in a process of continuous evaluation and potential improvement but they are empowered to feel that they have both a voice and input. lf we apply the same concept to teaching and teacher training we can focus on the following: • The practice of continuous quality improvement within one’s teaching; • Innovation is based on many small changes rather than radical changes; • Ideas for change and improvement come from teachers and students themselves; • Teachers take ownership for their work and related improvements. For me this is a potentially powerful way of looking at innovation. For most of us it will not be eureka moments that make a difference to quality. Rather it will be a series of much smaller-scale modifications and small changes. I remember Jane Willis once talking about the importance of small tweaks in task-based learning and teaching. These kinds of tweaks are very much what the concept of kaizen foregrounds. Icarus and Narcissus Having explained that I think kaizen can help us characterise innovation as a reflexive process of small actions, I want to pause and share with you the central comparative metaphor in Julian’s most recent book. It is called The Reflexive Teacher Educator in TESOL (2011). You probably know the individual stories of Icarus and Narcissus. Icarus had wings and flew higher than he should. Narcissus stayed too long observing himself and put down roots. They are both seen as failures. However, Julian argues that they represent a dynamic and inevitable tension that propels us forward in our professional practice, where ‘the mutually- shaping interactions between our roots and our wings, our self-knowledge and our environmental knowledge’ provide awareness so that we can ‘commit ourselves 40 Innovation in English Language Teacher Educationto future action based on that combined awareness’ (Edge 2011:17). We need to know our context and ourselves (where we currently are) in order to make the kind of small-scale innovation that is appropriate future action. Of course, the tension between Narcissus and Icarus is not the only one we have to negotiate as teacher trainers. For example, we need to negotiate a balance between direction and reflection (see Farr 2011). At this point, I will hand over to Julian. Innovation: some concerns from Julian Shortly after my last visit to India, I remember being greatly encouraged by the publication of Naidu et al (1992). The authors reported in depth on a piece of collaborative teacher research in which they emphasised the importance of articulating to each other the thinking behind what they actually did in class: By naming what we do we have recovered our practice, which otherwise might have been lost irretrievably (a fate we believe that many teachers have suffered). Further, we can now identify for ourselves what aspects of our practice we are confident of and what we need to strengthen. (p.261) I find those words, ‘a fate we believe that many teachers have suffered,’ to be among the most hauntingly resonant ever written in the field, and as relevant now as they were then as teachers are still encouraged to believe that their job is to somehow ‘apply’ other people’s so-called ‘theories’. As Kumaravadivelu (2006) puts it: Since the audiolingualism of the 1940s, TESOL has seen one method after another roll out of western universities and through western publishing houses to spread out all over the world. On each occasion, teachers in other countries and other cultures have been assured that this one is the correct one, and that their role is to adapt it to their learners, or their learners to it. (p.20) Politics, Neo-Colonialism and Globalism We know well enough (Kumaravadivelu 2006) how the historical British/USA succession in terms of massive economic, military and cultural influence on world affairs has resulted in the current importance of the English language. We know well enough that the driving purpose of globalism is to allow money to move freely around the world to where it can find its biggest margins of profit, and then move on when the time is right, leaving behind what it can no longer use. We know full well that such dominance and such care-free profits depend on the teaching of English. And that is how we earn our livings. Another perspective responds that we teach English because that is what our people, and especially our young people, need if they are to get a good education, if they are to get good jobs, if they are to attain positions of influence. This is the discourse of empowerment, and empowerment through English. So, which is it? English for continuing domination or English for empowerment? Innovation in English Language Teacher Education 41Hegemony and paradox Here we have what I understand to be the inescapable paradox of hegemony: the kind of power that invites you to support it because you and yours and those you care about can so clearly be helped, encouraged and, yes, empowered by taking advantage of the structures and possibilities that this same organisation of power offers you. And so, on a daily basis, we act in ways that support power structures of which, in principle, we might not approve. I say the inescapable paradox of hegemony, because that is how I see it. But that is not to say that we do not have choices. Indeed, as teaching is not simply a way of providing global capital with the workforce that it requires to maximise its profits, as teaching is also a values-based commitment to moral and ethical activity, being clear about what choices we do have is an essential part of teaching and of teacher education. Given a commitment to democracy, we might say, we cannot choose to ignore the massive public demand for English. Equally, we have an ethical imperative not to follow educational policies that serve only to advantage further those people already advantaged by the status quo. Social justice and multilingual approaches To pick up again the theme of what we know, we know well enough how the language learning experiences and theories of monolingual speakers of English have historically dominated the academic understanding of language acquisition. We know well enough (e.g. Meganathan 2011) that India is massively multilingual, as a country, as a number of communities and in the individual lives of its citizens. Over recent years, research and scholarship that regard social justice as a core element of educational purpose, and that see multilingualism as a natural human resource, not as an aberrant problem (e.g. Mohanty et al. 2009, Mukherjee 2009) have provided the bases for a number of well-grounded analyses and proposals regarding social justice, for example: English in India today is a symbol of people’s aspirations for quality in education and fuller participation in national and international life … However, the disparity in the quality of English language education experienced by children further intensifies the already existing divide between English language-rich and English language-poor children. (Meganathan 2011: 58) Also other proposals have emphasised the benefits of multilingual approaches to teaching English: Decades of work confirms that learning is most effective when a child has eight to ten years of good teaching through the medium of the mother- tongue, accompanied by a gradual introduction of other languages, first as subjects, then partly also as teaching languages. This ensures 42 Innovation in English Language Teacher Educationa solid, cognitive foundation for learning non-language subjects. It allows acquisition of other languages while retaining and developing the mother tongue. And it results in better learning of other languages, when compared to non-mother-tongue teaching models. (Rao 2013: 274) Specific suggestions regarding the teacher’s multilingual potential have also been developed, such as: The findings of the study show that even when the teacher was not a speaker of the children’s L1, she was a learner of that language. Her sensitivity towards the children’s language allowing freedom of usage of that language in class had a positive impact on the learning of English. (Aggarwal 2013: 62) The presentation at TEC14 by Prakash and Premachandra (2014) also contributed to the record of reflective practice in this crucial area of multilingual teaching. In such a massively multilingual setting as India, it is not difficult to question the pre-eminence of theories of language acquisition, learning and teaching that have been modelled so determinedly on the workings of the monolingual brain. These ideas are now also at work in teacher education, as demonstrated by Bedadur (2013) and reported by Bedadur and Vijayalakshmi (2013): The vast canvas of regional languages and dialectic variations poses many challenges. The burden of incomprehension, the lack of access and materials and a history of immersion approaches loom large on the historical horizon of multilingual pedagogy. Yet experiments on a small scale tell the story of a culturally viable pedagogy which needs to be developed if we want to have equal access to English education in marginalised areas. (p. 70) So, as I always encourage myself to ask, so what? What is to be done? At least, and for a beginning, I might want to insist that these socio-political issues are seen as core elements in a teacher education syllabus. Teachers, of course, have the right to refuse to engage with the dilemmas involved if they so choose, but teacher educators do not have the right to leave the next generation of teachers uninformed about them. If the class of 2030 starts to ask: • Why did we kill off our indigenous languages? • Why didn’t we recognise the interactions among early language use, cognitive development and education? • Why did we prioritise increasing opportunities for the wealthy over social mobility and social justice? • Wasn’t it clear that those societies that had the smaller gaps between rich and poor were also more stable, less violent, less prone to drug abuse and other miseries? Innovation in English Language Teacher Education 43• Wasn’t it obvious that ‘globalisation’ meant the global freedom of money to move around to where it could make most profit and move on when profits fell, taking its jobs and its promises with it? In the face of such questions, neither teachers nor teacher educators will want to rely on the Eichmann defence, ‘I was just following instructions.’ It is not enough to give instructions on how to teach English, or even on how to become reflective practitioners of, or action researchers in, the teaching of English, without consideration of the larger social, moral and ethical context in which that work is done. Of course, I am an old, male, Anglo-Saxon, UK-based, native speaker of British English and the advantages that I have gained from those accidents of birth have been many. When I talk of hegemony and advise distrust of outside experts, you might see me as condemned out of my own mouth. I have come to unde