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Elements of a research project

Elements of a research project 27
Research  A   Lecture  2:  Elements  of  a   research  project   Lejla Batina and Peter Schwabe Slides credit: James Mc Kinna Outline   •  Admin and status •  Your research project •  Proposal writing •  Presenting your work •  Disclaimer: This is not a course on Academic (English) writing Part 1: Admin and guidelines Organisa:on   •  Officially, we should meet on Wednesdays •  35+() students in BB (1718 groups) •  = progress meetings from 9:00 and in the afternoon (Wed) •  Blackboard will be used for – assignments, reading material – grading •  So: make sure you are enrolled, and that you are comfortable with Blackboard () •  When sending email please put Research A in the subject line (send it to both teachers) •  Remainder: next Tuesday is your first deadline –  email with 2 names, title of your topic, supervisor Next  deliverable  deadline:  Proposal  submission   •  Friday, Sept. 27, 15:00 •  Send email to Peter and Lejla –  Attach your slides as “Namesproposal.pdf” •  Presentations on Oct. 2: –  10 min + 5 min QA –  Both students should speak –  Timing Goals  of  the  Course   •  Ultimate goal: to produce a research paper •  ... and the associated proposal and slide presentations •  To understand what makes a good, or bad, paper •  Around 2 broad themes: •  Big Data •  Internet of Things •  Work in groups of two; individually – only by agreement with us (very exceptional) •  Main focus is on methods (literature search, writing skills, time management, …) rather than original research contributions Standards   •  Language is English •  File formats: .pdf for papers and slides •  Which tools you use to produce them is a matter of choice •  Later in Research B, you will be expected to use LaTeX, so consider learning it now Obliga:ons   •  Lectures are optional (slides will appear online) •  Attendance at presentations is mandatory •  Additionally: periodic (every 2 weeks, typically) progress reviews with us and supervisors, also mandatory •  A few assignments and home works will be posted via Blackboard Professional  scien:fic  research   •  Identifying interesting problems, analyzing and solving them (if only partially) •  By means of wellformulated research question •  By using respected, well known methods, •  So that the observations and results are reliable, repeatable and reliably repeatable From  ques:ons  to  answers   •  Start with a (partial) question •  Search for and find material •  Work on the material to make it suitable for your research •  Analyze this suitable material •  Interpret the results •  Formulate a partial answer; then iterate Criteria  for  suitable  ques:ons   •  Scope or knowledge area •  What is the research about •  What is the point of view •  Relevance –  Why is it worth doing this research –  There must be a reason –  Is it a theoretical relevance, or scientific, or practical, or for society Other  criteria   •  Precision –  The question needs to be formulated precisely –  What exactly do you want to learn from the research –  What kind of result should it derive –  Describe what you want: A literature study A scientific paper A prototype Some statistical conclusions … •  Methodology Methodology   •  Logical reasoning: do the conclusions follow from your (experimental) hypotheses •  Do you know what you are doing •  Can you trust what you are doing •  Easy to make mistakes: –  wrong models, wrong hypotheses, wrong observations –  systematic vs. incidental errors –  draw conclusions outside the range of reasonable prediction Literature   •  Official –  Strong reviewing process (reliability) –  Books –  Papers in scientific journals –  Papers in proceedings of scientific conferences •  Unofficial, grey literature –  Unreliable: little or no refereeing process –  Unchecked — Wikipedia articles –  “Wisdom” of crowds — Google rankings –  Journalism –  Bachelor’s and master’s theses –  Workshop publications Part 2: Research Project FAQs •  What does it mean to do research •  How will I ever get it all done •  How to take notes •  What is a bibliography •  What are background sources •  How do I focus my research Why  research   •  Work in many academic and professional disciplines depends on it •  To research = to explore problem systematically •  A researcher: a careful, critical, systematic thinker who goes beyond memorizing facts •  Buying a TV requires also research Narrowing  and  focusing  the  topic   •  Search engines again •  Talk to other people •  Find out about research questions •  Develop a working hypothesis: what do you expect to find out Steps  to  undergo  for  wri7ng  a  paper  ≈1  week  per  step   1.  Select a topic, articulate starting questions, begin background research, schedule a time frame 2.  Build a working bibliography 3.  Read and evaluate sources, take notes on relevant sources, comment on the importance of sources 4.  Start conducting research, identify gaps 5.  Begin preliminary writing 6. Write the main statement that will guide the rest, sketch an outline of the paper 7. Write a draft of the paper including bibliography 8. Revise and edit, ask for feedback 9. Print and proofread the final copy A  working  bibliography   •  A listing of books and articles on a particular subject •  When submitting a research shows which sources you consulted •  Start creating one in the beginning, which will grow as your research progress •  Include accurately all the info Gather  background  informa7on   •  Compile a list a key words •  Background reading in general reference books •  Interviewing experts •  Search the web The  research  paper   •  A form of written communication •  Should present information and ideas clearly and effectively Steps  for  wri7ng   •  Determine your purpose in writing the paper (to describe, to explain, to argue, to persuade the reader to think) •  Consider the type of audience •  Develop the main statement expressing the central idea •  Gather your ideas and info in a preliminary list Steps for writing (cont’d) •  Arrange materials in an order appropriate to the aims of the paper •  Make a detailed outline •  Write a preliminary draft •  Read it critically and try to improve –  Revising, rearranging, adding/eliminating words/ phrases/sentences •  Proofread the final draft Taking notes •  After verifying the publication info for a source, the next step is to read and evaluate •  You should not assume something truthful or trustworthy just because it is in print •  When you find some reliable material you should takes notes on it •  Essential to research but probably no 2 researchers use the same method •  Careful notetaking helps you avoid the problem of plagiarism 3 methods for notetaking •  Summary •  Paraphrase •  Quotation (use “” here) •  Each one more detailed than previous Plagiarism •  Using someone else's ideas or phrasing and representing those ideas or phrasing as our own, either on purpose or through carelessness, is a serious offense known as plagiarism •  From the Latin word “plagiarius” – (“kidnapper”) Some  literature   •  J. Gibaldi and W. S. Achert: The MLA Handbook rd for Writers of Research Papers, 3 edition. •  A. Hult and T. N. Huckin: The New Century nd Handbook, 2 edition. •  Robert A. Day and Barbara Gastel: How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper Part 3: Your Proposal Research  Proposal   •  Checklist –  Abstract –  The problem –  Motivation –  Theoretical scope –  Strategy –  Time schedule –  References •  Note that these items do not have to match the sections Abstract   •  The most read part of the proposal •  Maybe even the most important part •  Sell your work: point out why your research is important •  Sell your work: summarize what you will be doing •  Your abstract should not be a summary of the proposal but of the research •  Should be understandable even for non specialist The  problem   •  State the problem •  Research question(s) •  Hypothesis •  Possible subquestions Mo7va7on   •  Why is it important that someone does this research •  Why do you want to do this research –  Maybe not applicable in all cases Theore7cal  Scope   •  Theoretical background •  Related works •  Definitions •  Assumptions •  Scope: What will be covered by the research and what not Strategy   •  How things are (going to be) done •  Collecting information •  Analyzing information •  Which activities will be done . . . Time  schedule;  planning   •  Which activities will be done when •  Which deliverables will be delivered when •  Deliverables should deal with logical sections •  Stick to the plan •  . . . or explain why you changed it References   •  List of (probably) relevant references •  Scientific literature •  Wikipedia (and many other websites) do not count as scientific Pro­‐forma  proposal •  who you are; what is your title; •  what is the (welldefined) domain of study •  what is (are) the algorithm(s) you will study •  why is it interesting and to whom •  what question do you hope to answer •  how do you plan to do it •  All this should fit into 56 pages Recap   •  Statement of a problem •  Literature review •  Conceptual framework •  Research questions •  Methodology •  Scope of work (what exactly will be done) •  Planning DOs  and  DONT’s   •  Write clearly •  Make it easy (and pleasure) to read •  Abstract and Introduction should be written for a nonexpert •  Give it to a colleague to read •  … and be open for (constructive) feedback Part 4: Presenting your work Less  is  more   •  10 minutes is very little time •  1min/slide is hard to keep to •  don’t read from your slides •  avoid fancy fonts •  avoid small writing Less  is  more   •  A slide full of text: read or listen •  Not more than x lines (x =7) •  Use pictures (whenever possible ideally on every slide) •  Text on slides is not for you but for the audience –  If necessary use notes that appear only on your screen •  Your talk is an advertisement for your work, not a replacement •  The takehome message of the talk: Read the paper Pro­‐forma  talk   •  who you are and where do you come from •  what is the (welldefined) domain of study •  what is (are) the method(s) and application(s) you will study •  why is it interesting and to whom •  what question do you hope to answer •  how do you plan to do it Pro­‐forma  delivery   •  the IBM way: –  say what you are going to say –  say it –  say what you have said •  too hard in 10 minutes •  don’t be tempted to talk quickly; just like too much text on the slide Preparing  a  talk:  Recap   •  Motivation: Why •  Difference from other related work: What How •  Evidence that your work is valuable •  Takehome measage Giving  a  talk:  Recap   •  Practice, practice, practice •  Introduce yourself •  Concentrate •  Speaking: don’t rush, use a pause •  Timing •  Closing Dont’s   •  Laser pointers (only if you use them properly) •  Looking constantly into your screen (or the slides showed to your adudience) –  You should know your slides •  “I’m running out of time, so I’ll just…” –  Leaves a sloppy impression Homework   •  Listen the following lecture: hMp://­‐ presenta:ons.pdf   •  Prepare a 3minute presentation for next lecture (September 25), topic – free choice, no text on slides, just pictures), no notes
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