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Dimensional Metrology

Dimensional Metrology
Dimensional Metrology Ted Doiron Dimensional Metrology Group Dimensional Metrology Group Shipping Most cases are designed to protect the gages in the lab, not for shipping. On the left, the box has allowed a high stakes billiards game with precision gages. Wires, on the other hand, are in separate tubes. Dimensional Metrology Group Cleaning and Handling We use gloves, everything from cotton to various polymers. The only requirement is that there is no latex. We have two size ball tongs. Ethanol is used for cleaning, along with lint free paper. Dimensional Metrology Group Generic Uncertainty Budget 1) Long Term Reproducibility 2) Master Gage Calibration 3) Thermal Expansion 4) Elastic Deformation 5) Scale Calibration 6) Instrument Geometry 7) Artifact Effects Dimensional Metrology Group Generic Uncertainty Budget for Dimensional Metrology 1. Long Term Reproducibility 2. Master Gage Uncertainty 3. Thermal Expansion a. Thermometer calibration b. Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) c. Thermal gradients 4. Elastic Deformation a. Probe contact deformation b. Fixturing Effects 5. Scale Calibration a. Sensor calibration b. Environmental compensation 6. Instrument Geometry a. Abbe offset and instrument geometry errors b. Scale and gage alignment 7. Artifact Geometry Flatness, parallelism, roundness Dimensional Metrology Group Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) ΔL = α(T20) L • Measurement not made at exactly 20 °C needs thermal expansion correction using an assumed CTE, α. • The uncertainty in this coefficient is a source of uncertainty. Dimensional Metrology Group SOURCES OF COMPARATOR MEASUREMENT ERROR Dimensional Metrology Group These graphs show three trials each for two separate micrometers, the first is a 01 inch and the second a 12 inch. Neither had a plastic insulating plate on the frame. Brown and Sharpe No. 50 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 0 250 500 750 1000 1250 Time (s) Blue WT Micrometer 25 Using a thermal expansion coefficient of 12 24 PPM/°C and the fact that the maximum range of 23 the Brown and Sharpe 50 micrometer is two 22 inches, the error in measurement caused by a 21 shift of 6 °C is 3.07 μm. The same test with a 20 micrometer with a thermal insulating plate 19 reduced the effect considerably. 0 250 500 750 1000 1250 Time (s) Dimensional Metrology Group Temperature (C) Temperature (C)Operator Heat Control Here are the two most obvious ways of controlling body heat. On the left is my boss years ago, Ralph Veale. The use of heat shield clothing was used up until a few years ago. The picture on the right is from Terry Quinn’s marvelous book “From Artefacts to Atoms” Dimensional Metrology Group Spatial Temperature Variations () δ (L)=α⋅ L⋅δ T−T gage master Here we have the aluminum soaking tray next to the comparator. While only separated by a few inches the temperature differs from the comparator by 0.3 ⁰C. For blocks over 25 mm extra soaking time is required or the check standard test will fail. On the actual platen the temperature variation is generally much smaller, generally holding under 0.030 ⁰C across the entire platen, and less among the blocks as measured (note blocks under the contact are touching). Dimensional Metrology Group In our conventional labs, where the temperature is controlled to about 0.5 ⁰C we see temperature differences of about that size. Large machines have a large thermal mass, effectively filtering the temperature changes.. Dimensional Metrology Group Example 1: 100 mm plug gage calibrated using a 100 mm master plug on a long range UMM. Lab has one thermometer to monitor room which has an uncertainty of 1 ⁰C. Dimensional Metrology Group Heat Transfer Equation Q=−hA(T−T ) s 2 Heat Transfer Mechanism h in W/(m K) Mechanical Contact 100 4,000 Free Convection of Gasses 5 – 30 Forced Convection of Gasses 50 150 Radiative Transfer 1 10 Here T is the temperature of the object, T is the temperature of the s environment, A is the area of contact and h is a constant that depends on the details of the heat transfer mechanism. Even when there are two or more types of heat transfer involved, the heat transfer follows the equation closely with some effective “h”. Dimensional Metrology Group Thermal Equilibrium This is our holder for balls and wires. The “V” grooves have cone do not provide as much thermal conduction as gage blocks on a plate, but these are generally small gages with little thermal mass. Currently we us fans to make things equilibrate faster and to keep the operator heat away. Dimensional Metrology Group Soaking Time Experiments Each of the 500 mm gage blocks have three strips of tape as the thermometry target. The fan can be seen in the background and the anemometer extends horizontally from the right side of the picture. The white board is insulated to keep the heat sources on the table from being seen by the infrared camera. Dimensional Metrology Group Results This logarithmic plot shows that the exponential decal model works very well, and the addition of the fan has a dramatic effect. Dimensional Metrology Group Measuring Long Gage Blocks The blocks were wrapped in Mylar, the comparator put in a insulated box with face shield, and the operator wore a cape, big gloves, and worked quickly. Dimensional Metrology Group Results The soaking times for 500 mm gage blocks, even in still air is much lower than general commercial practice. 1/10 Time Air Speed Wood Steel m/s 0.0 102 73 0.5 50 41 1.0 30 30 2.0 28 25 3.0 20 22 Dimensional Metrology Group Digression on Similarity Comparison of Steel to Light (wavelengths) ΔL/L = (12 ppm/°C + 1 ppm/°C) ΔT = 13 ppm/°C ΔT Comparison of Steel to Chrome Carbide ΔL/L = (12 ppm/°C 8 ppm/°C) ΔT = 4 ppm/°C ΔT Comparison of Steel to Steel ΔL/L = 0.5 ppm/°C ΔT Comparison measurements are easier, faster, and require much less environmental control. We do very little interferometry on customer gages, and in general avoid intrinsic measurements of any kind. NIST Doiron Dimensional Metrology Group Mechanical Deformation Diamond Stylus Deformations Force Steel Deformation CrC Deformation N (oz) nm (μin) nm (μin) 0.25 70 54 1.0 177 137 4.0 445 345 example: We use a steel master to measure a chrome carbide block. Deformation for steel (0.25 N bottom, 1.0 N top) = 70 + 177 = 247 nm Deformation for CrC (0.25 N bottom, 1.0 N top) = 540+ 137 = 191 nm Bias of 56 nm if not corrected. Generally, point contacts have large corrections, line contacts very small corrections, and plane contacts have negligible correction. Ted Doiron – Gage Block Seminar Dimensional Metrology Group Contact and Fixturing 1. Line and flat contact has very little deformation. 2. Point contact can have very large deformation (1 μm or larger) 3. It is fairly easy to apply the too much force to a point contact which results in a dent. The forces in wire calibration are fairly close to the elastic limit of steel. 4. If you are measuring something softer than tool steel you need to think about contact damage. Think about it twice. 5. The Engineering Metrology Toolbox has a deformation calculator. When contact deformations go much above 1 μm you might want to try a lower force. Dimensional Metrology Group Contact Geometry We also assume we know the geometry of the contact. This is the surface of one diamond contact on our gage block comparator. It is remarkably flat with a diameter of over 100 µm, reducing the deformation by 30 nm. This is larger than our uncertainty Note: The variation in the elastic modulus of diamond is 30 depending on the direction of the lattice. Since most contacts are not set to the same lattice direction a diamond contact has an intrinsic variation of up to 30. This is large and you should avoid diamond contacts. Ted Doiron – Gage Block Seminar Dimensional Metrology Group Ball Fixtures Balls need one degree of freedom so the micrometer can push them till contact. Generally this is a tiny Vblock. Dimensional Metrology Group Fixtures Here we see two balls held up by the same table, and the two spheres contact different places on the anvils. This adds the flatness and parallelism of the contacts to the error budget. Dimensional Metrology Group Uncertainty from Scale Most labs use two gages to set the scale calibration. Assumes that the scale is linear (should be checked). Slope variation is input to uncertainty budget. As an example, suppose we use a 25 mm and 100 mm gage blocks (1” and 4”) We will assume that you use the calibrated value, not the nominal. We assume the uncertainties are 75 nm 150 nm. Dimensional Metrology Group Encoder Error The graph on the left shows a typical response, it if from a Heidenhain Brochure, and it is about 1 of the pitch. On the right is the error measured on a measuring machine in my lab. Our machine has 4 µm pitch so the error should be about 40nm, and it is. This is insidious because the error will repeat and multiple measurements will not average out the error. Dimensional Metrology Group Cosine Error In Scale Measurement An angle of 5’ will produce an error of 1 ppm. This is generally not a problem with modern instruments.. Dimensional Metrology Group Cosine Error For small cylinders supported by two parallel halfrounds, the micrometer force will align the gage surface to the micrometer contact. As the cylinders get bigger, static friction becomes greater and alignment errors are common. Cylinders fixtured so the axis goes up require a cylinder support so the surface can rotate into contact with the micrometer. Dimensional Metrology Group Abbe Error If the scale is directly on the measurement line the effects of pitch errors in the instrument are greatly reduced or eliminated. Note that a micrometer has its scale (lead screw) aligned with the center of the contacts. Dimensional Metrology Group If the scale is positioned parallel to the machine motion and centered on the contacts the effects Abbe Offset of pitch and yaw errors in the machine motion are considerably reduced. Dimensional Metrology Group NIST Wire Micrometer Master wires are calibrated on this micrometer. It is quite simple. A laser interferometer provides scale, the left contact in on an air bearing, and the force is dead weight. One contact is flat tungsten carbide and the other contact is a carbide cylinder. Dimensional Metrology Group Artifact Geometry Measurand – Detailed description of what you are to measure. In this there is a dangerous trap in using words like cylinder or sphere too loosely. The average diameter, particular diameter, minimum material diameter, and maximum material diameter are all different because the ball is not actually a perfect sphere. No gage is completely spherical, cylindrical, or flat so the different definitions are critical. unc12 Dimensional Metrology Group ISO 170252005 5.9 Assuring the quality of test and calibration results 5.9.1 The laboratory shall have quality control procedures for monitoring the validity of tests and calibrations undertaken. The resulting data shall be recorded in such a way that trends are detectable and, where practicable, statistical techniques shall be applied to the reviewing of the results. This monitoring shall be planned and reviewed and may include, but not be limited to, the following: 5.9.2 Quality control data shall be analysed and, where they are found to be outside predefined criteria, planned action shall be taken to correct the problem and to prevent incorrect results from being reported. I point out that the frequency of taking control data will set the number of previous calibrations that must be examined in your corrective action when the system is found out of control. Dimensional Metrology Group Check Standard • A tool to continuously monitor the measuring process • If the check standard is in control then the process is assumed to be in control • Measures the long term variability of the process • Measurement algorithm continuously tested Dimensional Metrology Group GUM 3.4 Practical considerations 3.4.1 If all of the quantities on which the result of a measurement depends are varied, its uncertainty can be evaluated by statistical means. However, because this is rarely possible in practice due to limited time and resources, the uncertainty of a measurement result is usually evaluated using a mathematical model of the measurement and the law of propagation of uncertainty. Dimensional Metrology Group Check Standard Coverage for Gage Block Comparison Calibration Sampled in Source Sampled in long term customer block short term Reference Master Block Length 35 year cycle Master block geometry room/operator/instrument X although most have customer block geometry history mechanical deformation probe X mechanical deformation force X mechanical deformation elastic usually well matched, TC modulus isn't Instrument Geometry room/operator/instrument Instrument Calibration X Repeatability X Drift Corrections X room/operator/instrument temperature calibration each year tempeature readings X thermal variations room/operator/instrument only two CTE master blocks sources X CTE customer blocks Dimensional Metrology Group Step Gage Reproducibility Data for M48 CMM Data spans 1994 to 2000 Check Standards 0.00018 y = 8E08x + 6E05 0.00016 0.00014 Zerodur 0.00012 0.0001 0.00008 0.00006 0.00004 Rings and Plugs 0.00002 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Length in mm Dimensional Metrology Group Standard Deviation in mm Check Standards Show Performance Changes Reproducibility Step Gage Measurement 0.000160 0.000140 0.000120 0.000100 B side 220 0.000080 B side AML 0.000060 0.000040 0.000020 0.000000 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 Puck Position (mm) This shows the history of our 1020 KOBA run on the same machine, the Moore M48. The top data is the old ±0.1 °C laboratory. The bottom data is from the AML with its ±0.01 °C laboratory. The difference is dramatic, lowering our uncertainty by 50. Dimensional Metrology Group Standard Deviation (mm)End doironnist.gov Do not hesitate to send me an email. Dimensional Metrology Group Dimensional Metrology Group Dimensional Metrology Group Dimensional Metrology Group Dimensional Metrology Group Dimensional Metrology Group Dimensional Metrology Group Dimensional Metrology Group Dimensional Metrology Group Dimensional Metrology Group Dimensional Metrology Group
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