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Dimensional Metrology

Dimensional Metrology
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Dr.SamuelHunt,United Arab Emirates,Teacher
Published Date:21-07-2017
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Dimensional Metrology Ted Doiron Dimensional Metrology Group Dimensional Metrology Group Shipping Most cases are designed to protect the gages in the lab, not for shipping. On the left, the box has allowed a high stakes billiards game with precision gages. Wires, on the other hand, are in separate tubes. Dimensional Metrology Group Cleaning and Handling We use gloves, everything from cotton to various polymers. The only requirement is that there is no latex. We have two size ball tongs. Ethanol is used for cleaning, along with lint free paper. Dimensional Metrology Group Generic Uncertainty Budget 1) Long Term Reproducibility 2) Master Gage Calibration 3) Thermal Expansion 4) Elastic Deformation 5) Scale Calibration 6) Instrument Geometry 7) Artifact Effects Dimensional Metrology Group Generic Uncertainty Budget for Dimensional Metrology 1. Long Term Reproducibility 2. Master Gage Uncertainty 3. Thermal Expansion a. Thermometer calibration b. Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) c. Thermal gradients 4. Elastic Deformation a. Probe contact deformation b. Fixturing Effects 5. Scale Calibration a. Sensor calibration b. Environmental compensation 6. Instrument Geometry a. Abbe offset and instrument geometry errors b. Scale and gage alignment 7. Artifact Geometry Flatness, parallelism, roundness Dimensional Metrology Group Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) ΔL = α(T-20) L • Measurement not made at exactly 20 °C needs thermal expansion correction using an assumed CTE, α. • The uncertainty in this coefficient is a source of uncertainty. Dimensional Metrology Group SOURCES OF COMPARATOR MEASUREMENT ERROR Dimensional Metrology Group These graphs show three trials each for two separate micrometers, the first is a 0-1 inch and the second a 1-2 inch. Neither had a plastic insulating plate on the frame. Brown and Sharpe No. 50 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 0 250 500 750 1000 1250 Time (s) Blue WT Micrometer 25 Using a thermal expansion coefficient of 12 24 PPM/°C and the fact that the maximum range of 23 the Brown and Sharpe 50 micrometer is two 22 inches, the error in measurement caused by a 21 shift of 6 °C is 3.07 μm. The same test with a 20 micrometer with a thermal insulating plate 19 reduced the effect considerably. 0 250 500 750 1000 1250 Time (s) Dimensional Metrology Group Temperature (C) Temperature (C)Operator Heat Control Here are the two most obvious ways of controlling body heat. On the left is my boss years ago, Ralph Veale. The use of heat shield clothing was used up until a few years ago. The picture on the right is from Terry Quinn’s marvelous book “From Artefacts to Atoms” Dimensional Metrology Group Spatial Temperature Variations () δ (L)=α⋅ L⋅δ T−T gage master Here we have the aluminum soaking tray next to the comparator. While only separated by a few inches the temperature differs from the comparator by 0.3 ⁰C. For blocks over 25 mm extra soaking time is required or the check standard test will fail. On the actual platen the temperature variation is generally much smaller, generally holding under 0.030 ⁰C across the entire platen, and less among the blocks as measured (note blocks under the contact are touching). Dimensional Metrology Group In our conventional labs, where the temperature is controlled to about 0.5 ⁰C we see temperature differences of about that size. Large machines have a large thermal mass, effectively filtering the temperature changes.. Dimensional Metrology Group Example 1: 100 mm plug gage calibrated using a 100 mm master plug on a long range UMM. Lab has one thermometer to monitor room which has an uncertainty of 1 ⁰C. Dimensional Metrology Group Heat Transfer Equation Q=−hA(T−T ) s 2 Heat Transfer Mechanism h in W/(m -K) Mechanical Contact 100 - 4,000 Free Convection of Gasses 5 – 30 Forced Convection of Gasses 50 - 150 Radiative Transfer 1 - 10 Here T is the temperature of the object, T is the temperature of the s environment, A is the area of contact and h is a constant that depends on the details of the heat transfer mechanism. Even when there are two or more types of heat transfer involved, the heat transfer follows the equation closely with some effective “h”. Dimensional Metrology Group Thermal Equilibrium This is our holder for balls and wires. The “V” grooves have cone do not provide as much thermal conduction as gage blocks on a plate, but these are generally small gages with little thermal mass. Currently we us fans to make things equilibrate faster and to keep the operator heat away. Dimensional Metrology Group Soaking Time Experiments Each of the 500 mm gage blocks have three strips of tape as the thermometry target. The fan can be seen in the background and the anemometer extends horizontally from the right side of the picture. The white board is insulated to keep the heat sources on the table from being seen by the infrared camera. Dimensional Metrology Group Results This logarithmic plot shows that the exponential decal model works very well, and the addition of the fan has a dramatic effect. Dimensional Metrology Group Measuring Long Gage Blocks The blocks were wrapped in Mylar, the comparator put in a insulated box with face shield, and the operator wore a cape, big gloves, and worked quickly. Dimensional Metrology Group Results The soaking times for 500 mm gage blocks, even in still air is much lower than general commercial practice. 1/10 Time Air Speed Wood Steel m/s 0.0 102 73 0.5 50 41 1.0 30 30 2.0 28 25 3.0 20 22 Dimensional Metrology Group Digression on Similarity Comparison of Steel to Light (wavelengths) ΔL/L = (12 ppm/°C + 1 ppm/°C) ΔT = 13 ppm/°C ΔT Comparison of Steel to Chrome Carbide ΔL/L = (12 ppm/°C - 8 ppm/°C) ΔT = 4 ppm/°C ΔT Comparison of Steel to Steel ΔL/L = 0.5 ppm/°C ΔT Comparison measurements are easier, faster, and require much less environmental control. We do very little interferometry on customer gages, and in general avoid intrinsic measurements of any kind. NIST - Doiron Dimensional Metrology Group Mechanical Deformation Diamond Stylus Deformations Force Steel Deformation CrC Deformation N (oz) nm (μin) nm (μin) 0.25 70 54 1.0 177 137 4.0 445 345 example: We use a steel master to measure a chrome carbide block. Deformation for steel (0.25 N bottom, 1.0 N top) = 70 + 177 = 247 nm Deformation for CrC (0.25 N bottom, 1.0 N top) = 540+ 137 = 191 nm Bias of 56 nm if not corrected. Generally, point contacts have large corrections, line contacts very small corrections, and plane contacts have negligible correction. Ted Doiron – Gage Block Seminar Dimensional Metrology Group