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Conditional operator in Java

conditional operator in java example and conditional statement in c with example
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Published Date:21-07-2017
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1.3 Conditionals and Loops Introduction to Programming in Java: An Interdisciplinary Approach · Robert Sedgewick and Kevin Wayne · Copyright © 2002–2010 · 2/6/11 12:44 PM A Foundation for Programming any program you might want to write objects functions and modules graphics, sound, and image I/O arrays conditionals and loops Math text I/O last lecture: equivalent primitive data types assignment statements to a calculator 2 A Foundation for Programming any program you might want to write objects functions and modules graphics, sound, and image I/O arrays to infinity conditionals and loops and beyond Math text I/O primitive data types assignment statements 3 Control Flow Control flow.   Sequence of statements that are actually executed in a program.   Conditionals and loops: enable us to choreograph control flow. boolean 1 statement 1 true false statement 2 statement 1 true boolean 2 statement 2 statement 3 false statement 4 statement 3 straight-line control flow control flow with conditionals and loops 4 Conditionals If Statement The if statement. A common branching structure.   Evaluate a boolean expression.   If true, execute some statements.   If false, execute other statements. if (boolean expression) boolean expression statement T; can be any sequence of statements false true else statement F; statement T statement F 6 If Statement The if statement. A common branching structure.   Evaluate a boolean expression.   If true, execute some statements.   If false, execute other statements. 7 If Statement Ex. Take different action depending on value of variable. public class Flip public static void main(String args) if (Math.random() 0.5) System.out.println("Heads"); elseMath.random() 0.5) System.out.println("Tails"); % java Flip Heads % java Flip Heads % java Flip Tails % java Flip Heads 8 If Statement Examples 9 The While Loop 10 While Loop The while loop. A common repetition structure.   Evaluate a boolean expression.   If true, execute some statements.   Repeat. loop continuation condition statement 2 while (boolean expression) statement 1; loop body statement 2; true boolean expression statement 1 false 11 While Loop: Powers of Two N Ex. Print powers of 2 that are 2 .   Increment i from 0 to N.   Double v each time. i v i = N 0 1 true 0 1 1 2 1 2 true int i = 0; 2 4 int v = 1; 3 8 2 4 true 4 16 while (i = N) 5 32 System.out.println(i + " " + v); 3 8 true 6 64 i = i + 1; 4 16 true v = 2 v; 5 32 true 6 64 true 7 128 false N = 6 Click for demo 12 Powers of Two % java PowersOfTwo 3 public class PowersOfTwo 0 1 public static void main(String args) 1 2 2 4 // last power of two to print 3 8 int N = Integer.parseInt(args0); % java PowersOfTwo 6 int i = 0; // loop control counter 0 1 1 2 int v = 1; // current power of two 2 4 while (i = N) 3 8 System.out.println(i + " " + v); 4 16 i = i + 1; 5 32 v = 2 v; 6 64 print i and ith power of two 13 While Loop Challenge Q. Anything wrong with the following code for printing powers of 2? int i = 0; int v = 1; while (i = N) System.out.println(i + " " + v); i = i + 1; v = 2 v; 14 While Loops: Square Root Goal. Implement Math.sqrt(). % java Sqrt 2.0 1.414213562373095 Newton-Raphson method to compute the square root of c: 15 decimal digits of   Initialize t = c. 0 accuracy in 5 iterations   Repeat until t = c / t , up to desired precision: i i set t to be the average of t and c / t . i+1 i i t = 2.0 0 1 2 t = (t + ) = 1.5 1 0 2 t 0 1 2 t = (t + ) = 1.416666666666665 2 1 2 t 1 1 2 t = (t + ) = 1.4142156862745097 3 2 2 t 2 1 2 t = (t + ) = 1.4142135623746899 4 3 2 t 3 1 2 t = (t + ) = 1.414213562373095 5 4 2 t 4 computing the square root of 2 Copyright 2004, Sidney Harris http://www.sciencecartoonsplus.com 16 While Loops: Square Root Goal. Implement Math.sqrt(). % java Sqrt 2.0 1.414213562373095 Newton-Raphson method to compute the square root of c: 15 decimal digits of   Initialize t = c. 0 accuracy in 5 iterations   Repeat until t = c / t , up to desired precision: i i set t to be the average of t and c / t . i+1 i i public class Sqrt public static void main(String args) double epsilon = 1e-15; double c = Double.parseDouble(args0); double t = c; while (Math.abs(t - c/t) tepsilon) t = (c/t + t) / 2.0; relative error System.out.println(t); tolerance 17 Newton-Raphson Method Square root method explained.   Goal: find root of any function f(x). 2   Start with estimate t . f(x) = x - c to compute "c 0   Draw line tangent to curve at x= t . i   Set t to be x-coordinate where line hits x-axis. i+1   Repeat until desired precision. Technical conditions. f(x) must be smooth; t must be good estimate. 0 18 The For Loop Copyright 2004, FoxTrot by Bill Amend www.ucomics.com/foxtrot/2003/10/03 19 For Loops The for loop. Another common repetition structure.   Execute initialization statement.   Evaluate a boolean expression.   If true, execute some statements.   And then the increment statement.   Repeat. loop continuation condition init increment for (init; boolean expression; increment) statement 1; statement 2; statement 2 body true boolean expression statement 1 false 20 Anatomy of a For Loop Q. What does it print? A. 21