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The Science of Stained Glass

The Science of Stained Glass 44
The Science of Stained Glass University of WisconsinMadison Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) Are science and art connected Scientists have affected how artists create art by, for example, developing non toxic paints and paint in tubes. Artists, like medical and science illustrators, draw pictures of scientific findings. How are these connected Depiction of a forest glass shop from Sir John Mandeville's Travels, Dated 1420 – 1450. British Library, London How are these connected Depiction of a forest glass shop from Sir John Mandeville's Travels, Dated 1420 – 1450. British Library, London Both show nanotechnologists What is nanotechnology Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. Encompassing nanoscale science, engineering and technology, nanotechnology involves imaging, measuring, modeling, and manipulating matter at this length scale. National Nanotechnology Initiative (2003) …But what does that mean What is nanotechnology 1.  The nanometer is extremely small. 2.  At the nanometer scale, many materials behave differently. 3.  We can use this new behavior to make new technologies. …How small is extremely small Exactly how small is a nanometer th 1/100 of a meter (centimeter) meter th 1/1000 of th a meter 1/10 (millimeter) of a meter All these are still visible with your eyes. . . . Smaller than you can see Nanoscale objects are 68 µm 1,000 times smaller Onemillionth of a meter (micrometer) . . . Smaller than you can see A nanometer is one billionth of a meter Buckybal l 1 nm Atoms 1 nm Viruses 350 nm Nanotube 1 nm DNA 2.5 nm “Nano” all around us Tata Nano Selfcleaning windows Samsung Apparel with silver VX Nano Cordless Baby gear washing machine nanoparticles Laser Mouse Medieval nanotechnologists Recipe for stained glass 1. Sand 2. Chemicals to lower the melting point of sand •  Sodium Carbonate (soda ash) •  Calcium Oxide (lime) 3.  Chemicals to create the color 4.  Lots of heat •  Mixture becomes molten at 1500 °F Depiction of a forest glass shop from Sir John Mandeville's Travels, Dated 1420 – 1450. British Library, London Things are different . . . Size really does matter Bulk Nano Things are different . . . Size really does matter Bulk Nano Nanoparticles interact differently with light .Changing the size of the gold particles affects color. Size=25 nm Size=50 nm Size=100 nm Shape: Spherica l Shape: Spherica l Shape: Spherica l Color: RED Color: GREEN Color: ORANGE Chang, Kenneth. “Tiny is Beautiful: Translating ‘Nano’ Into Practical.” New York Times 22 Feb 2005: Science. Changing the size and shape of the silver particles affects color. Size=100 nm Size=40 nm Size=100 nm Shape: Spherica l Shape: Spherical Shape: Triangular Color: YELLOW Color: BLUE Color: RED Chang, Kenneth. “Tiny is Beautiful: Translating ‘Nano’ Into Practical.” New York Times 22 Feb 2005: Science. Plasmon resonance A small class vs. a football stadium full of people Gold nanoparticles today glass bead 60100 nm How does it work •  Nanoshells absorb infrared light, which causes them to heat up. •  Tissue absorption of infrared light is minimal; Penetration is optimal. •  Shells are coated with targetingmolecules: concentrates in tumor cells. •  Increasing the temperature of the cells by more than 30°C kills them N. Halas, J. West (Rice University); Hirsch , et al. PNAS. 100:13549 (2003) Silver nanoparticles today Silver nanoparticles are used to kill bacteria in: •At   hletic apparel •So   cks •R   efrigerators •St   orage containers • Washing machines Your turn You Your turn Two activities: 1.  Synthesize gold and silver nanoparticles. 2.  Make a nanostained glass window to take home. Thank you This project was supported by the National Science Foundation under grant DRL0532536, DMR0520527, and DMR0424350. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Foundation.