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BY: MAYANK PANDEY
NIET BUSINESS SHOOLUNIT1
• University Syllabus:
• Concept, Development, application and
scope of Industrial Management.
• Definition, measurement, productivity
index, types of production system,
Industrial Ownership.Concept of Industrial Management
• Application of Management theories concepts
are now all pervasive and all encompassing.
• With Best engineering skills and knowledge,
professional cannot just sustain since any
operational issues require application of
• Any engineer by profession is also a manager, as
engineers also qualify in the classical test of
managerial roles, interpersonal roles, and
informational roles and decisional role.Industrial Management
• Industrial management, as a branch of
engineering facilitates creation of
management systems and integrates the same
with people and their activities to
productively utilize the resources.
• The subject emphasizes studying the
performance of machines and so also the
• Industrial management, therefore, in the
structured approach to manage the
operational activities of an organization.Process of Development of Industrial
S. No. Orientation Pioneered by Definition concerned
1. Productivity orientation Increased Productivity
J. F. Mee
Human Relations L. A. Applay
2. Emphasis on people
Orientation H. Knortz
Decision making as
Decision making Ross Moore
3 primary management
Orientation Stanley Vance
Donald J. Clough Leadership is the
4. Leadership Orientation
Ralph C. essence of Management
5. Process Orientation Management as process
McFarlandDevelopment of Management
1. Classical School of Thought
F.W. Taylor Development of Scientific Management (1856 1915)
F. B. Gilberth Time Motion Studies (1868 1924)
Henry L. Gantt The Gantt Chart (1861 1919)
H. Fayol General Theory of Management
Max Weber Rules
2. Neo Classical Thought
Mark Parker Follet Group Influences (18681933)
Elton Mayo Effect of human motivation on productivity (1880 1949)
A. Maslow Relates human motivation to hierarchy of
Douglas Mc Gregor Puts emphasis on human characteristics (1906 1964)
Theory X theory Y and the corresponding
style of leadership
Chris Argyris Human Organizational Development
3. Modern Approaches
Quantitative School of thought
System Theory Approach
The Contingency TheoryScientific Management Approach
• Taylor emphasized following points to achieve
– Develop scientific way of performing jobs.
– Train and develop workers to perform the job.
– Establish harmonious relation between
management and workers.
• Taylor suggested two important practices:
– Piece rate incentive system.
– Time and motion study.Piece rate system rewards the workers who produce the maximum
Time study helps in determination of time required, recording analyzing
and synthesizing the time elements of each operation.
Motion study on the other hand involves study of movements in doing
jobs in parts and eliminates wasteful movements and retains only
necessary movements. It makes a job simpler, easier and better.
Time and Motion Study concepts were developed by F.W.Taylor in
association with Frank and Lillian Gilberth.
Gilberth conducted research on motion studies. They had classified 17
basic hand motions like search, select, position, hold etc. They called this
therbligs . Their approach helps to analyse the exact elements of a
workers’ hand movement.
Henry Gantt worked with Taylor. His contributions are introduction of task
and bonus plan, and Gantt chart. As per his incentive plan worker gets
daily wage even if he does not complete his job, but gets bonus if the jobs
is completed in less than normal time.
Gantt chart is used for production control indicating progress of
production in terms of time.Drawback of Scientific Management
• Scientific Management principles revolve
around operational level problems do not
focus on managerial issues essential for
• This theory also ignores the human desire for
job satisfaction.Administrative Theory
• Administrative Theory another part of classical school of
thought focuses on principles to coordinate the internal
activities of the organization. Henry Fayol classified business
operations into 6 activities.
– Technical : Activities relating to production and manufacturing.
– Commercial : Activities relating to buying selling and exchange.
– Financial : Activities ensuring optimal use of capital.
– Security : Activities to ensure protection to employees and
– Accounting : Activities concern with costs, profits, liabilities, balance
– Managerial: It is functional approach to management. i.e. planning,
organizing, directing, coordinating
and controlling.Bureaucratic Theory
• Max Waber had advocated the necessity of a
formal organizational structure with set rules
and regulations.Weber’s concept is intended
to remove ambiguity, inefficiencies, and
patronage.Limitations of Classical School of
• Management principles are not universally
applicable intoday’s complex business
• Classical school of thought ignored
organizational behaviour (leadership,
motivation informal relation) only
concentrated on productivity.Neo Classical School of Thought
• This school of thought lays emphasis on human elements in an
• Max Parker Follett recognized the significance of human elements,
attributed greater significance to the functioning of groups in workplace.
• Elton Mayo father of Human Relations Approach, conducted the study to
evaluate the attitudes and psychological reactions of workers in on the
•Maslow’s focus was on importance of human needs driving force for
• McGregor has made assumption about people categorizing them as under
– Theory X People are by nature lazy, have little ambition, dislike
work, avoid responsibility.
– Theory Y People are more positive , innovative, creative and do not
dislike work. ChrisArgyris’s contributions are maturity–immaturity
theory, integration of individual and organizational goals.Modern Approaches
• These approaches are classified as
I. Quantitative School of thought.
II. System Theory Approach.
III. The Contingency Theory.Quantitative School of Thought
• Different branches of quantitative approaches are
Management Science, Operations Management, MIS.
• Management science approach or operations research
approach is used in production, scheduling human
resource planning, inventory management etc.
• Operations management is primarily concerned with
production management and related management.
• MIS approach focuses on design and implementation
of information system for management uses. It
converts raw data into information inputs to be used
by management for decision making.System Theory Approach
• It considers organization as a whole because
of interdependent nature of activities
requiring organization to interact with
external environment factors.Contingency Theory Approach
• This Approach discards the concept of
universality in management principles and
determines managerial decisions considering
• Contingency theory and System theory together
are classified as integrative school of
management thought because these two
theories integrate the classical, behavioral and
quantitative theories and uses only the best of
each approach in a given situation.APPLICATION SCOPE OF
• Initially the scope application of industrial
management was restricted to manufacturing
industry. Later on it spread to non manufacturing
activities such as construction transportation,
farm and air line operations and maintenance,
public utilities govt. military operations.
• In an industry besides the production, other
departments utilizing industrial management
concepts are Marketing, Finance, Purchasing,
Industrial relations etc.Major applications of Industrial Management
Selection of Machinery and Equipments
3. Inventory Management Store Keeping
4. Total Quality Management
To improve the
Human ResourceScope of Industrial Management
Help in all decision making and problem solving
Expertise Help Help in design of production system
Help in design, selection and implementation of new technology
Interpretation of data and information
Review of data and information
Productivity measurement and improvement
System Identification of faults in the production system
Job analysis of the system
Motivation practice of employee
Work and motion study
Training of workers in motion study
Application of new technology
Application of operation research in management
Development and use of decision tools
Use of MIS and Computers.Process of
Organizing Decision Making
Concept and Definition
• Productivity may be defined as the ratio between
output and input.
• Output means the amount produced or the
number of items produced and inputs are the
various resources employed, e.g, land, building,
equipment and machinery, materials, labours,
• According to Peter Drucker,“Productivity means a
balance between all factors of production that
will give the maximum output with smallest
• ILO defines productivity as the ratio of aggregate
output to aggregate input.Factors Affecting Productivity
• Factors affecting National Productivity
– Human Resources
– Technology and Capital Investment
– Government Regulation
• Factors affecting Productivity in
Manufacturing and Services Sectors
– Product and System Design
– Machinery and Equipment
– Skill and Effectiveness of the Worker
– Production VolumeMeasurement of Productivity
• The basic objectives of productivity
– To study performance of a system over
– To have relative comparison of different
systems for a given level; and
– To compare the actual productivity of the
system with its planned productivity.• The most common way is to express both
outputs and the inputs in monetary terms.
• If the outputs and inputs for the period for
which productivity is measure, are expressed
in rupees, then
– Aggregate output = Gross sales= G(say); and
– Aggregate input= Cost= C (say)
Thus Total Productivity Tp =
Aggregate InputKinds of Productivity Measurement
1. Land Productivity: The productivity of land
and building is said to have increased if the
output of goods and services within that area
2. Material Productivity: The productivity of the
materials becomes key factor in economic
production / operation.
Number of units produced
Material Productivity =
Cost of material• Raw material productivity can be increased
–Proper choice of design;
–Better handling of materials and
reduction of rejection;
–Recycling and reuse of materials.
–Searching alternative cheaper material.3. Labour Productivity
• Output can be measured in total quantity
produced and labour can be measured in total
man hours required to produce that output.
Aggregate Output Number of units produced
Labour productivity = or
Amount of Labour Man hours utilized
• Output and labour can also be measured in terms
of their value in money value. Thus,
Total Revenue from Production
Labour productivity =
Expenditure on Labour• Labour productivity can be increased by:
– Providing training to use best method of
– Constantly motivating the workers by providing
financial and nonfinancial incentives
– Keeping high morale of the employees.
– Improving working condition on the plant.
Example: A worker was assembling 10 pieces of mobile
sets per hour and the same worker, by improved
methods of the work is able to produce 13 pieces of
mobile sets. The productivity is improved by 30.4. Machine Productivity
• Output can be measured in total quantity
produced and machine can be measured in total
machine hours required to produce that output.
Machine Productivity =
Actual Machine Hours Utilized
• Machine productivity can be improved by:
– Preventive maintenance;
– Use of proper speed, feed, etc.
– Using method study techniques( Using best method)
– Use of skilled, properly trained workers.5. Capital Productivity
Capital Productivity =
Actual Machine Hours Utilized
• Capital productivity can be improved by:
– Better utilization of capital resources like land,
building machines etc.
– Careful make or buy decision.
– By using modern techniques of production,
maintenance, flexible manufacturing system,
proper plant layout etc.Productivity Index
• Productivity index is used to compare the
productivity during the current year with the
productivity during the base year.
• Base year is any year which the company uses
for comparative study.
Productivity during the current year
Productivity Index =
Productivity during the base yearSources of Information for Productivity Index
• There are three major sources:
– Product Identification Information
– Accounting Information
– Work Measurement InformationTYPES OF PRODUCTION SYSTEM
• Production is the process by which goods and
services are created. A typical production /
manufacturing system is depicted in
PROCESSClassification of Manufacturing
Intermittent Process Continuous Process
Job Process Mass Production
Batch ProcessIntermittent System
• In this system, the goods are manufactured
specially to fulfill orders made by customers
rather than for stock.
• Here the flow of material is intermittent.
• Intermittent production systems are those
where the production facilities are flexible
enough to handle a wide variety of products
and sizes.Information Control Decision Maker
OP1Chief characteristics of intermittent
1. Most products are produced in small quantities.
2. Machines and equipment are laid out by process.
3. Workloads are generally unbalanced.
4. Highly skilled operators are required for efficient
use of machines and equipment.
5. Inprocess inventory is large.
6. Flexible to suit production varieties.Job Production or Project Type
• In this system the goods are produced to definite
• There is no assurance of continuous demand for
specific items and the manufacturing depends on
the receipt of orders from customers.Joborder process is characterised by
1. Whole project is taken as a single operation.
2. Work is to be completed on each product
before processing the next item.
3. Versatile and skilled labour is needed.
4. High capital investment.
5. Control operations are relatively simple.
6. High unit cost of production.BatchProduction
• The items are processed in lots or batches
unlike jobtype system where one item is
produced during each production run.
• In batchtype system new batch is undertaken
for production only when the work on all
items of a batch is complete.It is characterized by
1. One can employ more specialized labour for
each operation with comparatively low
2.Organization and planning is more
complicated in this system.
3. The irregularity in the increase of work added
to the basic material.Features of an intermittent System
1. Demand can be discontinuous.
2. All operational stages may not be balanced.
3. Elaborate sequencing and scheduling is required.
4. Needs high investment.
5. Planning, routing and scheduling changes with
6. Storage is necessary at each stage of production
7. Can adjust to new situation and specification.
8. Inspection is not in line with production.Continuous System
• In this system the items are produced for the
stocks and not for specific orders.
• Here the inputs are standardized and a
standard set of processes and sequence of
processes can be adopted. In continuous
manufacturing systems each production run
manufactures in large lotINPUT
1. Standardization is the fundamental characteristic
of this system.
2. Here items are produced in large quantities and
much emphasis is not given to consumers orders.
3. Uniform and uninterrupted flow of material is
maintained through predetermined sequence of
4. Specialization and standardization also leads to
economies in productionProcess Production
This system is analogous to Mass production system with
more stress on automation in production process.
1.The volume of production is very high.
2. Used for manufacturing those items whose demand is
continuous and high e.g. petroleum products,
particular brand of medicines, heavy chemicals
industries, plastic industries etc.
3.Single raw material can be transformed into different
kinds of product at different stages of the production
process e.g. in processing of crude oil in refinery one
gets kerosene, gasoline etc. at different stages of
production.Features of continuous type of
1. There must be continuity of demand.
2.The product must be standardized.
3. Material should be per specifications and delivered in
4. All operational stages in the process must be balanced.
5. Work must conform to quality standards.
6. Appropriate plant and equipment must be provided.
7. Maintenance must be by anticipation and not by
8. Inspection must in line with production.Advantages
1. Direct labour content is reduced.
2. High accuracy.
3. Work in progress is at a minimum.
4. Storage at different stages of operation not necessary.
5. Reduced material handling.
6. Control process simple.
7. Any weakness in the system is easily located.
8. Material requirements can be accurately planned.
9. Investment in material can be more rapidly translated
into income from sales.Differences between Intermittent and Continuous Process
1. Same product is not 1. Same product produced
produced continuously. continuously.
2. Items produced for order. 2. Items produced for stock.
3. Production process 3. Process not flexible.
4. Regular use of equipment.
4. Equipment used for
5. Only particular type of
product is produced.
5. Wide range of products
6. Large scale production.
can be produced.
7. Planning and control
6. Smaller scale of
operations simple and
7. Planning and control
and tedious.1. More detailed and too many
1. Single set of instructions is
instructions are required for
sufficient for operations.
2. Capital investment is high.
2. Capital investment may be low.
3. Per unit cost of production is
3. Per unit cost of production is
4. More security of jobs.
4. Less security of jobs.
5. Divisional type of
5. Functional type of
6. Requires staff of high technical 6. Requires more managerial
skill and ability.
capability and better co
7. Control not in line of
7. Control in line of production.
8. Storage is required at each
8. Storage required only at
9. Change in location easy.
9. Change in location difficult.
10. Product and the process not
10. Product and process
11. Accuracy low.
11. Accuracy high.