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Teaching Paradigms, Pedagogies and Basic Skills Students

Teaching Paradigms, Pedagogies and Basic Skills Students 34
College of San Mateo Basic Skills Initiative Research Project Teaching Paradigms, Pedagogies and Basic Skills Students Prepared by Lorena G. del Mundo EOPS Counselor 2009Definitions • Paradigm • Set of forms/ideas/patterns all of which contain a particular element • Pedagogy • The art or science of teaching; instructional methods • Basic Skills Student • College student who places in a Math, English or Reading Course of which units do not apply towards an Associate Degree nor Transfer • Educate • Derives from the Latin words “educare to rear or to bring up” and “educere – to lead out” • To educate means to bring out and guide, expand, strengthen and discipline the mindIdentification of Our Basic Skills Students at CSM Method ….Placement Test Results 20022007 CSM Educational Master Plan revealed: • 19.8 in Basic Skills English (Level 1) • 7072 place in pretransfer level English • 26.5 in Basic Skills Math (Level 1) • 8082 place in Pretransfer level Math Note: PreTransfer (Level 2)includes AA/AS degree coursework but not approved for transfer creditEthnicity of Our Basic Skills Students at CSM ENGLISH MATH (Placement Outcomes (Placement Outcomes For 20022007) for 20022007) 60 40 52.7 34.1 35 50 43.1 28.8 30 37 40 25 19.7 27.5 18.8 30 20 17 23.5 20.3 13.8 15 20 11.5 10 7.7 10 5 0 0Ethnic Breakdown of CSM Employees • Administrators African • Classified • FullTime Faculty American, • PartTime Faculty 4.70 Asian, 13.60 Latino, 7.50 Native White, American, 68.60 0.30 Pacific Islander, 1Ethnicity of CSM Instructional Faculty FullTime Adjunct 80.00 80.00 75.40 White 74.10 70.00 70.00 Asian 60.00 African 60.00 American Latino 50.00 50.00 Native American 40.00 40.00 Pacific Islander 30.00 30.00 20.00 20.00 13.90 10.80 10.00 10.00 6.00 4.90 3.70 3.30 0.80 0.20 0.80 0 0.00 0.00CSM Employees over age 55 by Classification • FullTime Instructional Faculty……………41 • FullTime Non Instructional Faculty………39 • Adjunct Instructional Faculty………….…..31 • Adjunct NonInstructional Faculty ………..12 • Classified Staff ……………………………..10 • Administrators ……………………………...32 CSM‟s Student Population 54.1 are 24 years or youngerTypical Characteristics of Basic Skills Students • Academically underprepared • Low course completion rates • Financially provide for • Lower SES themselves • Unclear on goals • Lack selfregulated successful learning behaviors • Negative selfperceptions, selfefficacy • Frequently first generation college • Resilient • Increasingly ethnically • Connection with college staff is underrepresented students critical • Not familiar with the college • Success is much more personal system environment • Multiple ObligationsImplications of Basic Skills Students on Instructional Faculty • Economic, social and ethnic cultural • Role of professor in higher differences can make education vs needs of basic teaching/learning difficult skills students • Accepting unique mission of • Professors‟ own educational community colleges experiences vs basic skills students‟ experiences • Professional development is critical • Professors SES vs basic skills students SES • Knowledge of curriculum vs knowledge of basic skills studentsTeaching Paradigms/Pedagogies 1. Paolo Friere 2. Student Centered Learning 3. Culturally Responsive Pedagogy 4. Psychological Theories 5. Educational Transformation 6. On Course Success Philosophies 7. Creating Powerful ClassroomsPaolo Friere Theory of Education Banking Concept Problem – Posing of Education Education • Teachers possess full knowledge • Teacherstudent / studentteacher and students are empty receptacles to be filled by teachers • Mutual exchange of knowledge through dialogue and validation of experiences • Education becomes the act of depositing information • Embodies communication • Students receive, memorize and • Consists of cognition not transfer of repeat information deposited information • One way communication • Encourages critical thinking • Promotes passive learning • Negates education as a process of inquiryStudent Centered Learning • Focused on student‟s needs, abilities, • Students understand expectations and are interests and learning styles encouraged to use selfassessment measures • Acknowledges student voice as central to learning experience • Students work demonstrates deep and authentic learning and understanding • Classroom environment will be open, dynamic, trusting, respectful, • Teachers help students work through collaborative and promote the natural difficulties by asking openended questions desire and curiosity to learn • Minimal teacher lecturing or direct • Students are involved in the evaluation transmission of factual knowledge, multiple and demonstration of their learning small group activities, frequent student questions and discussion • Requires active engagement and participation from students and • Emphasis on activity learning rather than teachers teaching • Role of teacher is that of facilitator and • Inquire about students‟ understanding of resource person concepts before sharing your own • Students work in collaboration with • Build upon students existing knowledge others • Students have input into what they will • Shift to student learning vs getting through learn and how syllabus • Flexibility with lesson plansExamples of Student Centered Learning • Independent projects • Crossovers • Small and large group discussions • Student class presentations • Peer mentoring • Peer/self assessment • Debates • Learning contracts • Field Trips • Handson activities • Reflective diaries, learning journals • Warmup/Icebreaker activities • Computer assisted learning • Social interaction/community building • Choice in subjects for study/projects • Metacognitive reflection • Portfolio development • Quiz first and work backwards • Buzz groups Culturally Responsive Pedagogy • Using cultural knowledge, prior • Communication of high expectations experiences and performance styles of diverse students to make learning • Learning within the context of culture more appropriate, relevant and effective • Acknowledgement of students‟ life experiences and background knowledge • Builds bridges of meaningfulness between home and school • Realizes not only the importance of experiences academic achievement, but also the maintaining of cultural identity and heritage • Incorporates multicultural information, resources, materials and readings • Recognizes the legitimacy of cultural other than textbooks heritage both as legacies that affect students dispositions, attitudes and • Integrated throughout Not restricted approaches to learning and as worthy to one part of the lesson, nor 4 F‟s: content to be taught in the formal food, fun, folklore, fashion curriculum • Transforms lessons and curriculums • Acknowledges and recognizes that there that challenge traditional views and are cultural differences in learning encourage reconceptualization • Understand role of family and education • Incorporates diverse cultural ways of for various cultural groups knowing, understanding and presenting information from various cultural perspectivesExamples of Culturally Responsive Pedagogy • Assign students to interview members of • Math instruction would incorporate their community who have knowledge of everydaylife concepts, such as the topic they are studying economics, employment, consumer habits, etc. of various ethnic groups • Verbal creativity and storytelling that is unique among some African Americans in • Handouts, word problems, readings, informal social interactions is graphics, etc. would be culturally acknowledged as a gift and contribution reflective, images, names situations, and used to teach writing skills etc. • Community building/group activities • Projects/Assignments completed through and by incorporating cultural viewpoints/experiences • Use of language • Using „pop culture‟ as a foundation for • Referencing cultural origins of many understanding/learning/assignments concepts – Ex. Tupac lyrics for understanding – Ex. Mayan concept of zero poems, critical thinking etc.Psychological Theories Motivation Theory Attribution Theory – Critical in influencing behavior and – Analyzes reasons that students give for their learning success or failure – Intrinsic vs extrinsic – Include locus of control, internal or external – Enrollment in college alone does not constitute motivation to persist – Underprepared students are more likely to be motivated if needs are being met, they see value in what they Engagement Theory learn, and they believe success is – Being integrated, feeling a part of attainable – It doesn‟t happen by accident, it happens by design – Community colleges must be deliberate and aggressive to create opportunities to involve SelfEfficacy Theory students – Students‟ beliefs about their – Engagement within the classroom is critical capabilities to produce designated levels of performance – Personal judgment of competence – Approach difficult tasks as something to be mastered not avoided PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT: Core NOT supplemental component of curriculum/academic programs for basic skills studentsEducational Transformation ( Bell Hooks) • Innertransformation of selfsabotaging behaviors, beliefs, attitudes is critical • Only once this has begun can the real learning occur • To educate as the practice of freedom, educational uplifting of communities, as moral obligation to serve those that come to us • Aspect of education that is sacred • Not merely to share in the intellectual and spiritual growth of our students • Essential to teach in manner that respects and cares for souls of our students • Engaged voice must never be fixed and absolute, but always changing, always evolving • ABC‟s: Affirming Identity, Building Community, Cultivating Leadership (Beverly Daniel Tatum, PHD) – A = important dimensions of students‟ identity are reflected in environment, curriculum and among faculty/staff/administrators/classmates – B = importance of creating a sense of belonging for everyone within the college community – C = role of education in preparing citizens for active participation in a democracyOn Course Success Philosophies By Skip Downing • SelfAwareness • SelfResponsibility • LifeLong Learning • SelfMotivation • Emotional Intelligence • SelfManagement • SelfEsteem • InterdependenceCreating Powerful Classrooms • High Structure – Explicit expectations and examples – Explicit about the practices and „moves‟ of successful students – Balance between structure/openness and guidance/independence • High Challenge – Material that‟s challenging and engaging – Balance of challenge and support • Intensity – Greater immersion and connectedness • Intentionality Learning How to Learn – Understand and monitor selflearning – Explicit about student expectations • Inquiry Making Learning Visible – SOTL, thinkalouds, capture student voices/experiencesExamples of Powerful Classrooms • Intentionality learning How • High Structure to Learn – WRAMPS (Writing and Reading Activities for Math Problem Solving) – Calibrated Peer Review (English YuChung Chang, Pasadena City peerself assessment) Jeff College Maryanow, College of the Sequoias – Full Emersion (English critical thinking and writing excercises – Math (outlining chapters as through multimedia) Chris Juzwiak, homework) Laura Graff, College Glendale Community College of the Desert • Inquiry Making Learning • High Challenge Visible – Poetry in ESL, Annie Agard, Laney College – Reading Between The Lives (Student Reflection Video), Sean – Relevant Analytical Essays, English McFarland, Chabot College Jennifer McBride, Merced College – Math Engagement to RealWorld Scenarios, Myra Snell, Los Medanos College Google: Windows on Learning: • Intensity Resources for Basic – Math Jam Sessions, Teaching and Skills Education Learning Center, Pasadena City CollegeFinal Thoughts of Theory into Practice • Field trips, both oncampus and off • Explicitly identify successful academic campus behaviors • Commitment and investment in time • Avoid overpraising for mediocre work • Professors need policies and practices • Normalize helpseeking behavior that encourage students to utilize outside resources they need, ex. Lab hrs, counseling sessions, tutoring, • Revise your view of intelligence workshops etc. • Understand the necessity of iteration • Positive and encouraging words importance of both repeating key concepts in the course and of (re)presenting those • Well written and detailed syllabus that concepts in as many ways and via as covers all course procedures, many diverse models as possible expectations, reading assignments, grading policies, etc is crucial • Understand the need for encouragement, inspiration, and motivation especially while • Study skills is interwoven into all subjects throughout the semester understanding that students‟ don‟t see themselves as “college material” • Study skills interwoven into all subjects throughout the semester • Accepting the reality that teachers who teach basic skills play an essential role not • Require individual meetings with each only in teaching their discipline but also in student moving students towards greater confidence and stronger selfimage Basic Skills Instructor Interviews • Critical to create community –students • „Academically‟ prepared to teach sense of belonging, know people in class English through master‟s program, (support) however, work experiences are what prepared him to teach basic skills • Scaffold‟s skill building students English • Consciously and continuously integrates • Very little lecture more group study skills/resources discussions and report back, writing on board and facilitate/guide activity • Direct with feedback both positive and negative • Provide many opportunities to learn outside of class • Recognize patterns of error amongst different cultural groups and proceed accordingly • Great deal of preparation and planning up front • See role as assisting students in adapting to culture of college • Need to be familiar with best practice • Know your students and adapt curriculum • Greater sense of community in to them courses….culture relevance • Wider variety of pedagogiesCommon Characteristics of Successful Basic Skills Educators • Demonstrates content knowledge and the • Enjoys and respects students ability to deliver the content • Sees the “WHOLE” student • Varies instructional delivery methods • Creates a “classroom community‟” learning • Maintains organized and structured environment activities • Motivates students • Possesses knowledge of learning styles and how to apply this information • Engages in “intrusive/proactive” student activities • Relates the curriculum to the real world and careers • Encourages students to use all available support services • Actively engages students • Maintains an innovative spirit • Maintains high academic standards • Knows how to and enjoys working in • Engages in classroom research teams • Engages in professional development • Not just expert in discipline but activities knowledgeable of basic skills student characteristics • Chooses to teach underprepared students and demonstrates a passion for working with this populationPower of Words • A commitment to universal • Institutional paradigm shift – from “the collegeready student” to access “the studentready college” – Is question are students “college material” or are colleges • Institutions that expect students to “student material” perform well use language and create a culture that communicates students‟ • Remedial vs value and potential…selffulfilling prophecy Developmental – Remedial = conveys a sense of deficiency in need of correction – Developmental = focuses on change and growth, part of a spectrum • As a college do we: – look at students in terms of attributes or deficits – Believe in students ability to learn or right to fail – Believe that teaching basic skills is anything but basicAdditional Resources BOOKS MOVIES • Teaching to Transgress: • Stand and Deliver Education as the Practice of – Jaime Escalante, Calculus Teacher Freedom Garfield High School, by Bell Hooks East Los Angeles, CA 1982 • Teaching Underprepared Students: Strategies for • Freedom Writer‟s Promoting Success and – Erin Gruwell, English Teacher Retention in Higher Education Woodrow Wilson High School, Long by Kathleen F. Gabriel Beach, CA 1994 • Pedagogy of the Oppressed by Paolo Friere • Lean on Me – Joe Clark, Principal • Can We Talk About Race And Eastside High School, other Conversations in an Era of Patterson, New Jersey, 1967 School Resegregation by Beverly Daniel Tatum, Ph.D. • Honored but Invisible: An Inside Look at Teaching in Community Colleges by Norton Grubb Professional Development Organizations Organization Website Information Available • Online data analysis Achieving the Dream • Resource library • Campus implementation projects • Resource library National Center for • Conferences Developmental Educators • Focus on Math/English Strengthening Pre • Faculty development Collegiate Education in programs/index • Academic support Community Colleges (SPECC) • Practical On Course theory/engagement classrooms activities • Workshops, trainings, conferences • Coaching for Educational Bay Area Coalition for Equity Equitable Schools • Teaching with Cultural Eye (BAYCES)