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Wireless Sensor Network

Sensor network- consists of a large number of sensor nodes, nodes deployed either inside or very close to the sensed phenomenon.
WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKCONTENTS 1. Definition 2. components of WSN 3. A general work process of WSN 4. Sensor node components 5. Type of wireless sensor network 6. Communication in WSN 7. Classification of routing protocols 8. Design factors of sensor network 9. WSN protocols 10. WSN operating system 11. WSN simulators 12. WSN types 13. challenges 14. Application of WSN 15. Advantages of WSN 16. Disadvantages of WSN 17. conclusionDEFINITION 1. Wireless sensing + Data networking 2. multiple hop, self organize 3. wireless communication 4. consist of large amount of sensor nodes 5. cooperative sensing, collection, process 6. send to observeCOMPONENTS OF WSN 1. Sensor A transducer Converts physical phenomenon e.g. heat ,light, motion, vibration, and sound into electrical signals 2. Sensor node basic unit in sensor network contains onboard sensors, processor, memory, transceiver, and power supply3. Sensor network consists of a large number of sensor nodes nodes deployed either inside or very close to the sensed phenomenonTYPES OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK UNSTRUCTURED WSN STRUCTURED WSN • Few and scarcely • Dense collection of nodes distributed nodes • Ad hoc deployment • Preplanned deployment • Difficulty in network • lower network maintenance maintenanceThe components of a sensor nodes include the following: A sensing and actuation unit A processing unit A communication unit A power unit Other applicationdependent units The goal from the sensor node is to collect the data at regular intervals, then transform the data into an electrical signal, finally send the signal to the sink or base node.COMMUNICATION IN WSNCLASSIFICATION OF ROUTING PROTOCOL 1. Proactive In a proactive protocol the nodes switch on their sensors and transmitters, sense the environment and transmit the data to a BS. Example LEACH2. Reactive: If there are sudden changes in the sensed attribute beyond some predetermined threshold value, the nodes immediately react. Example TEEN 3. Hybrid: Hybrid protocol incorporates both proactive and reactive concepts. Example APTEENDESIGN FACTORS OF SENSOR NETWORK 1. Fault tolerance 2. scalability 3. production costs 4. hardware constraintsWSN PROTOCOLSWSN OPERATING SYSTEM  TinyOS  Contiki  MANTIS  BTnut  SOS  NanoRKWSN SIMULATORS • NS2 • GloMoSim • OPNET • SensorSim • JSim • OMNeT++WSN TYPES 1. TimeDriven Report data in the cycle time. (LEACH) 2. EventDriven Report data in the event. (TEEN) 3. Singlehop Nodes communicate with each other directly. 4. Multihop To communicate from a node to the other may need passing through another node.CHALLENGES HARDWARE SOFTWARE • low cost • Operating systems • Tiny sensors • security • Lifetime maximization • Mobility • Robustness and fault tolerance • SelfconfigurationAPPLICATIONS OF WSN 1. Area monitoring 2. Health care monitoring 3. Air pollution monitoring 4. Forest fire detection 5. Landslide detection 6. Water quality monitoring 7. Natural disaster prevention 8. Industrial monitoringADVANTAGES OF WSN 1. Avoids a lot of wiring 2. can accommodate new devices at any time 3. Flexible to go through physical partitions 4. It can be accessed through a centralized monitor 5. InfrastructureDISADVANTAGES OF WSN 1. Easy for hackers to hack a network 2. Comparatively low speed of communication Gets distracted by various elements 3. costly at large 4. Life of nodes 5. Energy LifeCONCLUSION 1. As described, WSN possess the potential for many applications. 2. NS2 can be used as one of the simulation tool to analyze network behavior. 3. Numerous software difficulties must be solved before wireless sensor networks may be considered a mature technology.Any queries You can find us at