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Wireless Sensor Network

Sensor network- consists of a large number of sensor nodes, nodes deployed either inside or very close to the sensed phenomenon.
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preeti,India,Student
Published Date:15-03-2017
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WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKCONTENTS 1. Definition 2. components of WSN 3. A general work process of WSN 4. Sensor node components 5. Type of wireless sensor network 6. Communication in WSN 7. Classification of routing protocols 8. Design factors of sensor network 9. WSN protocols 10. WSN operating system 11. WSN simulators 12. WSN types 13. challenges 14. Application of WSN 15. Advantages of WSN 16. Disadvantages of WSN 17. conclusionDEFINITION 1. Wireless sensing + Data networking 2. multiple hop, self organize 3. wireless communication 4. consist of large amount of sensor nodes 5. cooperative sensing, collection, process 6. send to observeCOMPONENTS OF WSN 1. Sensor - A transducer - Converts physical phenomenon e.g. heat ,light, motion, vibration, and sound into electrical signals 2. Sensor node - basic unit in sensor network - contains on-board sensors, processor, memory, transceiver, and power supply3. Sensor network - consists of a large number of sensor nodes - nodes deployed either inside or very close to the sensed phenomenonTYPES OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK UNSTRUCTURED WSN STRUCTURED WSN • Few and scarcely • Dense collection of nodes distributed nodes • Ad hoc deployment • Pre-planned deployment • Difficulty in network • lower network maintenance maintenanceThe components of a sensor nodes include the following: A sensing and actuation unit A processing unit A communication unit A power unit Other application-dependent units The goal from the sensor node is to collect the data at regular intervals, then transform the data into an electrical signal, finally send the signal to the sink or base node.COMMUNICATION IN WSNCLASSIFICATION OF ROUTING PROTOCOL 1. Proactive In a proactive protocol the nodes switch on their sensors and transmitters, sense the environment and transmit the data to a BS. Example- LEACH2. Reactive: If there are sudden changes in the sensed attribute beyond some pre-determined threshold value, the nodes immediately react. Example- TEEN 3. Hybrid: Hybrid protocol incorporates both proactive and reactive concepts. Example- APTEENDESIGN FACTORS OF SENSOR NETWORK 1. Fault tolerance 2. scalability 3. production costs 4. hardware constraintsWSN PROTOCOLSWSN OPERATING SYSTEM  TinyOS  Contiki  MANTIS  BTnut  SOS  Nano-RKWSN SIMULATORS • NS-2 • GloMoSim • OPNET • SensorSim • J-Sim • OMNeT++WSN TYPES 1. Time-Driven Report data in the cycle time. (LEACH) 2. Event-Driven Report data in the event. (TEEN) 3. Single-hop Nodes communicate with each other directly. 4. Multi-hop To communicate from a node to the other may need passing through another node.CHALLENGES HARDWARE SOFTWARE • low cost • Operating systems • Tiny sensors • security • Lifetime maximization • Mobility • Robustness and fault tolerance • Self-configurationAPPLICATIONS OF WSN 1. Area monitoring 2. Health care monitoring 3. Air pollution monitoring 4. Forest fire detection 5. Landslide detection 6. Water quality monitoring 7. Natural disaster prevention 8. Industrial monitoring