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Indian Science, Technology and Innovation

Indian Science, Technology and Innovation 4
Indian Indian Science Science, Technology Technology and Innovation: The The Changing Changing Landscape Landscape R A Mashelkar“It It is is an an inherent inherent obligation obligation of a great country like India with with its its traditions traditions of of scholarship and original thinking thinking and and its its great great cultural heritage to participate participate fully fully in in the the m march arch of science, which is probably probably m mankind ankind’s s greatest greatest enterprise today.” Jawaharlal NehruGreen Green White White Revolution Revolution Revolution Revolution (Agriculture) (Agriculture) (Milk) (Milk) Many Many Revolutions Revolutions Spu Spu Spu Spurr rre e ed ed d d b b by by y y Indian ST Indian ST Blue Blue Gray Gray Revolution Revolution Revolution Revolution R RRl Rl evo evollu uttti tiiion on (Space) (Space) (Software) (Software)Cr Crops ops India India’ss wo worrlld d Rank Rank  in in pr production oduction Pulses 1 Milk Milk 1 1 Arable Land 2 Whea Wheatt 2 2 Rice 2 SSugar cane 2 2 Cotton 2 Vegetables  melons 2 Fruits excluding melons 2 Tea 2 Potato 3 Oilseeds 5The Challenge The Challenge • • • • High High High High in in in in Production Production Production Production but but but but low low low low in in in in Productivity Productivity Productivity Productivity • • No 1 in pulse production but a large No 1 in pulse production but a large im impp p ppp orter of orter of p pulses ulses • • Moving from ‘Green’ to ‘Evergreen’ Moving from ‘Green’ to ‘Evergreen’ ‘Nutritional’ Revolution ‘Nutritional’ Revolution • • Embracing Embracing Embracing Embracing new new new new technology technology technology technology•India second largest producer and Bt Cotton exporter f of cotton •BT cotton introduced in 2002 •150fold increase in 2008 •81 of total cotton area under BT cotton now •95 Value Added over non BT •80 higher profits to the farmers 7Green Green White White Revolution Revolution Revolution Revolution (Agriculture) (Agriculture) (Milk) (Milk) Many Many Revolutions Revolutions Spu Spu Spu Spurr rre e ed ed d d b b by by y y Indian ST Indian ST Blue Blue Gray Gray Revolution Revolution Revolution Revolution R RRl Rl evo evollu uttti tiiion on (Space) (Space) (Software) (Software)ISRO ISRO Launch Launch V Vehicles ehiclesIndia’s Mission to the Moon (2008) Chandrayan 1 Carrying 2 US Pay yloads from NASATechnology Led Technology Led IIli Ili Inc ncllus usiive ve G GGGrow rowttth thhh for Fishermen for Fishermen • • 7 million people 7 million people on the coast depend on fishing for on the coast depend on fishing for livelihood livelihood livelihood livelihood • • • • Satellite Satellite Satellite Satellite based based based based Potential Potential Potential Potential Fishing Fishing Fishing Fishing Zone Zone Zone Zone forecasts forecasts forecasts forecasts helps helps helps helps in in in in deep sea fishing deep sea fishing • • More than 225 nodes receive forecasts More than 225 nodes receive forecasts • • Substantial increase in fishermen income Substantial increase in fishermen incometh th Top Ten Achievements of the 20 Top Ten Achievements of the 20 Century Century Jayant Jayant Narlikar Narlikar Narlikar Narlikar (2003) (2003) (2003) (2003),,The The The The Scientific Scientific Scientific Scientific Edge Edge Edge Edge, , Penguin Penguin Penguin Penguin • • S. Ramanu S. Ramanujjjjam am Mathematics Mathematics (() (() 20s 20s) ) • • Meghnad Meghnad Saha Saha Ionization Equation (20s) Ionization Equation (20s) • • • • SN S S SN ..N N B B Bose Bose o osse e Particle Particle Particle Particle Statistics Statistics Statistics Statistics (1922) (1922) (1922) (1922) • • C.V. Raman C.V. Raman R Raman Effect aman Effect (1928) (1928) • • G.N. G.N. Ramachandran Ramachandran M Molecular Biophysics olecular Biophysics (mid 50s) (mid 50s) • • Nuclear Power (50s) Nuclear Power (50s) • • • • Green Green Green Green Revolution Revolution Revolution Revolution (70s) (70s) (70s) (70s) • • Space Space Programme Programme (late 70s) (late 70s) • • SSd SSd upercon upercond duct uctiiiiv viiiity ty (( (l (lllate ate 88 80 8000s s)) ) ) • • CSIR Transformation CSIR Transformation (late 90s) (late 90s)Business Business India IndiaIndian Grand Challen Indian Grand Challeng g g ges es Balancing Expansion, Inclusion, Excellence Balancing Expansion, Inclusion, Excellence Spurring Industrial RD Spurring Industrial RD Inclusive Innovation Inclusive InnovationEx Exp p p pansion ansion • • No No No No growth growth growth growth in in in in enrolment enrolment enrolment enrolment in in in in post post post post school school school school education education education education between 1900 between 19001947 1947 • • Gross Gross higher education enrolment ratio is higher education enrolment ratio is 11.5 (global 11.5 (global average average 26) 26) Need for more Universities Country Population No of No of Univ India should have (mn) Universities to be at par Korea 45 120 2930 UK 50 170 3740 USA USA 300 300 1800 1800 6600 6600 India 1100 440 Current Current Current Current Expansion Expansion Expansion Expansion • 30 30 C Centtrall U Uniiversiti ities • 5 Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research • 8 8 Indian Indian Institute Institute of of T Technology echnology (IIT) (IIT) • 7 Indian Institute of Management (IIM) • 20 20 Indian Institute of f Inf formation Technology • 1600 Polytechnics • 10000 10000 Vocational Vocational Schools Schools • 50000 Skills Development CentresINSPIRE: Innovative Initiative Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research Science and Innovation Scholarship to One Million people Attract Attract talent talent to to Science Science at at an an early early stage stage Commitment for 20 yearsExclusion due to: Exclusion due to: • • • • Poverty Poverty Poverty Poverty • • Illiteracy Illiteracy • • Gender Gender • • • • Distance Distance Distance Distance • • Caste CasteGrand Challen Grand Challeng g g ges es Balancing Expansion, Inclusion, Excellence Balancing Expansion, Inclusion, Excellence S Spg p ppg urrin urring g Industrial Industrial RD RD Inclusive Innovation Inclusive InnovationIndia’s 3 Freedoms India’s 3 Freedoms First Freedom First Freedom 1947 1947 Political Political Political Political Second Freedom Second Freedom 1991 1991 Td T TTd ra rad de an e and ddd E EEEconom conomiiiic c Third Freedom Third Freedom 2008 2008 T TTTec echli hli h hno nollog ogiica calll lSecond Freedom (1991) (Pre 1991)Second Freedom (1991)Wheels Turns the Full Circle • 1950 • British Morris Oxford Indian Ambassador Ambassador • 50 years later • Indian Indica – British Morris RoverAnd Spiraling Up….Corporate Innovation Movement Corporate Innovation Movement Drugs Drugs Drugs Drugs and and and and P P Pharmaceutical Pharmaceutical harmaceutical harmaceutical Industry Industry Industry Industry Copying Copying Copying Copying Molecules Molecules Molecules Molecules To To Creating Molecules Creating MoleculesIndia can do it India can do it Indian Indian Indian Indian Tuberculosis Tuberculosis Tuberculosis Tuberculosis Breakthrough Breakthrough Di Di Di Discovery o scovery offff a new a new d d d drug rug molecule, first in last 40 years molecule, first in last 40 years Reduces treatment duration from Reduces treatment duration from 6 months to 2 months 6 months to 2 months ( ( ( (in in combination) combination) In In In In phase phase phase phase II II II II c c clinical clinical linical linical trial trial trial trial And many more in the offing… And many more in the offing…Science Technology Innovation 1984 1984 USD USD 250 250 and and a a garage garage 2004 2004 – IPO IPO oversubscribed oversubscribed 33 33 times times. Crosses USD 1 billion mark on the first day of listing. Today she is the richest woman in India Among World’s 100 Most Powerful Women Forbes 2008India is a developing country but it is a a developed developed country country as as far far as as its its intellectual infrastructure is concerned concerned. W We e get get the the highest highest intellectual capital per dollar here. John John Welch Welch CEO, GE 17 Sept 2000IIl ntelllectuall CCapiitall per DDollllar • SCI publications per dollar • • Citations Citations per per dollar dollar • Patents p per dollar MNC RD Centers in India 1000 900 800 780  780 MNC RD centers 700 699 699 600 500 517 400 400  281 281 of of the the global global 1 1,000 000 300 mega RD spenders have 297 200 centers in India 191 191 100 0 Before 2000 20012002 20032004 20052006 20072008  116 ,6000 ,000 00 sci ient tiist ts work k at t MNC RD centers. 39The Tide beggg inning to turn…. Flight of Human Capital • Brain drain • Brain bank • • Brain Brain Circulation Circulation • •Brain Brain Drain Drain •Brain Gain •BBi rain C CiircullatiionGrand Challen Grand Challeng g g ges es Industrial RD Industrial RD Balancing Balancing Balancing Balancing Expansion Expansion Expansion Expansion, , Inclusion Inclusion Inclusion Inclusion, , Excellence Excellence Inclusive Inclusive Inclusive Inclusive Innovation Innovation Innovation InnovationWhat is Innovation What is Innovation ‘I ‘I ‘I ‘Innova nnovati ti ti tion on iiiis s th th th the e successful exploitation successful exploitation of a new idea’ of a new idea’Throu Throug g g gh Innovation h Innovation w wea ea e e ac accchi hiee e ev vee e e More More More More from from from from Less Less Less Less for for for for More More More MoreIndustrial Enterprises aim at Industrial Enterprises aim at Getting Getting More( Performance) More( Performance) From Less (Cost) From Less (Cost) For For For For M M More More ore ore (Profit (Profit (Profit (Profit, , value value value value to to to to the the the the s s shareholder) shareholder) hareholder) hareholder)Inclusive Innovation Inclusive Innovation Gettin Getting g g g More More fr froe o ooe m L m Less essssss for for for for M M More More ore ore and and and and More More More More People People People PeopleMore and More People More and More People 4 4 4 4 billi billi billi billion peop on peoplllle w e wiiith ith th th iiiincome ncome lllless ess th th th than an 2 2 2 2 per day per day Need not ‘low cost’ but ‘ultra low cost Need not ‘low cost’ but ‘ultra low cost so so so sollut ut ut utiio o o on ns s s s’. ’. Need not ‘affordability’ but ‘extreme Need not ‘affordability’ but ‘extreme affordability affordability affordability affordability’’High Haves P P P P EE R R FF O O R R R R M M A A A A N N C C EE Have Nots Low High PriceHigh Haves P P P P EE R R FF O O R R R R M M A A A A N N C C EE Have ‐Nots Low High PriceHigh Have ‐Nots Haves P P P P EE EE X X R R P P P P FF EE O O R R R R R R II M M EE A A A A N N N N C C C C EEEE EE Low High PriceTATA NANOModel Model T T 19,700                Ford Bee Beetle tle 11,333              Volkswagen Mini 11,777        British Motor Corp.     Nano 2,000                  Tata Motors   Ge Getttin tingggg  Mor More e FFFFor or  M M M Mor ore eInclusive Innovation Inclusive Innovation Getting Getting Getting Getting More More More More from from from from Less Less Less Less for for for for More More More More…… …… For More… For More… People People Planet Planet Prosperity Prosperity Prosperity ProsperityInclusive Innovation Inclusive Innovation Health Health Health Health F F For For or or ALL ALL ALL ALL Ultra Low Cost Ultra Low Cost Diagnostics Diagnostics Diagnostics Diagnostics Therapeutics Therapeutics Vi Vi V Vacc acciines nes Surgeries Surgeries ……. …….Current Drug Development Gt Getttiing LLess ffrom M More ffor LLess 10years To Tod da ay y ago 250 m 1.5 b Cost of development Time 10yrs 15yrs 40 30 Potential new drugs (NCE)100 100 Cos Costt  of of  TTrrea eatmen tment: t:  20000 20000 X 5 5  yr yrs s Time Time  fo forr  De Devvelopmen elopment: t:  10 10  yr yrss X C C C Cos ostt  o offff  Dl Dl D Dev eve ellopmen opmentt::  FFFFew ew  h hhd hd un und dre redd d d   X X 10 10  mn mn million million  dollar dollarssT Trraditional aditional   Modern Modern   Modern Modern   Medicine Medicine Medicine Medicine Science ScienceStandard Drug Delivery Process Molecule                         Mice                            MenRe Reve vers rse e  Pharmacology Pharmacology  Pr Process ocess Men                       Mice                            MenIndian Psoriasis Breakthrouggh  Getting More from Less for MoreMooe re Fro om Less ess Fo or Mooe re Ca Catta arra act ct Ey Eye e Sur Surggery ery US Costs  3,,000 Aravind Eye Care 30 ‐300 Surgeries:  300,000 per yearMor More e(higher (higher  quality) quality)   ffffro rom m  LLLLess ess  () () ((cos costt))   Royall Collllege off  Aravind Event Ophthalmologists, UK Cap Capssule ule ruptur rupturee 4.4 2.0 44 20 Iris trauma 0.7 0.3 Iris prolapse 0.07 0.01 Anterior chamber collapse 0.5 0.3 Loss of nuclear fragment 0.3 0.2 Re Reta taiin ne ed d lens lens ma matteerial rial 111 .1 0 0.87 87 Loss of IOL into vitreous 0.16 0.01Doinggf More from Less ffor More: The Emergence of Gandhian Engineering CK C.K. Prahalad Prahalad R.A. Mashelkar In PressIndia and the future India and the future • • • • By By By By 2050 2050 2050 2050 61 61 61 61 of of of of Indian Indian Indian Indian population population population population in in in in working group (15 working group (15 59 yrs)= 900 59 yrs)= 900 mn mn • • 18 18 g g of world’s workin of world’s working g a agg g ge e pp p po opp p pulation ulation • • 1 in 6 persons of global workforce will 1 in 6 persons of global workforce will be be an Indian an Indian“India could have the the second second largest largest economy in the world (larger than the the US) US) of of 36 36 trillion, and a per capit ita iincome off about , 22,000 by y 2039”Challenge Challenge for for Indian Indian Scientists Scientists • Look at the stars with feet on the ground
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