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Indian Science, Technology and Innovation

Indian Science, Technology and Innovation 4
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FlorenceMorgon,Canada,Professional
Published Date:13-07-2017
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Indian Indian Science Science, Technology Technology and Innovation: The The Changing Changing Landscape Landscape R A Mashelkar“It It is is an an inherent inherent obligation obligation of a great country like India with with its its traditions traditions of of scholarship and original thinking thinking and and its its great great cultural heritage to participate participate fully fully in in the the m march arch of science, which is probably probably m mankind ankind’s s greatest greatest enterprise today.” - Jawaharlal NehruGreen Green White White Revolution Revolution Revolution Revolution (Agriculture) (Agriculture) (Milk) (Milk) Many Many Revolutions Revolutions Spu Spu Spu Spurr rre e ed ed d d b b by by y y Indian S&T Indian S&T Blue Blue Gray Gray Revolution Revolution Revolution Revolution R RRl Rl evo evollu uttti tiiion on (Space) (Space) (Software) (Software)Cr Crops ops India India’ss wo worrlld d Rank Rank  in in pr production oduction Pulses 1 Milk Milk 1 1 Arable Land 2 Whea Wheatt 2 2 Rice 2 SSugar cane 2 2 Cotton 2 Vegetables & melons 2 Fruits excluding melons 2 Tea 2 Potato 3 Oilseeds 5The Challenge The Challenge • • • • High High High High in in in in Production Production Production Production but but but but low low low low in in in in Productivity Productivity Productivity Productivity • • No 1 in pulse production but a large No 1 in pulse production but a large im impp p ppp orter of orter of p pulses ulses • • Moving from ‘Green’ to ‘Evergreen’& Moving from ‘Green’ to ‘Evergreen’& ‘Nutritional’ Revolution ‘Nutritional’ Revolution • • Embracing Embracing Embracing Embracing new new new new technology technology technology technology•India second largest producer and Bt Cotton exporter f of cotton •BT cotton introduced in 2002 •150-fold increase in 2008 •81 % of total cotton area under BT cotton now •95% Value Added over non BT •80% higher profits to the farmers 7Green Green White White Revolution Revolution Revolution Revolution (Agriculture) (Agriculture) (Milk) (Milk) Many Many Revolutions Revolutions Spu Spu Spu Spurr rre e ed ed d d b b by by y y Indian S&T Indian S&T Blue Blue Gray Gray Revolution Revolution Revolution Revolution R RRl Rl evo evollu uttti tiiion on (Space) (Space) (Software) (Software)ISRO ISRO Launch Launch V Vehicles ehiclesIndia’s Mission to the Moon (2008) Chandrayan 1 Carrying 2 US Pay yloads from NASATechnology Led Technology Led IIli Ili Inc ncllus usiive ve G GGGrow rowttth thhh for Fishermen for Fishermen • • 7 million people 7 million people on the coast depend on fishing for on the coast depend on fishing for livelihood livelihood livelihood livelihood • • • • Satellite Satellite Satellite Satellite based based based based Potential Potential Potential Potential Fishing Fishing Fishing Fishing Zone Zone Zone Zone forecasts forecasts forecasts forecasts helps helps helps helps in in in in deep sea fishing deep sea fishing • • More than 225 nodes receive forecasts More than 225 nodes receive forecasts • • Substantial increase in fishermen income Substantial increase in fishermen incometh th Top Ten Achievements of the 20 Top Ten Achievements of the 20 Century Century Jayant Jayant Narlikar Narlikar Narlikar Narlikar (2003) (2003) (2003) (2003),,The The The The Scientific Scientific Scientific Scientific Edge Edge Edge Edge, , Penguin Penguin Penguin Penguin • • S. Ramanu S. Ramanujjjjam am- - Mathematics Mathematics (() (() 20s 20s) ) • • Meghnad Meghnad Saha Saha- - Ionization Equation (20s) Ionization Equation (20s) • • • • SN S S SN ..N N B B Bose Bose o osse e- - - - Particle Particle Particle Particle Statistics Statistics Statistics Statistics (1922) (1922) (1922) (1922) • • C.V. Raman C.V. Raman- - R Raman Effect aman Effect (1928) (1928) • • G.N. G.N. Ramachandran Ramachandran- - M Molecular Biophysics olecular Biophysics (mid 50s) (mid 50s) • • Nuclear Power (50s) Nuclear Power (50s) • • • • Green Green Green Green Revolution Revolution Revolution Revolution (70s) (70s) (70s) (70s) • • Space Space Programme Programme (late 70s) (late 70s) • • SSd SSd upercon upercond duct uctiiiiv viiiity ty (( (l (lllate ate 88 80 8000s s)) ) ) • • CSIR Transformation CSIR Transformation (late 90s) (late 90s)Business Business India IndiaIndian Grand Challen Indian Grand Challeng g g ges es Balancing Expansion, Inclusion, Excellence Balancing Expansion, Inclusion, Excellence Spurring Industrial R&D Spurring Industrial R&D Inclusive Innovation Inclusive InnovationEx Exp p p pansion ansion • • No No No No growth growth growth growth in in in in enrolment enrolment enrolment enrolment in in in in post post post post school school school school education education education education between 1900- between 1900-1947 1947 • • Gross Gross higher education enrolment ratio is higher education enrolment ratio is 11.5% (global 11.5% (global average average- - 26%) 26%) Need for more Universities Country Population No of No of Univ India should have (mn) Universities to be at par Korea 45 120 2930 UK 50 170 3740 USA USA 300 300 1800 1800 6600 6600 India 1100 440 -Current Current Current Current Expansion Expansion Expansion Expansion • 30 30 C Centtrall U Uniiversiti ities • 5 Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research • 8 8 Indian Indian Institute Institute of of T Technology echnology (IIT) (IIT) • 7 Indian Institute of Management (IIM) • 20 20 Indian Institute of f Inf formation Technology • 1600 Polytechnics • 10000 10000 Vocational Vocational Schools Schools • 50000 Skills Development Centres