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Resistance and Resistivity

Resistance and Resistivity
Electric Currents and Resistance II Physics 2415 Lecture 11 Michael Fowler, UVa Today’s Topics • First we’ll mention capacitors • Power usage: kWh, etc. • The microscopic picture • Temperature dependence of resistivity • Drift speed and electron speed • AC and DC • Semiconductors and superconductors Know This… • Capacitors in parallel (any number) are all at V V the same voltage V. • Capacitors in series (any number) all carry the • . same charge Q. Q Q Q Q • Putting these facts together with V = Q/C C 2 can solve a lot of C 1 problems Resistance and Resistivity • To summarize: for a given material (say, copper) the resistance of a piece of uniform wire is proportional to its length and inversely proportional to its crosssectional area A. • This is written: R A  where is the resistivity. 8 1.6810 m. • For copper, Electric Power • Remember voltage is a measure of potential energy of electric charge, and if one coulomb drops through a potential difference of one volt it loses one joule of potential energy. • So a current of I amps flowing through a wire with V volts potential difference between the ends is losing IV joules per sec. • This energy appears as heat in the wire: the electric field accelerates the electrons, which then bump into impurities and defects in the wire, and are slowed down to begin accelerating again, like a sloping pinball machine. Power and Energy Usage • Using Ohm’s law, we can write the power use of a resistive heater (or equivalent device, such as a bulb) in different ways: 22 P IV I RV / R • The unit is watts, meaning joules per second. • Electric meters measure total energy usage: adding up how much power is drawn for how long, the standard unit is the kilowatt hour: • 1 kWh = 1,000x3,600J = 3.6MJ Microscopic Picture of Conductivity • The total current down the wire is I; if we assume it’s uniform over the cross section area A (which it is) there is a current 2 density j = I/A. (units: amps/m ) • A constant E field gives a steady current. This means the electrons are bouncing off things, like a sloping pinball machine, otherwise the current would keep accelerating. What are the Electrons Bouncing off • Not the atoms It’s found experimentally that electrons pass dozens or often hundreds of atoms before being deflected. • Furthermore, an extremely pure crystal of copper has a very low resistance if it’s really cooled down….and the atoms are all still there. What are the Electrons Bouncing off • Not the atoms • An extremely pure crystal of copper has a very low resistance if it’s really cooled down…. • This is the clue: they are deflected by thermal vibrations of the lattice—resistance increases with temperature. • The electrons also bounce off impurities, but can pass through a pure cold lattice like light through glass… electrons are really waves Temperature Dependence of Resistivity • Resistivity of metals increases approximately linearly with temperature over a wide range. • The formula is:  1TT  T00   being the resistance at some fixed T , and  the 0 0 temperature coefficient of resistivity. • An ordinary incandescent bulb has a tungsten wire at 15 about 3300K, and  = 0.0045, from which T 0 not so far off proportional to absolute temperature. Clicker Question • What is the resistance of a 12V, 36 Watt headlight bulb A. 3 ohms B. 4 ohms C. 0.3 ohms Clicker Answer • What is the resistance of a 12V, 36 Watt headlight bulb A. 3 ohms B. 4 ohms C. 0.3 ohms • Power of 36W = IV, V = 12 so I = 3. Then I = V/R. Clicker Question • Assume the 12V, 36 Watt headlight bulb has a tungsten filament. What is its approximate power output in the first instant it is connected, 15 cold, to the 12V battery ( ). T 0 A. 36W B. 2.4W C. 540W Clicker Answer • Assume the 12V, 36 Watt headlight bulb has a tungsten filament. What is its approximate power output in the first instant it is connected, 15 cold, to the 12V battery ( ). T 0 A. 36W B. 2.4W C. 540W 2 Power P = IV = V /R: R when initially cold is 1/15 of R at operating temperature of 3300K. Drift Speed • Take a piece of copper wire, say 1mmx1mm cross section, 1m long carrying 5 amps. 23 • This is 1cc of Cu, about 10 gms, about 10 conduction electrons (one per atom), about 15,000C of electron charge. • Therefore, at 5 amps (C/sec) it takes 3000secs for an electron to drift 1m. 4 • Bottom line: the drift velocity is of order 10 m/sec. (it’s linear in current, and depends on wire thickness for given current, obviously.) Drift Speed and Electron Speed • Take a piece of copper wire, say 1mmx1mm cross section, 1m long carrying 5 amps: this wire has resistance RA  /  0.0 2 so from E 0.1 V/m Ohm’s law . • This field will accelerate the electrons, ma = eE, 10 2 approximate accn = 2x10 m/s . This reaches 14 drift velocity in about 0.5x10 seconds, that must be time between collisions. • Electron speed (from quantum mechanics) is 6 8 about 2x10 m/s, so goes of order 10 m between collisions—past dozens of atoms. AC and DC • Batteries provide direct current, DC: it always flows in the same direction. • Almost all electric generators produce a voltage of sine wave form: V V sin 2 ft V sin t 00 • This drives an alternating current, AC, Vt sin 0 I I sint 0 R and power 2 2 2 2 2 PVI I R I Rsin t V / R sin t  00AC Average Power and rms Values 22 • The AC power P  V / R s in  t varies  0 rapidly ( = 2f, f = 60 Hz here), what is significant for most uses is the average power. 2 average value of sint 2 • The average value of sint is ½. must equal average value 2 of cost. and remember 2 2 2 sint + cost = 1 V V V/2 • Define V by rms rms 0 2 • Then the average power PV / R rms The standard 120V AC power is V = 120V. rms So the maximum voltage V on a 120V line is 120x2 = 170V 0Why Bother with AC • Because, as we’ll discuss a little later, it’s very easy to transform from high voltage to low voltage using transformers. • This means very high voltages can be used for longer distance transmission, low voltages for local use. Clicker Question • The resistivity of aluminum is 58 higher than that of copper. • A copper high voltage line has diameter 1 cm. If is replaced by an aluminum line of the same resistance, the aluminum line has diameter: A. 1.58cm B. 1.27cm C. 0.8 cm D. O.64 cm Clicker Answer • The resistivity of aluminum is 58 higher than that of copper. • A copper high voltage line has diameter 1 cm. If is replaced by an aluminum line of the same resistance, the aluminum line has diameter: Remember R = L/A. The A. 1.58cm power lines have the same B. 1.27cm length, the aluminum therefore C. 0.8 cm needs 58 more crosssection area A, from which diameter up D. O.64 cm by factor 1.58. High Voltage Power Lines … • Are made of aluminum—you need 58 more than copper by volume, but less than half the weight, and it’s about 65 cheaper per kg. • No contest. • Some steel may be added for strength.
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