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EmmaGoulding,Vatican City,Professional
Published Date:06-07-2017
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THE PURPOSE OF GRAMMAR • Clarity of meaning • Readability • CredibilityTYPES OF ERRORS • Wrong-word errors • Punctuation errors • Usage errorsTYPES OF WRONG-WORD ERRORS • Spelling and Typographic Mistakes • Don’t just rely on spell check • Wrong Meaning • Use a dictionary. • Be careful using the thesaurus. • Watch out for words with the wrong shade of meaning or the wrong meaning altogether. • Commonly Confused Words • Spell check won’t catch theseCOMMONLY CONFUSED WORDS • They're / Their / There • They’re going to store together. (contraction of ―they are‖) • The managers are in their weekly meeting. (possessive) • Place the flowers there. (adv. – indicates location/direction) • You're / Your • You're going to be a great writer (contraction of ―you are‖) • Your hair looks nice today. (possessive) • Who's / Whose • Who's on first base? (contraction of ―who is‖) • Whose watch is this? (possession) COMMONLY CONFUSED WORDS • It's / Its / Its’ • It’s a beautiful day (contraction of ―it is‖) • Download the program, along with its readme file. (possessive) • Its’ is not a word. • Affect / Effect • The outage shouldn't affect anyone during work hours. (verb – to act on, influence) • The outage shouldn't have any effect on users. (noun – result)COMMONLY CONFUSED WORDS • To / Too / Two • I am going to the store. (preposition) • She decided to go along too. (adv. – also) • My jacket is too small. (adv. – to an excessive amount) • I have two buttons missing. (number) • A lot / Alot / Allot • The workers are worrying a lot about their jobs. (adv. – to a great degree/extent) • Alot is not a word. • We were each allotted twenty tickets. (verb – to assign/distribute)COMMAS • Use a comma and a coordinating conjunction (and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet) to join two independent clauses. • The game was over, but the crowd refused to leave. • Yesterday was her birthday, so they went out to dinner. • Use commas after introductory clauses, phrases, or words that come before the main clause. • While I was eating, the cat scratched at the door. • To get a seat, you'd better come early. • Well, perhaps he meant no harm.COMMAS • Use commas to separate three or more words, phrases, or clauses written in a series. • The Constitution establishes the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government. • Use commas to set apart a parenthetical phrase in a sentence. • My friend Jessica, who lives in Connecticut, is a yoga teacher.SEMICOLONS • Use a semicolon between two related independent clauses that are not joined by a conjunction. • The participants in the first study were paid; those in the second were unpaid. • Use a semicolon to separate elements in a series that already contains commas. • The students in the class were from Lynchburg, Virginia; Washington, D.C.; and Raleigh, North Carolina. SEMICOLONS • Use a semicolon to join two independent clauses when the second clause begins with a conjunctive adverb (however, therefore, moreover, furthermore, thus, meanwhile, nonetheless, otherwise) or a transition (in fact, for example, that is, for instance, in addition, in other words, on the other hand). • I really have no interest in politics; however, I do like to stay informed by watching the debates. COLONS • Use a colon to introduce a list preceded by an independent clause. • The application includes the following pieces: personal information, job history, and references. • Use a colon to separate an independent clause and a final phrase or clause that illustrates, extends, or amplifies the preceding thought. • They have agreed on the outcome: informed participants perform better than do uninformed participants. • Road construction in Dallas has hindered travel around town: parts of Main, Fifth, and West Street are closed during the construction.APOSTROPHES • Use an apostrophe to create a contraction (but don’t use contractions in your academic writing). • I don’t like him very much. • Use an apostrophe to form a possessive noun. • My mother’s job is better than all my brothers’ jobs put together. • Dickens’s later works are much darker than his early novels. • Do NOT use an apostrophe to form a plural. • Remember that ―it’s‖ = ―it is,‖ but ―its‖ is possessive.QUOTATION MARKS • If the sentence ends with the quotation (and if there is no parenthetical citation), put your final mark of punctuation INSIDE the quotation marks: • ―That dog is as big as a horse.‖ • If the sentence continues after the quotation, you’ll usually need a comma AFTER your quotation but BEFORE your final quotation mark: • ―I wish this workshop were over,‖ John said. • If the quotation ends in an exclamation point or question mark, omit the comma: • ―I hate going to the dentist‖ John bellowed.QUOTATION MARKS • If your sentence ends with a footnote, put the superscript number AFTER your final mark of punctuation: • According to Car and Driver, the Denali is ―among the most agile of full- 15 sized sport utility vehicles.‖ • If the sentence ends with a parenthetical citation, omit the punctuation at the end of the quotation (unless it is a ? or a ): • According to Car and Driver, the Denali is ―among the most agile of full- sized sport utility vehicles‖ (Csere 20).FRAGMENTS • A complete sentence must have three components: 1. A subject (the actor in the sentence) 2. A predicate (the verb or action) 3. A complete thought (it can stand alone and make sense). • A fragment is an incomplete sentence. • It cannot stand alone and does not express a complete thought. • Some fragments lack either a subject or verb or both. • Dependent clauses are also fragments if they stand alone. FRAGMENT EXAMPLES • Went out of business after Starbucks Coffee opened. • One of my friends who won a contest by playing a variety of instruments. • Since I went fishing.