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Roads and Highways

Roads and Highways
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Dr.NavneetSingh,India,Teacher
Published Date:21-07-2017
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Roads and HighwaysCOWI Group COWI is a leading international consultancy M.Sc. or B.Sc. degrees in civil, structural, company founded in 1930. COWI is privately geotechnical, mechanical or electrical engineer- Consulting services provided by owned and entirely independent of any manu- ing and other academic areas such as geology, COWI facturer, supplier or contractor. hydrology, chemistry, biology, agronomy, Nature The COWI Foundation is the majority sociology, economics and planning. • Natural resource management shareholder. The Foundation supports research In 2006 the annual turnover was 376.7 • Environmental policy and regulation and development in various fields of consul- million EUR (512.4 million USD). More than • Environmental protection • Coastal engineering tancy activities. 60 percent of the turnover of the company is COWI’s head office is in Kongens Lyngby generated outside Denmark in more than 100 Society • Welfare economics and services 12 km north of Copenhagen, the capital of countries around the world. • Public administration Denmark. • Social development and HRD COWI is a highly versatile and multidiscipli- Transportation • Urban and regional development • Development cadastral nary firm providing services of the highest COWI has more than 75 years experience in • Cadastral and land administration quality in the fields of engineering, environ- transportation consultancy covering all phases • Geographical information systems and mental science and social economics. of infrastructure projects from initial planning IT mapping COWI employs around 3500 staff of which and feasibility studies over design, construction Transport 1600 are based outside Denmark in subsidiar- and commissioning to maintenance management • Transport planning and management • Roads ies, branch offices or project offices. Most of and rehabilitation. • Airports the employees are professionals with Ph.D., • Railways and metros • Tunnels • Bridges • Ports and marine structures Buildings • Residential buildings • Educational buildings • Hospitals and health buildings • Cultural and sports buildings • Commercial buildings Industry • Industrial buildings • Production and processing plants • Oil and gas • Health, safety and environment • Environmental and social due diligence Utilities • Municipal and hazardous waste • Water and wastewater • Energy planning and systems • Telecommunication Photo: Morten LarsenRoads 3 Road engineering has become a complex Project cycle discipline, where road safety, environmental The services offered by COWI in relation to Consultancy services and expertise and socio-economic issues are as important road engineering comprise assistance through- covering all project phases as technical design and construction super- out the whole project cycle: project and quality Feasibility phase vision. COWI, in co-operation with our clients, management, project preparation and plan- • Generation and development of ideas develop optimal solutions by employing our ning, site investigations, design, project imple- • Feasibility studies • Studies of infrastructure needs vast worldwide experience of road projects. mentation including construction supervision • Layout studies and management, operation and maintenance • Assessment of design data • Highways and motorways and institutional strengthening. • Cost estimation • Urban roads • Construction and procurement scheduling • Environmental impact assessment • Feeder roads • Social impact assessment • Traffic terminals Design phase • Road facilities • Establishment of design basis • Pavements • Study of oceanographical conditions • Electrical installations for roads • Design data studies • Geotechnical assessments • Environment, occupational • Durability design Services health and safety • Civil and structural design • Project preparation and planning • Mechanical and electrical installations • Operational risk assessment Specialist design team • Field surveys and investigations COWI’s specialist design team provide techni- Tender phase • Special studies and tasks • Development of tender design cally sound solutions which are economically • Design • Management of tender procedures feasible. Our experience ranges from labour- • Tendering and procurement • Value engineering based feeder roads in developing rural areas • Preparation of contract for construction • Contract administration and to large multi-lane motorways with complex construction supervision Construction phase interchanges and advanced service facilities. • Construction management • Operation and maintenance • Quality, environmental and safety management COWI’s specialist design team uses the latest • Institutional development • Construction risk management methods of CAD (Computer Aided Design), and training • Interface coordination modelling and computerised animation and • Programme and budget control dynamic simulation presentations. • Site supervision • Contract and claims management Operation and maintenance (O&M) • O&M management system • Inspection of structures and installations • Ranking of maintenance and reinvestment needs • Repair and strengthening design • Institutional development and training • Quality management Photo: Andrew Stewart4 Highways and motorways When designing complex highway and Highways motorway projects, COWI provides complete The majority of COWI’s highway projects are solutions by combining the knowledge of our located worldwide, and COWI has gained Services engineers with input from other in-house specialist knowledge and considerable working • Project preparation and planning specialists, representing disciplines such as experience of the particular conditions for road • Field surveys and investigations road safety, environmental impact assess- construction in a large variety of countries with ment and socio-economic studies. climates from arctic over temperate to tropical. • Special studies and tasks • Feasibility studies Motorways • Design COWI has vast knowledge of design and su- • Tendering and procurement pervision of domestic and overseas multi-lane • Contract administration and construction motorway projects with complex interchanges supervision and advanced service facilities. • Operation and maintenance • Institutional development and training Zhing Zhu Expressway Project IV, • Quality management Hubei Province, China Jiangyin Bridge, China Photo: Mike Somerford5 Elsinore Highway, Denmark Photo: Mogens Carrebye6 Urban roads Urban road design is of a complex nature. Labourbased road construction in Ghana. COWI applies time and cost efficient compu- COWI, in association with terised design tools, which are specifically Conterra Ltd. of Ghana, designed and prepared developed for urban roads. The tools include tender documents for use facilities for an integrated design of bridges, under labour or equipment- based contract packages. The sewers, street lighting, traffic signs and road 400 km project is financed markings. by the World Bank Principal issues Principal issues such as interconnection between roads and adjacent buildings and structures, the environmental impacts from noise, air pollution and traffic vibration are always addressed by COWI in co-operation with the client. Traffic on Rákáezi útica, Budapest, Hungary Road project in Tanzania Services • Surveys • Noise abatement analysis • Road safety audits • Road traffic accident analysis • Traffic simulation and modelling • Vulnerable roadusers • School travel planning analysis • Traffic action plans • Speed control planning • Impact assessment • Environmental impact assessment (EIA) • Economic analysis • Integrated design of roads, sewers, lighting and road furniture Photo: Andrew Stewart78 Feeder and rural roads COWI has comprehensive in-house experi- ence of the entire range of engineering, economics, social impact and environmental issues in relation to feeder and rural roads. We have developed country-specific procedures for the establishment of criteria for investment in feeder and rural road rehabilitation and maintenance, ranking roads for improvement in terms of economic feasibility, by analysing data from road condition and traffic surveys, and developing estimates for cost improvement and maintenance. Development of labour-based methods For many years, COWI has been actively in- volved in the development of labour-intensive methods in coordination with road administra- tion agencies in developing countries, particu- Services larly in Africa. • Surveys We offer services ranging from institutional • Material investigation and testing support, specification and procurement of • Pavement condition studies appropriate equipment, development of work • Feasibility studies programmes, standards, contract documenta- • HDM-4 analysis tion and management systems, and training of • Road design staff and contractors. COWI has vast experience in producing solu- • Pavement design tions which address poverty alleviation, • Environmental impact assessment (EIA) strategic and policy support with decentralised responsibility and local empowerment. • Social impact assessment • Procurement • Tendering • Construction supervision • Maintenance Chinese construction companies carry out surface treatment in • Quality management Laos910 Pavements Pavement repair in Zambia on the Pavements are designed specifically for the COWI designs pavements that meet the 590 km Lusaka-Mongu road, expected load conditions throughout the requirements of each specific load condition. traversing the Kafue National Park design life of the road. Pavement types vary We combine state-of-the-art methodology and – the largest game reserve in Africa from flexible pavements through semi-rigid expertise to reach sustainable and cost-effective to rigid concrete pavements. solutions. At the same time, we are dedicated to the utilisation of available technology and materials, always observing environmental requirements. Paved areas may be subjected to a wide variety of loads. From rubber-tyre vehicles moving at high to moderate speeds, through forklifts with solid wheels of high stiffness to stationary loads created by parked vehicles or stacked containers. Services • Surveys • Pavement condition studies • Pavement analysis and modelling • Pavement design - Flexible and semi-rigid pavements - Rigid pavements - Low-noise pavements - Special pavements, e.g. container terminals - Innovative pavements • Recycling • Material investigations for pavements • Material engineering for pavements • Pavement maintenance • Environmental impact assessment (EIA) Compaction machinery at • Economic analysis work on the Dar-Mlandizi road, Tanzania • Quality management1112 Road facilities The provision of appropriate and effective road facilities is of the utmost importance in order to achieve well-functioning roads in terms of road safety, capacity, road user comfort and minimised environmental impact. Planning and design In close dialogue with our clients, COWI at- taches much importance to the planning and design of facilities from the onset of a project- tailored to meet specific project environmental requirements while incorporating financial constraints. Road safety is a growing concern and our state-certified road safety auditors carry out Bangladesh Road Safety Project. Public campaigns and police audits on both existing and planned roads as enforcement are some of the measures being introduced to well as black spot analyses. They also develop improve driving habits and road safety. Financed by NDF specific safety action plans. Services • Road safety audits • Road traffic accident analysis • Traffic simulation and modelling • Vulnerable roadusers • School travel planning analysis • Traffic action plans • Speed control planning • Social impact assessment • Education • Environmental impact assessment (EIA) • Economic analysis • Quality management Photo: Andrew Stewart13 Dessie - Woldiya Road, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Culture centre by night on Warszaw’s Gondar - Mereb Road Upgrading Project, Ethiopia central square, Poland Photo: Andrew Stewart14 Electrical installations COWI provides state-of-the-art consultancy on electrical installations and traffic informa- tion systems for roads. COWI provides design solutions for lighting and other electrical installations for new roads and for modernisation of existing facilities. Our consulting services cover all stages of a project including design and coordination with other agencies. Traffic information systems We can assist our clients in selecting the cor- rect solutions for traffic information systems, variable road signs that provide drivers with dynamic information, which increases road ca- pacity and safety, and COWI is always abreast of the latest technological developments. Our experience in providing electrical solutions for roads has been gained from many years of undertaking projects all over the world. Services • Lighting with remote monitoring and control • Electric power distribution • Emergency telephones, variable message traffic signs etc. • Toll collection systems Photo: Andrew Stewart15 West Highway, Denmark Photo: Andrew Stewart16 Traffic terminals COWI has wide experience with ferry termi- nals, container terminals, bus and train terminals, airport terminals, distribution terminals for land transport and parking terminals. We have designed a large number of such terminals in co-operation with architects and landscape architects. Private and public transport Ferry harbours, large bus and train stations, and airport terminals are locations where the interchange between private and public trans- port takes place. It is important that the change can take place rapidly and safely, and with the least possible disruption for the passengers. Safe access, adequate parking facilities, logical location of ticketing facilities, short walking distances and easy-to-read time schedule in- formation are key words for the planning and design of terminals. Services • Master plans • Flow condition analyses • Demand modelling and simulation • Functional and detailed design • Compact terminal management • Real time information systems • Feasibility studies Bus terminal in Gladsaxe, Denmark. COWI designed and supervised the terminal in cooperation with the local municipality and Copenhagen Transport Photo: Aerodan17 Terminal for the DSB and SFL- ferries in Elsinore, DenmarkChildren on trailer in Sindh Province, Pakistan 18 Environment, occupational health and safety On every infrastructure project, environmen- Environmental management tal as well as occupational health and safety We assist in building up a management system issues need to be adressed. COWI provides and an action plan covering both environment consultancy services on environmental and occupational health and safety. The plan management in every phase of the planning, is adapted to the actual needs of the project the design and the construction. and includes follow-up through the design and construction phases. Both authorities and local stakeholders COWI’s specialists have specific qualifica- demand minimisation of the environmental tions and long experience in carrying out impact during the design and construction of environmental and health and safety audits. road projects. Focus is on optimising the work- ing environment and the safety for both the people constructing and maintaining roads and those using the facilities. COWI has many years of experience in consulting services in the fields of environment, Services occupational health and safety, both on • Environmental impact assessments national and international infrastructure • Environmental risk assessments projects. We take a holistic approach, and we cover the project’s life-cycle from selection of • Environment and safety management location through design, construction and • Environmentally friendly design operation to renovation and demolition. • Mapping and management of external environmental conditions Cyclists crossing • Assessment and management of road, Denmark material and resource usage • Waste handling and recycling • Safety coordination and safety plans • Emergency plans Galloping horses pulling wagon with man, Romania Photo: Andrew Stewart Photo: Andrew Stewart19 Narrow country road, Tanzania Photo: Stig Stasig20 TANZAM highway, Tanzania In 2005, COWI was awarded a contract for 1973, and the pavement is in urgent need of the consulting services for the design and the rehabilitation. construction supervision of an approximately Phase I includes design review, detailed 218 km long section of TANZAM highway engineering design and tendering. Phase II The TANZAM highway is approximately includes supervision of construction work. The 921 km long and is designated as Trunk Road project also comprises environmental and T1 in the Tanzanian road network. This major social assessments. highway links the port of Dar es Salaam to the Phase I is expected to be completed in June land-locked countries of Zambia, Malawi and 2007 and Phase II in June 2011. the Democratic Republic of Congo. The road links important national and international tourist destinations located along the TAN- ZAM corridor, including Mikumi National Park, Udzungwa Mountain Forests and Game Park, and Ruaha National Park. Services The Government of Tanzania has obtained • Detailed design financial support from Denmark, in the form of mixed credit financing, for part of the • Design review Project period TANZAM highway rehabilitation programme • Tender assistance 2005 - 2011 currently under preparation. The road section, • Supervision Client which receives high priority within the govern- • Traffic safety improvement ment’s road rehabilitation programme, is a 225 Tanzania National Roads Agency • Environmental assessment TANROADS, Tanzania km road-section between Iyovi and Mafinga. • Social impact assessment Apart from a 7 km section, the road has not received major repairs since construction in