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Science & Technology Creativity and Inventions

Science & Technology Creativity and Inventions 13
Science Technology Creativity and Inventions National Academy of Sciences Science Day, February 28, 2010 Ashok Misra ChairmanIndia, Intellectual Ventures Former Director, IIT Bombay ashokmisraintven.com © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedScience Day in India Sir C.V. Raman worked on the Molecular th Scattering of Light. It was on February 28 , 1928 that announced the discovery of what was subsequently known as the “Raman Effect” for which he received the Nobel Prize two years later. He thus became the first scientist from India to get the Nobel Prize – a feat that has not been repeated since then. © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedImportance of Science “It is science and science alone that could solve the problems of hunger and poverty, of insanitation and illiteracy, of superstition and deadening custom and tradition, of vast resources running to waste, of a rich country inhabited by starving people.” Pundit Jawaharlal Nehru in “Discovery of India” © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedImportance of Science in India  Science is the base for the development of all technological and economic growth. Advancing nations have to be strong in Science.  It is imperative we in India emphasize the importance of Science.  Ensure that our bright youngsters are attracted to science subjects.  This will enhance the level of science education and research. th  We produce approx. 50 lakhs students at the 12 class level – greater than the population of several nations.  Yet in India there is large shortage of good scientists in all the research laboratories.  System should provide ample opportunities of creativity, innovation and generation of new ideas at all levels of science education. © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedGlobalization and the Knowledge Economy • The advances in technology have led to globalization and increased the power of knowledge • New and specialized knowledge spreads globally faster than capital or people • When this dissemination occurs, the entire world and mankind stand to gain • The creation of specialized knowledge is where the Inventors and Innovators come in • Science base of the country has to be very strong • Inventions are Global – key to economic growth © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedThrough Pandit Nehru’s Vision  The Indian Institutes of Technologies were set up  Tata Institute of Fundamental Research started  Bhabha Atomic Research Centre established  Indian Institute of Science received a further boost  Council for Scientific Industrial Research – set up several labs  Department of Science Technology These initiatives led to the growth of Science Technology and Education Research in India © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedIndian Scientists who made a Difference  C. V. Raman – Physics – Nobel Prize  Meghnad Saha – Physics  Jagdish Chandra Bose – Physics Botany  S. Chandrashekhar – Astrophysics  Srinivasa Ramanujan – Mathematics  Satyendra N. Bose – Physics  Praful Chandra Ray – Chemistry  Neel Ratan Dhar – Chemistry Agriculture  P.C. Mahalanbis – Mathematics  Birbal Sahni – Botany All of them worked at times when sophisticated instruments and powerful computational tools and unimaginable informational technology was not available. © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedScientists Engineers who have made a Difference in India  Homi J. Bhabha – Department of Atomic Energy  S.A. Vikram Sarabhai – Department of Space  M.G.K. Menon – Established the Department of Electronics, Space and several others.  Satish Dhawan – Department of Space and IISc  A.P.J. Abdul Kalam – ISRO and DRDO – missile programme  C.N.R. Rao – Chemistry Materials Science. Set up JNCASR  K. Kasturirangan – Deprartment of Space (ISRO)  M. Visvesvaraya – Civil Engineering  MM Sharma – Chemical Engineering  R. Chidabmaram – Atomic Energy  Anil Kakodkar – Atomic Energy © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedScientists who changed our lives Isaac Newton – Gravity (1687) Alexander Graham Bell – Telephone (1876) Jagdish Chandra Bose Father of Radio Science (1894) © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedScientists who changed our lives Madame Curie Radium (1898) John Logie Baird Television (1925) Alexander Fleming Penicillin (1928) © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedScientists who changed our lives CV Raman – Molecular Scattering of Light (1930) John Enders Polio Vaccine (1948) Martin Cooper Mobile Phone (1973) © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedPeople who have continued to… • Robert Noyce – The integrated circuit • Bill Gates – First ubiquitous operation system after the human brain • James Watson – DNA structure • Sanjai Kohli – Architect of massmarket GPS • Craig Venter – Genome sequencing (and more) • Robert Langer – Drug delivery • Steve Jobs – “A lot of times, people don‟t know what they want until you show it to them.” © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedRole of Institutions of Higher Learning • Education to develop high quality manpower • Basic research and development to create new knowledge • Applied research and development to use that new knowledge to develop intellectual property, inventions and advanced technologies © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedThe Golden Age of Invention • Camera • Automobile • Laser • Movie • Airplane • Medical devices • Radio • Phone • Integrated circuit • Light bulb • Vaccine • Network connectivity • Surgery • Xray • Television  100 year old products are suddenly changing  Still driven by new discoveries in science  Higher risk and diversity but good for mankind  Break traditional boundaries © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedThe Golden Age of Invention © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedThe Golden Age of Invention © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedThe Earth Needs Inventions • Addressing the digital divide • Food and resource management • Energy generation and distribution • Healthcare • Waste management • Ecological balance • Counterterrorism © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedDevelopment of Vaccines • A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. • Began as "variolation“, i.e. exposing uninfected individuals to matter from smallpox lesions. Now more scientific. • Vaccine technology has wiped out major diseases, but newer ones are still needed. © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedMRI CT Scan Digital signalprocessing techniques, originally developed to enhance pictures of the Moon for the Apollo Program, are an indispensable part of ComputerAided Tomography (CAT) scan Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technologies used today worldwide. © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedSilicon Locket for Cardiac Monitoring – IIT Bombay Monitoring of cardiac patients with state oftheart electronics, embedded into an ultra small form factor thus named ‘locket’. To accelerate modern treatment. © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedArtificial Hand  Low cost motorised hand with finger grasp forearm rotation  Patient interfaces  Myoelectonics control  Ultrasound whistle  Mechanical switches  Patient trials  All India Institute for Physical Medicines Rehabilitation  Christian Medical College, Vellore © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC 21 All rights reservedRD IndianAerospace Programmes © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedENERGY – Inputs needed • Coal gasification technology – Thermal power • Plant efficiency improvements • Cleaner processing • Solar power – working towards grid parity and meeting the NSM 20 GW goal by 2020 • Solar PV cell / module / BOS efficiency improvements • Solar thermal concentrator technologies • Power utilization efficiency • Centralized power transmission – loss reduction • Energyefficient materials of building construction • Fuelefficiency – Automobiles / heavy machinery / pumps © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedWATER – Inputs needed • Costeffective desalination technologies • Lowcost pointofuse filtration systems (Tata‟s Svach) • Technologies to reduce use • e.g., Elimination of water in dyeing processes • Technologies to recycle water efficiently • Rain Water Harvesting – standardization of methods / materials optimization by geography / climate / soil type • Ground water remediation • Grey water recycling © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedIndia Needs Inventions – FOOD © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedWatershed Events in the History of Communications Technology • The events: th th – The invention of the telegraph/telephone: Late 19 /early 20 century th – The invention of the radio and television: Mid20 century th st – The internet revolution: Late 20 /early 21 century • The expectations: – A more interconnected world, with synergies of crosspollination – Improved opportunities with increased access to information – Higher lifeexpectancy and quality of life, with improved access to medical expertise – Potentially greater governmental accountability and transparency Reference: Kenneth Keniston, MIT © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedPolymeric Materials • Polymerization is one the biggest contribution of th Chemistry in the 20 century • It facilitated the conversion of a large number of small molecules to form long chain molecules – Polymers • The variety of materials possible in the family of Polymers is really very large • Polymers can be modified for attaining properties for specific end application © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedNobel Laureates in Polymers For fundamental achievements, both theoretical and 1974 Paul J. Flory experimental, in physical chemistry of macromolecules. Karl Ziegler For their discoveries in the field 1963 of chemistry and technology of high polymers. Giulio Natta For his discoveries in the field 1953 Hermann Staudinger of macromolecular chemistry. © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedPolymeric Materials Various types – wide spectrum • Rubbery polymers – soft and flexible • Glassy polymers – hard and rigid • Polymers that can be oriented – Fibre and applications • Very strong polymers • Very tough polymers • Polymers with low coefficient of friction • Polymers with special properties © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedThe Reality of the Digital Divide Many are being left behind, for a variety of reasons, including: – Strong correlation between access to information and financial wellbeing – the poor are left behind, worldwide – Further, the information access gap perpetuates a vicious cycle – The predominant language of the internet is English – do not speak it, and the information „at your disposal‟ is actually not Reference: (1) Kenneth Keniston, MIT; (2) International Telecommunication Union © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedThe Reality of the Digital Divide Reference: (1) Kenneth Keniston, MIT; (2) International Telecommunication Union Union © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedUnique Identification Number  World‟s largest data base management project  Aims to give UID nos. to 600 m people by 2014  To provide a 12 digit number. For this need to:  Take 600 m photographs  Check 600 m addresses  Scan 1.2 b irises  Collect 6 b finger prints  For the 600 millionth person – check for duplication  Compare with (600 m – 1) photographs addresses  Compare with (1.2 b – 2) irises  Compare with (6 b – 10) finger prints © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedUniversal Networking Language INDIA Project at IIT Bombay  80 of the Internet text in English English  Need to build bridge between languages through computer (UNL) Spanish German  UNL – An intermediate language form into or from which other Universal languages can be converted or Networking generated Language  18 major countries participating in (UNL) UN initiated UNL project Japanese Russian  Hindi is one of the 18 selected languages for international linking  IIT Bombay the India Hindi representative for enabling Hindi © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedMedia Lab Asia Projects at IIT Bombay Interlingua on web: Polysensors Interfaces for All Sensors for water Agro Explorer quality assessment aAQUA Devanagari Speech Content Development Bhav Puchiye Text Input Interfaces Tools © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedaAQUA: almost All Questions Answered Online expert Question Answers based community forum for delivering information to the grassroots of Indian Community. Multilingual communication framework • To provide a language independent knowledge database • To provide an easy to use interface to accommodate even inexperienced users • To integrate online and offline www.aaqua.org expertise Developmental Informatics Lab. © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reserved© 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedJoint Replacement Developments in new materials and product design are offering surgeons and patients new options for joint replacement surgery. © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedGoreTex – Special Fabric © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedWaterJet Cutting Machine Can cut steel, brass, aluminum and wood © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedDesign of Post Box – IIT Bombay © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedInvention Drive Train © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC An Engine is not enough All rights reservedInnovation vs. Invention  Not easily definable – simply put: Invention is – a foray into the unknown Innovation is – putting together the known for novel effect  Most of us innovate – a few of us invent  We innovate on the move – but unless action follows the process is not complete © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedWho is an Inventor ENTREPRENEUR RESEARCHER EMPLOYEE FACULTY MEMBER INDEPENDENT STUDENT CONSULTANT © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC 43 All rights reservedWhat makes a good Invention  An act or instance of creating or producing by exercise of the imagination a technical innovation  Protectable  Intellectual in Origin  Inevitable Context  Beyond the obvious  Good inventions can come from anywhere © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedInvention is the Source of Value • All technologies begins with inventions • All Invention begin with Science • Inventions drive technology markets • But inventions are sometimes neglected… • Investment in invention can be systematic, not just serendipitous © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedUS Share of World GDP 1840 Now India 16 India 6 USA 2 USA 21 Rest of the Rest of the World 73 World 82 A Growth of 950 in 150 years Innovation was an will be the key © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC CONFIDENTIAL 46 All rights reservedIndia’s IP Trade Deficit (1995 – 2005) payment of royalties 3.7 billion license fees receipt of royalties less ( ) 410 million license fees 3.3 billion 1995 2005 data © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC Intellectual Ventures LLC All rights reserved July 2009Inventions Drive Technology • All technology begins with invention • Invention drives technology markets – Communications • Telegraph, telephone, cellular, internet – Information Technology • Computing, semiconductors, software – Biology • Vaccines, Biomedical devices, Diagnostics ENORMOUS SOCIOECONOMIC BENEFITS © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC CONFIDENTIAL 48 All rights reservedThe Traditional Path Extraction of natural 1 resources Heavy 2 industry Lowvalue mfg. and 3 assembly Lowvalue 4 services Innovation and high 5 value services © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedA Technological Shortcut © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedThe Shorter Path through Inventions Extraction of INTELLECTUAL 1 resources Menial labor and 2 heavy industry Lowvalue mfg. and 3 assembly Lowvalue services 4 Innovation and high 5 value services © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedCreating an IPR Environment • To sustain and grow creative ideas in an ethical environment and • Assist in translating these ideas into products, processes services This requires an appreciation for and an awareness of Intellectual Propertyrelated issues © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedInstitutes of Higher Learning Ambience for Creativity and Innovation Generation of New Knowledge New Ideas leading to Inventions Intellectual Property Rights For Public Good and Wealth Creation © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedTechnology Incubation From Concept to Deployment Prototype Manufacturing Development Technology Sales and Demonstrator Marketing R D Deployment VC: Technology Company Creation Wealth Incubation Generation © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC 54 All rights reservedAt IIT Bombay • To encourage the development of a scientific temper among students. • To promote a mutually fruitful interaction between the academic community and the industry. • To explore the impact of technology on human society. © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedContinuous Innovation Is The Key Graph Courtesy NanoHUB/OpenScienceGrid.org © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedFor coming up with new ideas you don’t have to Think Linearly © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedScience and Creativity “Concern for man and his destiny must always be the chief interest of all technical efforts. Never forget it in all your dreams and equations.” Albert Einstein “Science is People.” Prof. Alan MacDiarmid Nobel Prize (Chemistry), 2000 “If you want to understand the future , create it.” Peter Drucker © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reservedINVENT IN INDIA… INVENT FOR THE WORLD Ignite a Million Minds © 2008 Intellectual Ventures, LLC All rights reserved
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