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What is Smart Dust Technology

Smart dust is a tiny dust size device with extra-ordinary capabilities. Smart dust combines sensing, computing, wireless communication capabilities. smart dust applications and smart dust core architecture | free ppt download
Smart DustContents × What is Smart Dust × How its work × History of smart dust. × Smart Dust Mote × Introduction × Architecture × Smart Dust Components × Measurement , characteristic, working of smart dust × Communication with Smart Dust × Application × Challenges × ConclusionIntroduction  Smart dust is a tiny dust size device with extraordinary capabilities.  Smart dust combines sensing, computing, wireless communication capabilities.  Have power supply within volume of only few millimeters and that too at low cost.  These devices are proposed to be so small and light in weight that they can remain suspended in the environment like an ordinary dust particle.What is Smart Dust  "Smart dust" devices are tiny wireless micro electro mechanical sensors (MEMS) that can detect everything from light to vibrations.  Nodes in Smart Dust are called Motes.  These "motes" contain sensors, computing circuits, bidirectional wireless communications technology and a power supply integrated on a tiny dust sizedevice.History of Smart Dust × Smart dust was invented in 2001 by Kristopher S. J. Pister, who is an electrical engineering and computer science professor for the University of California × The DARPA (NASA) has been funding Smart Dust research heavily seeing virtually limitless applications in the sphere of modern warfare. In 2001 In 2008 × Kristofer S. J. PisterMote its operation  Smart dust device is run by microcontroller.  It read the data coming from sensors and stores in SRAM.Operation of mote  The microcontroller will use the corner cube retro reflector (ccr) or laser to transmit sensor data or a message to a base station or another mote.  This allows the user to change the behavior of the mote remotely.  The laser diode contains the onboard laser which sends signals to the base station by blinking on and off.  The corner cube retro reflector, transmits information just by moving a mirror and thus changing the reflection of a laser beam from the base station.Making of Smart Dust “Architecture A single Smart Dust mote has: × A semiconductor laser diode and MEMS beam steering mirror for active optical transmission. × A MEMS corner cube retroreflector for passive optical transmission. × An optical receiver. × A signal processing and control circuitry. × A power source based on thickfilm batteries and solar cells.Architecture Smart dust componentMeasurement of Smart Dust  These are made by “Hitachi”.  They measure only “.15 × .15” mm each and have GPS capabilities.  Sometimes called “smart dust” as they can be sprayed on us and absorbed or taken in foods, drinks and even injected.Working of Smart Dust × Primary constraint of smart dust is volume. × Most of the time mote if off with only timers running. × Run by microcontroller. × Determines the task performed by the mote. × Controls power. × When a timer expires, it powers mote to carry out a job, then powers off. Smart Dust Device .Characteristics of Smart Dust Besides the It has one week functionality it has lifetime in bidirectional It has 20 meter continuous Current motes are radio, the communication operation, 2 years about 5mm microprocessor range with 1 duty controller, and the cycling. battery.Key Features of these electronic particles Power “ Survive for extended amount of time Computation Process Sensor Data and Communicate Sensors To Interface to the environment Communication To glue the pieces of informationPower Big Problem Solar Low capacity per unit of mass and volume Vibration Needs support by Acoustic sleep Power: mechanism noise Lithium and low Battery power techniques Thermal conversion Not really so Nuclear much innovation Reaction after Volta Fuel CellsComputation Computation: ATMEL91M404000 • Core and variety of different functions • Flash , SRAM , E2PROM • GPIO , ADC , PWM ,Comparator • Embedded serial Buses Micro Controller • Ex: Microcontrollers Atmel , Microchip, Motorola Microprocessors Intel StrongArms ,Motorola • Not Traditional Style Of programming • Hardware Descriptive Languages (VHDL, Verilog) FPGA • Faster, Low Power, Reconfigurable • Ex: Xilix, AtmelSENSOR Motion Sensing Magnetometer Accelerometer Environmental Sensing (Weather Monitoring) Pressure Temperature Light HumidityCommunication Technologies Radio Frequency Optical transmission Transmission technique a) Passive Laser based Communication b) Active Laser based Communication c) Fiber Optic Communication Radio Frequency Transmission × Based on the generation, propagation and detection of electromagnetic “ waves with a frequency range from tens of kHz to hundreds of GHz. × Multiplexing techniques: time, frequency or codedivision multiplexing. × Their use leads to modulation, band pass filtering, demodulation circuitry, and additional circuitry, all of which needs to be considered, based on power consumption. Problems with RF communication × Large size of antenna. × RF communication can only be achieved by using time, frequency or code division. × TDMA, FDMA, and CDMA have their own complications. Passive Laser Based communication  Downlink communication (BTS to dust) the base station points a modulated laser beam at a node . Dust uses a simple optical receiver to decode the incoming message  Uplink communication (dust to BTS) the base station points an un modulated laser beam at a node, which in turn modulates and reflects back the beam to the BTS Active Laser Based communication × Has a semiconductor laser, a collimating lens and a beamsteering micromirror. × Uses an activesteered laserdiode based transmitter to send a collimated laser beam to a base station . × Suitable for peertopeer comm.., provided there exist a line of sight path between the motes.Fiber Optic communication × Employs semiconductor laser, fiber cable and diode receiver to generate, transfer and detect the optical signal. × Similar to passive optical communication. × Relatively small size of the optical transceiver is employed with lowpower operation. × CCR employed on each Dust mote to modulate uplink data to base station.Applications Medical application • Enter human bodies and check for physiological problems. • Relay information about cancerous cells. • Biomedical application – Artificial Retina. . Environment monitoring × Indoor/Outdoor Environmental Monitoring. × Environmental protection (identification and monitoring of pollution).Virtual Keyboard SMART DUST Applications Military application Monitoring activities in inaccessible areas, accompany soldiers and alert them to any poisons or dangerous biological substances in the air. IT Sector Accelerometer containing Smart Dust • MEMS microphones in portable devices • Monitor speed and Volume of traffic to avoid recurring traffic jams.Major Challenges As the devices are so small, batteries present a massive addition of weight. It is difficult to fit all these devices in a small Smart Dust both size wise and Energy wise.conclusion  There are many ongoing researches on Smart Dust, the main purpose of these researches is to make Smart Dust mote as small as possible and to make it available at as low price as possible.  Soon we will see Smart Dust being used in varied application from all spans of life.Thanks You can find us queriesthesisscientist.com