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What is Scientific Inquiry
What is Scientific Inquiry 2
CM 2:Model of Scientific Inquiry
Zainal A. Hasibuan, PhD
(zhasibuacs.ui.ac.id) Session Objec5ves
• To understand the steps in Scien5ﬁc Inquiry
(Bertanya secara Ilmiah)
• To understand the characteris5cs of Scien5ﬁc
• To understand the logical thinking in Research
• To understand various types of Research Session Agenda
• What is Scien5ﬁc Inquiry?
• Model of Scien5ﬁc Inquiry
• Induc5ve and Deduc5ve Logical Thinking
• Types of Research Methods What is Scien5ﬁc Inquiry?
• Scien5ﬁc inquiry is a term that encompasses a
variety of techniques that scien5sts use to
explore the natural world and propose
explana5ons based on the evidence they ﬁnd.
• The objec5ve of scien5ﬁc inquiry is to ﬁnd and
to characterize the paNerns as resulted from
• Scien5ﬁc inquiry is founded on experiment
and observa5ons as opposed to purely ra5onal
or isolated logical thought.
• Scien5ﬁc Inquiry can enrich our understanding
of science Why Scien6ﬁc Inquiry ?
• It will make you more knowledgeable about
• You will be able to explain about something more
• It will make you a more literate and cultured person.
• It will provide you more ideas Characteristics of Scientific Inquiry
Based on facts
Quantitative in Nature
Inductive Logic-Generalization Ac5vi5es in Scien5ﬁc Inquiry
• Making observa5ons
• Posing ques5ons
• Finding out what is already known
• Planning inves5ga5ons
• Reviewing past knowledge in light of experimental
• Using tools to gather, analyze, and interpret data
• Proposing explana5ons
• Communica5ng the results. Models of Scien5ﬁc Inquiry
• Classical model
– The classical model of scien5ﬁc inquiry derives from Aristotle, who
dis5nguished the forms of approximate and exact reasoning, set out
the threefold scheme of abduc5ve, deduc5ve, and induc5ve inference,
and also treated the compound forms such as reasoning by analogy.
• Pragma5c model
– Chales Peirce considered scien5ﬁc inquiry to be a species of the genus
inquiry, which he deﬁned as any means of ﬁxing belief, that is, any
means of arriving at a seNled opinion on a maNer in ques5on.
– He observed that inquiry in general begins with a state of uncertainty
and moves toward a state of certainty, suﬃcient at least to terminate
the inquiry for the 5me being. General Model of Scien5ﬁc of
State General Problem
State Specific Problem
Refine Hypotheses Another Model…..
Organize Critical Thinking Framework
Draw Conclusion Output of Each Step
• State General Problem
– Statement that stated general problems
– Example: Will the universe expand forever?
• Exercise: State at least three general problems on your own.
• Conduct Literature Search
– List all related literatures to the problems stated
– Underline all theories, techniques, methods, ﬁndings and so
forth that others have found
– Cri5cally analyze all the weaknesses, strengths, similari5es,
dissimilari5es among those theories, techniques, ﬁndings
– Summarize all those literatures (make annotated
bibliographies) Output of Each Step
• State Speciﬁc Problem
– Statement of general problem to speciﬁc problem
– Example: What are the factors that cause the universe
• Exercise: State at least two speciﬁc problems that
derived from the above exercise
• Design Methodology
– List all steps to be taken in order to answer those stated
– Establish the seZng of experiment
– Provide all necessary means, tools, instruments
– Deﬁne the object, variables, etc Output of Each Step
• Gather Data
– Organize data in tables, graphics
• Analyze Data
– Interpret the organized, and processed data
• Report the Results Source: acept.asu.edu/courses/phs110/chapter1 Example of Model Development: What Factors
Determine the Visibility of a Rainbow?
Sunlight travels straight through rain drops where it is dispersed into colors,
and then the light travels straight into my eyes
While it is raining early one morning, I will face toward the rising Sun in the
ease to view a rainbow.
I will see a rainbow in the sky as I look east on a rainy morning.
No rainbow was observed toward the east. However, I did see a rainbow when
I turned around and looked west
My working model requires revision. The Sun must be behind me to view a
rainbow. There must be another effect in addition to light being dispersed into
color in the rain drop. How can the light get re-directed into my eyes? Basic Skills of Scien5ﬁc Inquiry
• Classifying and sequencing
• Deﬁning, controlling, and manipula5ng variable in
• Designing, construc5ng and interpre5ng models
• Interpre5ng, analyzing and evalua5ng data Uses of Scien5ﬁc Inquiry
• Make connec5ons with world situa5ons
• To encourage more ac5ve problem solving approach
to learning and thinking
• To apply math skills
• Review what is already known in light of
• Propose answers, explana5ons and predic5ons
• Use tools to gather, analyze and interpret data Exercises Your Thought
• Develop a scien5ﬁc model of your own
– Post deliverables of each step of the model
• Categorized the scien5ﬁc model into a
• Give examples of deduc5ve and induc5ve