Web Based Information System and Navigation and example of web based information system
Web Based Information
NavigationStructure of the Website
• Website structure is the process of defining the
look and feel and the navigation of CM websites.
• A site structure is normally the role of an
information architect, the reality is that
everybody from designers to website owners find
themselves working on it.
• The website structure consists of three
components: Layout Templates, URL patterns,
and Linkage Structure.
• Most web pages consist of HTML elements like
table, menu, button, image, and input box.
• The layout of a web page describes what HTML
elements are included in the page, as well as how
these elements are visually distributed in page
• In a website, pages are generated based on
distinguishable templates according to their
• Visually similar pages usually have same function.
In this way, user can easily identify a page’s
function at a glance.
www.ThesisScientist.comLayout of Site
• A URL pattern is a generalization of a group of URLs sharing similar syntactic
• Some example URL patterns discovered, again, from the ASP.NET Forums.
– List-of-thread pages
– List-of-post pages
– User profile pages
• It is noticed that one layout templates can have more than one related URL
pattern. For example, a bookseller website usually designs one template to
show a list of books, and provides different query parameters to generate
such a list.
• Various query parameters in this scenario will lead to different URL
patterns, but the search results are shown with the same template.
• Another common case is duplicate pages, i.e., pages with the same content
(and very likely the same layout) but different URLs.
• Based on the layout templates and URL patterns, we
can construct a directed graph to represent the website
• Each layout template is considered as a node in a
graph, and two nodes are linked if there are hyperlinks
between the pages belonging to the two nodes.
• The link direction is the same as the related
hyperlinks. And each link is characterized with the URL
pattern of the corresponding hyperlink URLs.
• It should be noticed that there could be multiple links
from one node to another if the corresponding
hyperlinks have more than one URL pattern.
• WEB STRUCTURE is a pioneer in "fusion
engineering"; fusing design sensitivity with cost
consciousness to develop the most cost effective
structures in which the traditional separation
between architectural design and structures is
erased in a seamless harmony of design intent.
• In the completed work, architecture and
structure resonate to create a single entity; an
essential symbiotic interaction, a fusion that
presents itself in works of beauty.
• When confronted with a new and complex information system,
users build mental model.
• They use these models to assess relations among topics and to
guess where to find things they haven’t seen before.
• The success of the organization of web site will be determined
largely by how well site’s information architecture matches users’
• A logical, consistently named site organization allows users to make
successful predictions about where to find things.
• Consistent methods of organizing and displaying information permit
users to extend their knowledge from familiar pages to unfamiliar
• If you mislead users with a structure that is neither logical nor
predictable, or constantly uses different or ambiguous terms to
describe site features, users will be frustrated by the difficulties of
getting around and understanding what you have to offer.
• Don’t want user’s mental model of web site to look like figure1.
www.ThesisScientist.comFigure 1 — Don’t make a confusing web of links. Designers aren’t
the only ones who make models of sites. Users try to imagine
the site structure as well, and a successful information
architecture will help the user build a firm and predictable
mental model of site.
www.ThesisScientist.comWeb Page Structure
• A web page constructed using HTML has a basic and
essential structure. The page always begins with the
start tag of the html element and always terminates
with the end tag of the html element as follows:
• All other element tags are 'nested' within the start and
end html tags. The web page is then further subdivided
into two main sections which are the 'head' and the
www.ThesisScientist.comWeb Page Structure
• The head section begins with the head start
tag and terminates with the/head end tag.
• Immediately following this comes
the body start tag and just before
the html end tag comes the /body end tag.
• There is only one set of html.../html tags,
• one set of head.../head tags and
• one set of body.../body tags.
www.ThesisScientist.comHow do Web Pages Change
• Most pages do not change much.
• Larger pages change more often.
• Commercial pages change more often.
• Past change to a web page is a good indicator
of future change.
• About 30% of pages are very similar to other
pages, and being a near-duplicate is fairly
• Link analysis is a data-analysis technique used to
evaluate connections between nodes. Relationships
may be identified among various types of nodes
(objects), including organization, people and
• The analysis of hyperlinks and the graph structure of
the Web has been instrumental in the development of
• Link analysis for web search has intellectual
antecedents in the field of citation analysis, aspects of
which overlap with an area known as Bibliometrics.
• Link analysis is an important part of site
assessment, either your own or competitor’s.
• Outbound links are links on your site which
refer to other sites, they go beyond the
borders of your site.
• Internal links are links which point to another
page of your site, i.e. they refer to some place
within your site.
Website navigation is important to the success of website visitor’s
experience to website.
The website’s navigation system is like a road map to all the different
areas and information contained within the website.
Types of Website Navigation
• Hierarchical website navigation
The structure of the website navigation is built from general to
specific. This provides a clear, simple path to all the web pages from
anywhere on the website.
• Global website navigation
Global website navigation shows the top level sections/pages of the
website. It is available on each page and lists the main content
sections/pages of the website.
• Local website navigation
Local navigation would the links with the text of your web pages,
linking to other pages within the website.
www.ThesisScientist.comWebsite Navigation Use
• To be consistent throughout the website. The website
visitors will learn, through repetition, how to get
around the website.
• The main navigation links kept together. This makes it
easier for the visitor to get to the main areas of the
• Reduced clutter by grouping links into sections. If the
list of website navigation links are grouped into
sections and each section has only 5-7 links, this will
make it easier to read the navigation scheme.
• Minimal clicking to get to where the visitor wants to
get to. If the number of clicks to the web page the
visitor wishes to visit is minimal, this leads to a better
www.ThesisScientist.comWebsite Navigation Use
• Some visitors can become confused or impatient
when clicking a bunch of links to get to where
they want to be.
• In large websites, this can be difficult to reduce.
Using breadcrumbs is one way to help the visitor
see where they are within the website and the
path back up the navigation path they took.
• Creating the website navigation system at the
planning stage of the website will effect the
overall design of the web page layout and help
develop the overall plan for the website.
• Web mining can be broadly defined as discovery and
analysis of useful information from the World Wide Web.
• Based on the different emphasis and different ways to
obtain information, web mining can be divided into two
major parts: Web Contents Mining and Web Usage
• Web Contents Mining can be described as the automatic
search and retrieval of information and resources
available from millions of sites and on-line databases
though search engines / web spiders.
• Web Usage Mining can be described as the discovery and
analysis of user access patterns, through the mining of log
files and associated data from a particular Web site.
www.ThesisScientist.comWeb Usage Mining
• The automatic discovery of patterns in
clickstreams and associated data collected or
generated as a result of user interactions with
one or more Web sites.
– To analyze the behavioral patterns and profiles of
users interacting with a Web site.
– The discovered patterns are usually represented as
collections of pages, objects, or resources that are
frequently accessed by groups of users with common
www.ThesisScientist.comHow to perform Web Usage Mining?
• Web usage mining is achieved first by reporting
visitors traffic information based on Web server log
files and other source of traffic data.
• Web server log files were used initially by the
webmasters and system administrators for the
purposes of “how much traffic they are getting,
how many requests fail, and what kind of errors
are being generated”, etc. However, Web server
log files can also record and trace thevisitors’ on-
• Web log file is one way to collect Web traffic data.
The other way is to “sniff” TCP/IP packets as they
cross the network, and to “plug in” to each Web