Introduction to Traffic Engineering

Introduction to Traffic Engineering
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Dr.LeonBurns,New Zealand,Researcher
Published Date:21-07-2017
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Introduction to Traffic Engineering Instructor: S. M. Mahdi Amiripour m.amiripourgmail.com22 Transportation Engineering • Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) • Transportation engineering is the application of technology and scientific principles to the planning, functional design, operation, and management of facilities for any mode of transportation in order to provide for the safe, rapid, comfortable, convenient, economical, and environmentally compatible movement of people and goods.33 Traffic Engineering • Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) • Traffic engineering is that phase of transportation engineering which deals with the planning, geometric design and traffic operations of roads, streets, and highways, their networks, terminals, abutting lands, and relationships with other modes of transportation.4 Course Syllabus •Assignments 25% ▫ Which should be done by yourself and emailed at the specified time. Assignment solutions would be online after the due. • Mid-term 25% (Arbitrary) •Final 50% • Project 10% (Arbitrary) • Total 100% + 10% bonus • Course Description and Objectives • Introduction to fundamentals of urban traffic engineering, including data collection, analysis, and design. Traffic engineering studies, traffic control devices, capacity and level of service analysis of freeways and urban streets. • The objective of this course is to introduce students to traffic engineering fundamentals for highways and freeways. Emphasis is on the safe and efficient operations of roadway intersections. • By the end of this course, students should be able to evaluate, analyze, and design timing plans for signalized intersections.6 References • Traffic Engineering, Roger P. Roess, Elena S. Prassas, William R. McShane, Pearson Education International, 2004. • Highway Capacity Manual, 4th Edition, transportation Research Board, Washington DC, 2000. • Traffic Engineering, Jalil Shahi, “Markaz Nashr Daneshgahi”, (in Farsi) • Class lecture notes online at ▫ Transportation Modes • Road • Rail • Air • Maritime • Pipelinexxxxxxxx 8 Transportation Modes • Urban People Transportation Systems Automobile Taxi/For-Hire Vehicles Local Bus Transit Express Bus Transit Para-transit Light Rail Heavy Rail Ferry • Intercity People-Transportation Systems • Urban and Intercity Freight Transportationxxxxx 9 Transportation Modes • Urban People Transportation Systems • Intercity People-Transportation Systems Automobile Intercity Bus Railroad Air Water • Urban and Intercity Freight Transportationxxxxxx 10 Transportation Modes • Urban People Transportation Systems • Intercity People-Transportation Systems • Urban and Intercity Freight Transportation Long-Haul Trucks Local Trucks Railroad Water Air Freight Pipelines11 11 Traffic Engineering Profession • Relationship with General Public ▫ More than any other engineer. • Relationship with Elected Official ▫ A wide range of officials • Professional Ethics ▫ According to outcomes it produces great responsibility12 12 Safety: The Primary Objective • The principal goal of the traffic engineer remains the provision of a safe system for highway traffic. • 26000 fatalities in Iran on 2007. • 40000 to 43000 in U.S • Something like a civil war. • The objective of safe travel is always number one and is never finished for the traffic engineer.13 13 Other Objectives of Traffic Engineer • Speed • Comfort • Convenience • Economy • Environmental compatibilityxxx 14 14 Other Objectives of Traffic Engineer While speed of travel is much to be desired, it is limited by transportation technology, human characteristics, and the need to provide safety. Comfort and convenience are generic terms and mean different things to different people. Comfort involves the physical characteristics of vehicles and roadways, and is influenced by our perception of safety. Convenience relates more to the ease with which trips are made and the ability of transport systems to accommodate all of our travel needs at appropriate times. xx 15 15 Other Objectives of Traffic Engineer Economy is also relative. There is little in modern transportation systems that can be termed “cheap.” Highway and other transportation systems involve massive construction, maintenance, and operating expenditures, most of which are provided through general and user taxes and fees. Nevertheless, every engineer, regardless of discipline, is called upon to provide the best possible systems for the money. Harmony with the environment is a complex issue that has become more important over time. All transportation systems have some negative impacts on the environment. All produce air and noise pollution in some forms, and all utilize valuable land resources.16 16 Elements of Transportation Systems • Facilities • Vehicles • Control systems • Users • Environment17 17 Elements of Traffic Engineering • Traffic studies and characteristics • Performance evaluation • Facility design • Traffic control • Traffic operations • Transportation systems management • Integration of intelligent transportation system technologies (ITS)18 18 Elements of Traffic Engineering • Traffic studies and characteristics ▫ involve measuring and quantifying various aspect of highway traffic. Studies focus on data collection and analysis that is used to characterize traffic, including (but not limited to) traffic volumes and demands, speed and travel time, delay, accidents, origins and destinations, modal use, and other variables.19 19 Elements of Traffic Engineering • Performance evaluation ▫ is a means by which traffic engineers can rate the operating characteristics of individual sections of facilities and facilities as a whole in relative terms. Such evaluation relies on measures of performance quality and is often stated in terms of “levels of service.”20 20 Elements of Traffic Engineering • Facility design ▫ involves traffic engineers in the functional and geometric design of highways and other traffic facilities. Traffic engineers, per se, are not involved in the structural design of highway facilities but should have some appreciation for structural characteristics of their facilities.