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Supply Chain Management Introduction

Supply Chain Management Introduction 49
Supply Chain Management Introduction Outline  What is supply chain management  Significance of supply chain management.  Push vs. Pull processes 1 A Generic Supply Chain Sources: Regional Field Customers, plants Warehouses: Warehouses: demand vendors stocking stocking centers ports points points sinks Supply Inventory Purchase Inventory Transportation 2 Traditional View: Cost breakdown of a manufactured good Profit  Profit 10 Supply Chain Cost  Supply Chain Cost 20 Marketing Cost  Marketing Cost 25 Manufacturing  Manufacturing Cost 45 Cost Effort spent for supply chain activities are invisible to the customers. 3 Transportation and inventory managers Supply Chains in US Economy in 2007  Logistics related activity 11, 10.5, 10.1 of GDP in 1990, 1996, 2007.  Inventory Carrying Costs – 2,026 B inventory 487 B – Interest 103 B – Taxes, Obsolescence, Depreciation, Insurance 273 B – Warehousing 111 B  Transportation Costs 671 B – Truck – Intercity 455 B – Truck – Local 216 B – Railroads 58 B – Water (International 33 + Domestic 5) 38 B – Oil pipelines 10 B – Air (International 16 + Domestic 25) 41 B – Forwarders 30 B  Shipper Related Costs 8 B  Logistics Administration 54 B 4 Total 1397 B Importance of Supply Chain Management  In 2000, the US companies spent 1 trillion (10 of GNP) on supplyrelated activities (movement, storage, and control of products across supply chains). Source: State of Logistics Report Frequent Supply shortages Low order fill Inefficient rates logistics High Tier 1 Manufacturer Distributor Retailer Customer stockouts Supplier GlitchWrong Material, Ineffective High inventories High landed costs to Machine is Down – promotions through the chain the shelf effect snowballs  Eliminating inefficiencies in supply chains can save millions of . 5 What can Supply Chain Management do  PG (ProctorGamble) estimates it saved retail customers 65 M (in 18 months) by collaboration with retailers resulting in a better match of supply and demand.  Estimated that the grocery industry could save 30 billion (10 of operating cost) by using effective logistics and supply chain strategies – A typical box of cereal spends 104 days from factory to sale – A typical car spends 15 days from factory to dealership – Faster turnaround of the goods is better  Laura Ashley (retailer of women and children clothes) turns its inventory 10 times a year five times faster than 3 years ago – inventory is emptied 10 times a year, or an item spends about 12/10 months in the inventory. – To be responsive, it relocated its main warehouse next to FedEx hub in Memphis, TE.  National Semiconductor used air transportation and closed 6 warehouses, 34 increase in sales and 47 decrease in delivery lead time. 6 Top 25 Supply Chains AMR research publishes reports on supply chains and other issues. The Top 25 supply chains report comes out in Novembers. The table on the righthand side is from The Second Annual Supply Chain Top 25 prepared by Kevin Riley and Released in November 2005. 7 SCM Generated Value Minimizing supply chain costs while keeping a reasonable service level customer satisfaction/quality/on time delivery, etc. This is how SCM contributes to the bottom line SCM is not strictly a cost reduction paradigm 8 A picture is better than 1000 words How many words would be better than 3 pictures A supply chain consists of Supplier Manufacturer Distributor Retailer Customer Upstream Downstream aims to Match Supply and Demand, profitably for products and services SUPPLY SIDE DEMAND SIDE achieves Higher + + + + + The right The right The right The right The right The right = Profits Product Price Store Quantity Customer Time 9 An example: Detergent supply chain PG or other Third Albertson’s Customer wants manufacturer party DC Supermarket detergent Chemical Plastic cup Tenneco manufacturer Producer Packaging (e.g. Oil Company) Chemical Paper Timber manufacturer Manufacturer Industry (e.g. Oil Company) 10 Cycle View of Supply Chains Customer Customer Order Cycle Retailer Any cycle Replenishment Cycle 0. Customer arrival 1. Customer triggers an order Distributor 2. Supplier fulfils the order 3. Customer receives the order Manufacturing Cycle Manufacturer Procurement Cycle Supplier 11 Flows in a Supply Chain Material Information Supplier Customer Funds The flows resemble a chain reaction. 12 Push vs Pull System  What instigates the movement of the work in the system  In Push systems, work release is based on downstream demand forecasts – Keeps inventory to meet actual demand – Acts proactively » e.g. Making generic job application resumes today (e.g.: exempli gratia)  In Pull systems, work release is based on actual demand or the actual status of the downstream customers – May cause long delivery lead times – Acts reactively » e.g. Making a specific resume for a company after talking to the recruiter 13 Push/Pull View of Supply Chains Typically, Customer Typically, Procurement, Manufacturing and Order Cycle Replenishment cycles PUSH PROCESSES PULL PROCESSES Customer Order Arrives PushPull boundary 14 Examples of Supply Chains  Dell / Compaq, computer (assembly) industry – Dell buys some components for a product from its suppliers after that product is purchased by a customer. Extreme case of a pull process.  Amazon / Barnes and Noble, bookstores – Amazon is strictly an online store. Amazon uses more pull processes.  Zara / Benetton, apparel (=clothing) industry – Zara is a Spanish company selling apparel with a short designtosale cycle to avoid markdowns. Zara uses relatively more pull.  Toyota / GM / Volkswagen, car manufacturers – Toyota provides reasonable quality at reasonable cost. Car manufacturing is mostly done as push process. 15 Summary  Components of supply chains.  Significance of supply chain management.  Push vs. Pull processes. 16