Project management activities ppt

project management basics ppt and project management concepts ppt
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Dr.ShaneMatts,United States,Teacher
Published Date:23-07-2017
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Chapter 22 Project Management “…a huge topic.” See Part 4, “Software Management”. Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 1 Topics covered  Risk management  Managing people  Teamwork Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 2 Software project management  Concerned with ensuring that software is delivered on time, within budget and in accord- ance with the requirements of both the developing and procuring organizations.  Needed because software development is always subject to budget and schedule constraints. Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 3 Success criteria  Deliver the software to the customer on time.  Keep overall costs within budget.  Meet the customer’s needs/expectations.  Maintain a happy and well-functioning develop- ment team. Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 4 Software management distinctions  The product is intangible. • Software cannot be seen or touched. Software project managers cannot see progress by simply looking at the artefact that is being constructed. (one-of-a-kind)  Many software projects are “one-off”. • Large software projects are usually different in some ways from previous projects. Even managers who have lots of previous experience may find it difficult to anticipate problems. (cont’d) Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 5 Software management distinctions (cont’d)  Software processes are variable and organiza- tion specific. • We still cannot reliably predict when a particular software process is likely to lead to development problems. Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 6 Project Manager activities  Project planning • Planning, estimating, and scheduling project development and assigning people to tasks.  Reporting • Reporting on the progress of a project to customers and to the managers of the company developing the software. (cont’d) Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 7 Project Manager activities (cont’d)  Risk management • Assess and monitor risks; take action when problems arise.  People management • Select team members and establish ways of working that lead to effective team performance  Proposal writing • May be involved in writing a proposal describing the objectives of the project and how it will be carried out. Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 8 Topics covered  Risk management  Managing people  Teamwork Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 9 Risk management  Risk management is concerned with identifying risks and drawing up plans to minimize their effect. (cont’d) Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 10 Risk management (cont’d)  A risk exists when there is a probability that some adverse circumstance will occur. • Project risks affect schedule or resources. • Product risks affect software quality or performance. • Business risks affect the organization developing or procuring the software. (Taxonomy based on Effect) Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 11 Risk examples Risk Affects Description Staff turnover Project Experienced staff will leave the project before it is finished. Management change Project There will be a change of organizational management with different priorities. Hardware unavailability Project Hardware that is essential for the project will not be delivered on schedule. Requirements change Project and product There will be a larger number of changes to the requirements than anticipated. Specification delays Project and product Specifications of essential interfaces are not available on schedule. Size underestimate Project and product The size of the system has been underestimated. CASE tool Product CASE tools, which support the project, do not underperformance perform as anticipated. Technology change Business The underlying technology on which the system is built is superseded by new technology. Product competition Business A competitive product is marketed before the system is completed. Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 12 The risk management process  Risk identification – identify project, product and business risks  Risk analysis – assess the likelihood and consequences of these risks  Risk planning – draw up plans to avoid or minimise the effects of the risks  Risk monitoring – monitor the risks throughout the project Risk Risk Risk analysis Risk planning identification monitoring Risk avoidance Risk List of potential Prioritised risk and contingency assessment risks list plans Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 13 Risk identification  May be a team activity or based on the individual project manager’s experience.  A checklist of common risks types may be used to identify risks in a project: • Technology risks • People risks Taxonomy based on • Organizational risks Source • Requirements risks • Estimation risks Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 14 Examples of risk types Risk type Possible risks Technology The database used in the system cannot process as many transactions per second as expected. (1) Reusable software components contain defects that mean they cannot be reused as planned. (2) People It is impossible to recruit staff with the skills required. (3) Key staff are ill and unavailable at critical times. (4) Required training for staff is not available. (5) Organizational The organization is restructured so that different management is responsible for the project. (6) Organizational financial problems force reductions in the project budget. (7) Tools The code generated by software code generation tools is inefficient. (8) Software tools cannot work together in an integrated way. (9) Requirements Changes to requirements that require major design rework are proposed. (10) Customers fail to understand the impact of requirements changes. (11) Estimation The time required to develop the software is underestimated. (12) The rate of defect repair is underestimated. (13) The size of the software is underestimated. (14) Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 15 Risk analysis  Assess probability and seriousness of each risk.  Probability may be very low, low, moderate, high, or very high.  Risk consequences might be catastrophic, serious, tolerable, or insignificant. Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 16 Risk types and examples of analysis results Risk Probability Effects Organizational financial problems force reductions in the Low Catastrophic project budget (7). It is impossible to recruit staff with the skills required for the High Catastrophic project (3). Key staff are ill at critical times in the project (4). Moderate Serious Faults in reusable software components have to be repaired Moderate Serious before these components are reused. (2). Changes to requirements that require major design rework Moderate Serious are proposed (10). The organization is restructured so that different High Serious management is responsible for the project (6). The database used in the system cannot process as Moderate Serious many transactions per second as expected (1). Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 17 Risk planning  Develop a strategy to manage each risk... • Avoidance strategies – reduce the probability. • Minimization strategies – reduce the impact by developing contingency plans. Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 18 Risk management strategies Risk Strategy Organizational Prepare a briefing document for senior management financial problems showing how the project is making a very important contribution to the goals of the business and presenting reasons why cuts to the project budget would not be cost- effective. Recruitment Alert customer to potential difficulties and the possibility of problems delays; investigate buying-in components. Staff illness Reorganize team so that there is more overlap of work and people therefore understand each other’s jobs. Defective Replace potentially defective components with bought-in components components of known reliability. Requirements Derive traceability information to assess requirements changes change impact; maximize information hiding in the design. Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 19 Risk monitoring  Regularly assess each identified risk to determine if it is becoming less or more probable.  Also assess whether the effects of the risk have changed.  Significant risks should be discussed at management progress meetings. Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 20