“…a huge topic.” See Part 4, “Software Management”.
Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 1 Topics covered
Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 2 Software project management
Concerned with ensuring that software is
delivered on time, within budget and in accord-
ance with the requirements of both the
developing and procuring organizations.
Needed because software development is
always subject to budget and schedule
Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 3 Success criteria
Deliver the software to the customer on time.
Keep overall costs within budget.
Meet the customer’s needs/expectations.
Maintain a happy and well-functioning develop-
Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 4 Software management distinctions
The product is intangible.
• Software cannot be seen or touched. Software project
managers cannot see progress by simply looking at
the artefact that is being constructed.
Many software projects are “one-off”.
• Large software projects are usually different in some
ways from previous projects. Even managers who
have lots of previous experience may find it difficult to
Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 5 Software management distinctions
Software processes are variable and organiza-
• We still cannot reliably predict when a particular
software process is likely to lead to development
Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 6 Project Manager activities
• Planning, estimating, and scheduling project
development and assigning people to tasks.
• Reporting on the progress of a project to customers
and to the managers of the company developing the
Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 7 Project Manager activities (cont’d)
• Assess and monitor risks; take action when problems
• Select team members and establish ways of working
that lead to effective team performance
• May be involved in writing a proposal describing the
objectives of the project and how it will be carried out.
Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 8 Topics covered
Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 9 Risk management
Risk management is concerned with
identifying risks and drawing up plans
to minimize their effect.
Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 10 Risk management (cont’d)
A risk exists when there is a probability
that some adverse circumstance will
• Project risks affect schedule or resources.
• Product risks affect software quality or performance.
• Business risks affect the organization developing
or procuring the software.
(Taxonomy based on Effect)
Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 11 Risk examples
Risk Affects Description
Staff turnover Project Experienced staff will leave the project before
it is finished.
Management change Project There will be a change of organizational
management with different priorities.
Hardware unavailability Project Hardware that is essential for the project will not
be delivered on schedule.
Requirements change Project and product There will be a larger number of changes to the
requirements than anticipated.
Specification delays Project and product Specifications of essential interfaces are not
available on schedule.
Size underestimate Project and product The size of the system has been underestimated.
CASE tool Product CASE tools, which support the project, do not
underperformance perform as anticipated.
Technology change Business The underlying technology on which the system
is built is superseded by new technology.
Product competition Business A competitive product is marketed before the
system is completed.
Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 12 The risk management process
Risk identification – identify project, product and business
Risk analysis – assess the likelihood and consequences of
Risk planning – draw up plans to avoid or minimise the
effects of the risks
Risk monitoring – monitor the risks throughout the project
List of potential
Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 13 Risk identification
May be a team activity or based on the individual
project manager’s experience.
A checklist of common risks types may be used
to identify risks in a project:
• Technology risks
• People risks
Taxonomy based on
• Organizational risks
• Requirements risks
• Estimation risks
Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 14 Examples of risk types
Risk type Possible risks
Technology The database used in the system cannot process as many transactions per
second as expected. (1)
Reusable software components contain defects that mean they cannot be reused
as planned. (2)
People It is impossible to recruit staff with the skills required. (3)
Key staff are ill and unavailable at critical times. (4)
Required training for staff is not available. (5)
Organizational The organization is restructured so that different management is
responsible for the project. (6)
Organizational financial problems force reductions in the project budget. (7)
Tools The code generated by software code generation tools is inefficient. (8)
Software tools cannot work together in an integrated way. (9)
Requirements Changes to requirements that require major design rework are proposed. (10)
Customers fail to understand the impact of requirements changes. (11)
Estimation The time required to develop the software is underestimated. (12)
The rate of defect repair is underestimated. (13)
The size of the software is underestimated. (14)
Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 15 Risk analysis
Assess probability and seriousness of each risk.
Probability may be very low, low, moderate, high,
or very high.
Risk consequences might be catastrophic,
serious, tolerable, or insignificant.
Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 16 Risk types and examples of analysis
Risk Probability Effects
Organizational financial problems force reductions in the Low Catastrophic
project budget (7).
It is impossible to recruit staff with the skills required for the High Catastrophic
Key staff are ill at critical times in the project (4). Moderate Serious
Faults in reusable software components have to be repaired Moderate Serious
before these components are reused. (2).
Changes to requirements that require major design rework Moderate Serious
are proposed (10).
The organization is restructured so that different High Serious
management is responsible for the project (6).
The database used in the system cannot process as Moderate Serious
many transactions per second as expected (1).
Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 17 Risk planning
Develop a strategy to manage each risk...
• Avoidance strategies – reduce the probability.
• Minimization strategies – reduce the impact by
developing contingency plans.
Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 18 Risk management strategies
Organizational Prepare a briefing document for senior management
financial problems showing how the project is making a very important
contribution to the goals of the business and presenting
reasons why cuts to the project budget would not be cost-
Recruitment Alert customer to potential difficulties and the possibility of
problems delays; investigate buying-in components.
Staff illness Reorganize team so that there is more overlap of work and
people therefore understand each other’s jobs.
Defective Replace potentially defective components with bought-in
components components of known reliability.
Requirements Derive traceability information to assess requirements
changes change impact; maximize information hiding in the design.
Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 19 Risk monitoring
Regularly assess each identified risk to
determine if it is becoming less or more
Also assess whether the effects of the
risk have changed.
Significant risks should be discussed at
management progress meetings.
Chapter 22 Project Management Slide 20