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Research Methods & Design

Research Methods & Design 7
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JaydenGibbs,United States,Teacher
Published Date:19-07-2017
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IKI80050T: Metodologi Penelitian Research Methods & Design Zainal Hasibuan & Ruli Manurung Magister Teknologi Informasi Fasilkom UI Zainal Hasibuan & Ruli Manurung MTI Fasilkom UI – IKI80050T 2009/2010 – Ganjil – Minggu 6 1 Outline   Some background stuff: research methods, methodology, empirical basis   Types of research methods   Field & lab experiments   Surveys   Formal methods (e.g. mathematical modelling)   Action research   Case studies   Grounded theory   Ethnography   Which one should be used? Zainal Hasibuan & Ruli Manurung MTI Fasilkom UI – IKI80050T 2007/2008 – Ganjil – Minggu 4 2 Some background stuff Zainal Hasibuan & Ruli Manurung MTI Fasilkom UI – IKI80050T 2007/2008 – Ganjil – Minggu 4 3 What is research?   Research: a systematic effort to investigate a problem and find its solution.   Why does it have to be systematic?   Best practices: harness shared knowledge   Verifiable, falsifiable: contribute shared knowledge   What is the output?   Model: understanding of phenomena  predictive power   Sequence of actions/technique   Q: Is system development per se a form of research?   A: Depends. In general, research requires evaluation. Zainal Hasibuan & Ruli Manurung MTI Fasilkom UI – IKI80050T 2007/2008 – Ganjil – Minggu 4 4 Research method vs. methodology   Research Method/Design: specific techniques/procedures used to collect and analyse data.   Research Methodology refers to:   Frameworks and assumptions used to inform research,   The paradigm that dictates which methods are used, and how they are applied and arranged.   This distinction is not clear cut, even in established literature Zainal Hasibuan & Ruli Manurung MTI Fasilkom UI – IKI80050T 2007/2008 – Ganjil – Minggu 4 5 Categories of research   By purpose:   Basic/fundamental/pure research   Applied research   By time:   Cross-sectional   Longitudinal   By methodology:   Quantitative vs. Qualitative   Exploratory vs. Experimental Zainal Hasibuan & Ruli Manurung MTI Fasilkom UI – IKI80050T 2007/2008 – Ganjil – Minggu 4 6 The changing face of IS/IT research…   During the ’70s and ’80s, IS/IT research was predominantly technical. Thus, methodologies were primarily scientifically based (c.f. natural sciences)   With newfound maturity (’90s, ’00s), more focus on social issues:   Productivity, efficiency   Usability, acceptance, user satisfaction   Cue philosophical debates (a.k.a. positivist-bashing).   How valid is IS research based on methods taken from social sciences? (Potentially,) very Zainal Hasibuan & Ruli Manurung MTI Fasilkom UI – IKI80050T 2007/2008 – Ganjil – Minggu 4 7 Epistemological basis   Epistemology: theory of knowledge and belief (nature, methods, limitations)   Relevant towards social research   With respect to research (Chua ’86):   Positivist: verify/uncover apriori “truths” about phenomena   Interpretive: knowledge is subjective  contextualize   Critical: challenge the status quo   IS/IT research is predominantly positivist (Orlikowski & Baroudi) Zainal Hasibuan & Ruli Manurung MTI Fasilkom UI – IKI80050T 2007/2008 – Ganjil – Minggu 4 8 Ways of acquiring knowledge   Tenacity, force of habit, exposure   Intuition: making informal claims   Authority: trusting highly respected sources   Rationalism a.k.a deductive methods: reasoning, inference   Empiricism a.k.a inductive methods a.k.a. Scientific Method™ Zainal Hasibuan & Ruli Manurung MTI Fasilkom UI – IKI80050T 2007/2008 – Ganjil – Minggu 4 9 Pseudoscience (a.k.a. bogus research)   Characteristics:   Unfalsifiable statements   Emphasis on confirmation rather than refutation   Absence of self-correction   Overuse of anecdotal evidence   Examples: handwriting analysis, astrology Zainal Hasibuan & Ruli Manurung MTI Fasilkom UI – IKI80050T 2007/2008 – Ganjil – Minggu 4 10 Categories of research methods   Quantitative: answers are found through numerical data   Field & lab experiments   Surveys   Formal methods (e.g. mathematical modelling)   Qualitative: answers are found through textual data   Action research   Case studies   Grounded theory   Ethnography   Differentiate between data gathering & data analysis These methods are not orthogonal / mutually exclusive. Zainal Hasibuan & Ruli Manurung MTI Fasilkom UI – IKI80050T 2007/2008 – Ganjil – Minggu 4 11 Research Methods (upon which methodologies can be built) Case Study Types of research methods Zainal Hasibuan & Ruli Manurung MTI Fasilkom UI – IKI80050T 2007/2008 – Ganjil – Minggu 4 12 Research Method: Experiments Zainal Hasibuan & Ruli Manurung MTI Fasilkom UI – IKI80050T 2007/2008 – Ganjil – Minggu 4 13 Experimental Research   Experimental Research: research that allows for the causes of behaviour to be determined   Experiment: a carefully regulated procedure where one or more factors are deliberately manipulated and all other factors are held constant.   Cause-effect relationship occurs if:   The cause is correlated with the effect.   The cause occurred before the effect.   We can rule out other plausible explanations of the causal relationship   Example: Learning effectiveness of e-Learning system Zainal Hasibuan & Ruli Manurung MTI Fasilkom UI – IKI80050T 2007/2008 – Ganjil – Minggu 4 14 Experimental Research: Factors   Independent Variable (IV): factor that is manipulated   Dependent Variable (DV): factor that is measured   Experimental condition: subjects that are manipulated   Control condition: subjects that are not manipulated   Confounding variable: an extraneous variable that should be controlled, but is not. Can lead to false/spurious conclusions   Anecdote:   Day 1: drink water + beer. Result? Drunk   Day 2: drink water + wine. Result? Drunk   Day 3: drink water + whiskey. Result? Drunk   Conclusion? Zainal Hasibuan & Ruli Manurung MTI Fasilkom UI – IKI80050T 2007/2008 – Ganjil – Minggu 4 15 Quasi-experimental research   Quasi-experimental research   Almost but not quite real experiments   No manipulation of the variables (so no IV)   Compare groups biased on naturally occurring variables   Two types of natural variables   Subject variable: Characteristics that vary between participants, but can not be manipulated   Time variable: Comparing individuals at different points in time (age 3 and 6)   One-shot post-test, no control group   Example: The impact of marketing strategy Zainal Hasibuan & Ruli Manurung MTI Fasilkom UI – IKI80050T 2007/2008 – Ganjil – Minggu 4 16 Causal-comparative research Ex Post Facto = Causal-Comparative Research   Explores possible causes and effects   The independent variable is not manipulated, it has already been applied   Focuses first on the effect, then attempts to determine what caused the observed effect.   Seeks to explain differences between two groups that have occurred   Example: Why are IT multinational companies are more innovative than local firms? Zainal Hasibuan & Ruli Manurung MTI Fasilkom UI – IKI80050T 2007/2008 – Ganjil – Minggu 4 17 Zainal Hasibuan & Ruli Manurung MTI Fasilkom UI – IKI80050T 2007/2008 – Ganjil – Minggu 4 18 Research Method: Surveys Zainal Hasibuan & Ruli Manurung MTI Fasilkom UI – IKI80050T 2007/2008 – Ganjil – Minggu 4 19 Survey Research   The survey is a group of research methods commonly used to determine the present status of a given phenomenon   A survey is a systematic method of collecting primary data based on a sample   Survey may be used for exploratory, descriptive and causal studies   Unlike case study, the purpose of a survey is not to consider a specific case in depth but to capture the main characteristics of the population at any instant   For example: We want to explore the opinion of top executives on IT Manager Powell, 1999 Zainal Hasibuan & Ruli Manurung MTI Fasilkom UI – IKI80050T 2007/2008 – Ganjil – Minggu 4 20