from inquiry to academic writing citation and academic citation/documentation styles
Academic writing and citation
How to write an academic paper and get it approved
Rannveig Windingstad, Head librarian
Student Library Sophus Bugge I will talk about
• Why academic integrity is important
• The consequences of cheating
• How to write a good paper
• How to evaluate your sources
• How to cite correctly
• The online resources «Writing and
Publishing» and «Search and Write»
This thing called science
• One of the main points of
science is that a
research result must be
verifiable by others
• A scientific paper must
show where the
knowledge comes from
and within which tradition
Put your own mind into it
• Independent thougth and new ideas are key
elements in a work of science
• You can use facts and theories from different
sources, but the conclusions that you draw
from them must be your own
• The teachers already have all the text books.
They want know what you think
But I’m not a cheater…
• Many cheat without knowingly doing so
• Not to reference to your sources is
• As a student you are obligated to learn the
rules for academic writing and citation
minations/sources-citations/ The consequences of cheating
If you cheat you risk having your examination
annuled and be excluded from all universities
and university colleges in Norway for a period
of one or two semesters So what is a good paper?
Lars Nyre, professor in Information and media
So what is a good paper?
• Limit your subject
• Take time to form a proper thesis question
• Actively use your curriculum
• Focus, don’t jump around between subjects
• Let your thesis question act as a red thread
through your paper The quest for knowledge Where should I look?
«Google can bring you back 100 000
answers, a librarian can bring you
back the right one.»
-Neil Gaiman Where should I look?
• Google Scholar rather than Google
• Research databases
These sources have quality assurance:
o Peer review
o Scientific research
Where should I look? Evaluate your sources
The relevance of the source
• Does the source treat the subjects you are
• In what way can the source illuminate the
questions you are asking?
• Compare the source with other similar
sources to see what this source covers within
your subject and what it doesn’t.
Evaluate your sources
The quality of the source
• Who is the author?
• What is the audience?
• What is the genre?
• Who is the publisher?
• What is the publication date?
How to get your paper approved What’s your style?
• There are several o APA
• Many fields of
science has a
• Just stick to one of
o and many more…
Four keys to getting your paper approved
• List of references Reference
A reference is information about a source from which
information in your text has been retrieved.
In the text:
Two-thirds of Pompeii has now been excavated (Berry,
2007, p. 41)
In the list of references:
Berry, J. (2007). The Complete Pompeii. London:
Thames & Hudson Reference
The reference will differ after what kind of
source you are using.
• Etc… Quotation
A direct quotation reproduces someone else’s
words exactly as they were written or spoken.
Remember that direct quotations must either
be enclosed within quotation marks or indented
(depending on their length).