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Academic writing and citation

Academic writing and citation 8
Academic writing and citation How to write an academic paper and get it approved Rannveig Windingstad, Head librarian Student Library Sophus Bugge I will talk about • Why academic integrity is important • The consequences of cheating • How to write a good paper • How to evaluate your sources • How to cite correctly • The online resources «Writing and Publishing» and «Search and Write» This thing called science • One of the main points of science is that a research result must be verifiable by others • A scientific paper must show where the knowledge comes from and within which tradition you’re writing Put your own mind into it • Independent thougth and new ideas are key elements in a work of science • You can use facts and theories from different sources, but the conclusions that you draw from them must be your own • The teachers already have all the text books. They want know what you think But I’m not a cheater… • Many cheat without knowingly doing so • Not to reference to your sources is considered cheating • As a student you are obligated to learn the rules for academic writing and citation • http://www.uio.no/english/studies/admin/exa minations/sourcescitations/ The consequences of cheating If you cheat you risk having your examination annuled and be excluded from all universities and university colleges in Norway for a period of one or two semesters So what is a good paper Lars Nyre, professor in Information and media science explains So what is a good paper Summary: • Limit your subject • Take time to form a proper thesis question • Actively use your curriculum • Focus, don’t jump around between subjects • Let your thesis question act as a red thread through your paper The quest for knowledge Where should I look «Google can bring you back 100 000 answers, a librarian can bring you back the right one.» Neil Gaiman Where should I look • Oria • Google Scholar rather than Google • Research databases These sources have quality assurance: o References o Peer review o Scientific research Where should I look Evaluate your sources The relevance of the source • Does the source treat the subjects you are questioning • In what way can the source illuminate the questions you are asking • Compare the source with other similar sources to see what this source covers within your subject and what it doesn’t. Evaluate your sources The quality of the source • Who is the author • What is the audience • What is the genre • Who is the publisher • What is the publication date How to get your paper approved What’s your style • There are several o APA reference styles o Chicago • Many fields of o Harvard science has a o Oxford prefered style o MLA • Just stick to one of o and many more… them Four keys to getting your paper approved • Reference • Paraphrase • Quotation • List of references Reference A reference is information about a source from which information in your text has been retrieved. In the text: Twothirds of Pompeii has now been excavated (Berry, 2007, p. 41) In the list of references: Berry, J. (2007). The Complete Pompeii. London: Thames Hudson Reference The reference will differ after what kind of source you are using. • Book • Ebook • Journal • Website • Etc… Quotation A direct quotation reproduces someone else’s words exactly as they were written or spoken. Remember that direct quotations must either be enclosed within quotation marks or indented (depending on their length). Quotation example 1 Words words words words words words words words words “The single life that exists in late modern society may be perceived as forming part of such a democratic culture. One may say that it is an effect of the democratisation of the private sphere.” (Kloster 2003, p. 10). Words words words words words words words words words. Quotation example 2 Words words words words words words words words words words words words words. The single life that exists in late modern society may be perceived as forming part of such a democratic culture. One may say that it is an effect of the democratisation of the private sphere. (Kloster 2003, p. 10). Words words words words words words words words words words words words. Paraphrase Paraphrasing involves reformulating someone else’s words. You should preferrably change both vocabulary and word order, and rewrite it using your own words. Be careful, however, not to distort the original meaning. EXAMPLE: Kloster (2003, p. 10) writes in his doctoral thesis that the single life that exists in late modern society is a consequence of the democratisation of the private realm. List of references A list of reference (also called a bibliography) must be included at the end of your essay. Beck, U. BeckGemsheim, E. (1995) The normal chaos of love. Cambridge, Polity Press. Dretske, F. I. (1993) Conscious experience. Mind, 102 (406), p 263283. Rognstad, OA., Nagel, AH., Laupsa, H. Tønnesson, J. L. (2006) God skikk – Om bruk av litteratur og kilder i allmenne, historiske framstillinger. Available at: http://uit.no/getfile.phpPageId=5839FileId=38 Retrieved on 28 November 2007. Oria • Oria is the library catalogue • Oria can help you find your sources and also with how to reference from them Reference management tools • RefWorks • EasyBib • End note – EndNote is most used at UiO. The library teaches classes on how to use it, and there is a very active and useful facebook group Use Writing and Publishing When in doubt – ask • Ask your teacher • Ask the library Good luck with your paper
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