Highway development in india ppt

national highway development project ppt and ppt on highway development
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Dr.NeerajMittal,India,Teacher
Published Date:18-07-2017
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TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING-I PCCI4302 Lecture-1 Highway Development And Planning Civil Engineering Department College of Engineering and Technology(CET) Bhubaneswar Transportation engineering • Transportation engineering is the application of technology and scientific principles to the planning, functional design, operation and management of facilities for any mode of transportation in order to provide for the safe, efficient, rapid, comfortable, convenient, economical, and environmentally compatible movement of people and goods from one place to other.MODES OF TRANSPORTATION • Highways Car, Bus, Truck, non- motorized ..etc • Railways Passenger and Goods • Airways Aircraft and Helicopters • Waterways Ships, boats… • Continuous Flow systems Pipelines,belts,elevetor,ropeway…etc. • Merits and Demerits: Based on accessibility, mobility, cost, tonnage..Airways • Fastest among all other modes • More comfortable • Time saving • Uneconomical Waterways • slowest among all other modes • It needs minimum energy to haul unit load through unit distance. • This can be possible between ports on the sea routes or along the river • economicalRailways • The transportation along the railways track could be advantageous by railways between the stations both for the passengers and goods, particularly for long distance. • It depends upon the road transport i.e. road could serve as a feeder system. • Energy require to haul a unit load through unit distance by the railway is only ¼ to 1/5 of that required by road. • SafetyHighways • It gives the maximum service to one and all • It gives maximum flexibility for travel with reference to route, direction, time and speed of travel • It provide door to door service • Other modes are depend on it • It requires small investment for the government • Motor vehicles are cheaper than other carriers like rail locomotive and wagons • It saves the time for short distance • High degree of accident due to flexibility of movementScope of highway engineering • Development, planning and location • Highway design, geometric and structure • Traffic performance and its control • Materials, construction and maintenance • Economic, finance and administrationROLE /IMPACT OF TRANSPORTATION • Economic Development • Social Development • Spatial Development • Cultural Development • Political DevelopmentCharacteristics of road transport • Roads are used by various types of road vehicles, like passenger cars, buses, trucks, pedal cycle and animal drawn vehicle. • It requires a relatively small investment for the government. • It offers a complete freedom to road users to transfer the vehicle from one lane to another and from one road to another according to need and convenience. • Speed and movement is directly related with the severity of accident. • Road transport is the only means of transport that offers itself to the whole community alike.HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF ROAD CONSTRUCTION • Oldest mode  Foot paths- animal ways, cart path…….. • As civilization evolved the need for transportation increased ROMAN ROAD-(500 B.C.)  They were built straight regardless of gradient  They were built after the soft soil was removed and a hard stratum was reached.  Thickness varies from 0.75 m to 1.2mRoman Road Construction Basic cross sectionModern Highway Roman RoadsOther oldest road transport are • Tresaguet construction • Metcalf construction • Telford construction • Mecadam constructionIndian Roads • India has a large road network of over 3.314 million kilometers of roadways (2.1 million rd miles), making it 3 largest road network in the world. • At 0.66 km of highway per square kilometer of land the density of India’s highway network is higher than that of the United States (0.65) and far higher than that of China's (0.16) or Brazil's (0.20).Highway Development in India • Jayakar Committee (1927) • Central Road Fund (1929) • Indian Roads Congress (IRC), 1934 • Central Road Research Institute (CRRI), 1950 • Motor vehicle act (1936) • National Highway Authority of India (NHAI),1995 • First twenty year road plan ( 1943-61 ) • Second twenty year road plan ( 1961-81 ) • Highway Research board ( 1973 ) • National Transport Policy committee ( 1978 ) • Third twenty year road plan ( 1981-2001 )Jayakar Committee,1927 • After the first World War, motor vehicle using the roads increases, this demanded a better road network. • In 1927,Indian road development committee was appointed by the government with M.R. Jaykar as chairman. • Road development in the country should be made as a national interest since local govt. do not have financial and technical capacity for road development. • An extra tax should be levied on petrol from road users to create the road development fund. • To establish a semi-official ,technical institution to pool technical knowledge, sharing of ideas and to act as an advisory body. • To create a national level institution to carry research , development works and consultation.Central road fund st • It was formed on 1 march 1929 • The consumers of petrol were charged an extra leavy of 2.64 paisa per litre of petrol to built up this road development fund. • From this 20% of annual reveneu is to be retain as a central reveneu for research and experimental work expenses..etc • Balance 80% is allowed by central govt. to various states based on actual petrol consumption or revenue collected.Central Road Fund , 1929 CRF Act , 2000 Distribution of 100% cess on petrol as follows: 57.5% for NH MORTH 30% for SH 12.5% for safety works on rail-Road crossing. 50% cess on diesel for Rural Road developmentIndian Roads Congress, 1934 • Central semi official body known as IRC was formed in 1934. • To provide national forum for regular pooling of experience and ideas on matters related to construction and maintenance of highways. • It is a active body controlling the specification, standardization and recommendations on materials, design of roads and bridges. • It publishes journals, research publications and standard specifications guide lines. • To provide a platform for expression of professional opinion on matters relating to roads and road transport.Motor vehicle act • It was formed in 1939 • To regulate the road traffic in the form of traffic laws, ordinances and regulations. • Three phases primarily covered are control of driver, vehicle ownership and vehicle operation • It was revised on 1988