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Highway Development And Planning
Highway Development And Planning 11
Highway Development And Planning
Civil Engineering Department
College of Engineering and Technology(CET)
Bhubaneswar Transportation engineering
• Transportation engineering is the
application of technology and scientific
principles to the planning, functional design,
operation and management of facilities for
any mode of transportation in order to
provide for the safe, efficient, rapid,
comfortable, convenient, economical, and
environmentally compatible movement of
people and goods from one place to other.MODES OF TRANSPORTATION
• Basic mode of transportation are
AirMODES OF TRANSPORTATION
Car, Bus, Truck, non- motorized ..etc
Passenger and Goods
Aircraft and Helicopters
• Continuous Flow systems
• Merits and Demerits: Based on accessibility, mobility, cost, tonnage..Airways
• Fastest among all other modes
• More comfortable
• Time saving
• slowest among all other modes
• It needs minimum energy to haul unit load
through unit distance.
• This can be possible between ports on the sea
routes or along the river
• The transportation along the railways track
could be advantageous by railways between
the stations both for the passengers and
goods, particularly for long distance.
• It depends upon the road transport i.e. road
could serve as a feeder system.
• Energy require to haul a unit load through
unit distance by the railway is only ¼ to 1/5
of that required by road.
• It gives the maximum service to one and all
• It gives maximum flexibility for travel with reference
to route, direction, time and speed of travel
• It provide door to door service
• Other modes are depend on it
• It requires small investment for the government
• Motor vehicles are cheaper than other carriers like
rail locomotive and wagons
• It saves the time for short distance
• High degree of accident due to flexibility of
movementScope of highway engineering
• Development, planning and location
• Highway design, geometric and structure
• Traffic performance and its control
• Materials, construction and maintenance
• Economic, finance and administrationROLE /IMPACT OF TRANSPORTATION
• Economic Development
• Social Development
• Spatial Development
• Cultural Development
• Political DevelopmentCharacteristics of road transport
• Roads are used by various types of road vehicles,
like passenger cars, buses, trucks, pedal cycle and
animal drawn vehicle.
• It requires a relatively small investment for the
• It offers a complete freedom to road users to
transfer the vehicle from one lane to another and
from one road to another according to need and
• Speed and movement is directly related with the
severity of accident.
• Road transport is the only means of transport that
offers itself to the whole community alike.HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF ROAD
• Oldest mode
Foot paths- animal ways, cart path……..
• As civilization evolved the need for transportation
ROMAN ROAD-(500 B.C.)
They were built straight regardless of gradient
They were built after the soft soil was removed and
a hard stratum was reached.
Thickness varies from 0.75 m to 1.2mRoman Road Construction
Basic cross sectionModern Highway
Roman RoadsOther oldest road transport are
• Tresaguet construction
• Metcalf construction
• Telford construction
• Mecadam constructionIndian Roads
• India has a large road network of over 3.314
million kilometers of roadways (2.1 million
miles), making it 3 largest road network in the
• At 0.66 km of highway per square kilometer of
land the density of India’s highway network is
higher than that of the United States (0.65) and
far higher than that of China's (0.16) or Brazil's
(0.20).Highway Development in India
• Jayakar Committee (1927)
• Central Road Fund (1929)
• Indian Roads Congress (IRC), 1934
• Central Road Research Institute (CRRI), 1950
• Motor vehicle act (1936)
• National Highway Authority of India (NHAI),1995
• First twenty year road plan ( 1943-61 )
• Second twenty year road plan ( 1961-81 )
• Highway Research board ( 1973 )
• National Transport Policy committee ( 1978 )
• Third twenty year road plan ( 1981-2001 )Jayakar Committee,1927
• After the first World War, motor vehicle using the roads
increases, this demanded a better road network.
• In 1927,Indian road development committee was appointed
by the government with M.R. Jaykar as chairman.
• Road development in the country should be made as a
national interest since local govt. do not have financial and
technical capacity for road development.
• An extra tax should be levied on petrol from road users to
create the road development fund.
• To establish a semi-official ,technical institution to pool
technical knowledge, sharing of ideas and to act as an
• To create a national level institution to carry research ,
development works and consultation.Central road fund
• It was formed on 1 march 1929
• The consumers of petrol were charged an extra
leavy of 2.64 paisa per litre of petrol to built up
this road development fund.
• From this 20% of annual reveneu is to be retain
as a central reveneu for research and
experimental work expenses..etc
• Balance 80% is allowed by central govt. to
various states based on actual petrol
consumption or revenue collected.Central Road Fund , 1929
CRF Act , 2000
Distribution of 100% cess on petrol as follows:
57.5% for NH
30% for SH
12.5% for safety works on rail-Road crossing.
50% cess on diesel for Rural Road developmentIndian Roads Congress, 1934
• Central semi official body known as IRC was formed in
• To provide national forum for regular pooling of
experience and ideas on matters related to construction
and maintenance of highways.
• It is a active body controlling the specification,
standardization and recommendations on materials,
design of roads and bridges.
• It publishes journals, research publications and standard
specifications guide lines.
• To provide a platform for expression of professional
opinion on matters relating to roads and road transport.