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Experimental methods in Marine Hydrodynamics

Experimental methods in Marine Hydrodynamics
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Dr.SamuelHunt,United Arab Emirates,Teacher
Published Date:21-07-2017
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TMR7 Experimental methods in Marine Hydrodynamics – week 35 Instrumentation (ch. 4 in Lecture notes) • Measurement systems – short introduction • Measurement using strain gauges • Calibration • Data acquisition • Different types of transducers 100 90 80 70 60 Instrumentation 50 40 and data 30 20 acquisition 10 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Speed m/s Measurement result Physical process 1 (numbers) Resistance NThe old resistance measurement system x kg Towing Carriage Ship model Transducer = weights, wheels and string Data acquisition = writing down total weight 2The new resistance measurement system Data acquisition and signal conditioning system A/D Filter Amplifier Towing Carriage Ship model Transducer based on strain gauges 3Measurement systems Analog signals Digital signals +- 10 mV +- 10V DC Amplifier Filter A/D Transducers 4Strain gauges 5D R- R R Wheatstone bridge B Force K •DR is change of resistance due to elongation of the strain gauge Strain 1 2 gauges • R is known, variable resistances in the amplifier A V B G g • V is excitation – a known, in constant voltage source • V is signal g C Side view Front view V in Supply of constant voltage 6 D R+ R RWheatstone bridge • Constant voltage (can also be current) is supplied between A and C • The measured voltage (or current) between B and G depends on the difference between the resistances R -R 1 4 • One or more of the resistances R -R are strain gauges 1 4 • If all resistances are strain gauges, it is a full bridge circuit • If only one resistance is a strain gauge it is a quarter bridge Supply of constant voltage circuit 7 Output voltage measurementD R- R R Force transducer with two strain gauges, using a Wheatstone half bridge B Force K Strain 1 2 gauges A V B G g C Side view Front view V in 8 D R+ R RCalibration • How to relate an output Voltage from the amplifier to the physical quantity of interest Adjust calibration Known load Known measurement value factor Analog signals Digital signals +- 10V DC +- 10 mV Amplifier Filter A/D Transducers In a measurement: Measurement value = transducer output  amplification  calibration factor In a calibration: Calibration factor = Known load / (transducer output amplification ) 9What is the calibration factor dependent on? • Type of strain gauges used (sensitivity) Sensor dependence • Shape of sensor and placement of strain gauges • Excitation voltage Amplifier settings • Amplification factor (gain) dependence This means that one shall preferably calibrate the sensor with the same amplifier and same settings as will be used in the experiment 10Zero level measurement • The measurement is made relative to a known reference level – Typically, the signal from the unloaded transducer is set as zero reference • Two options: – Balancing the measurement bridge by adjusting the variable resistances in the amplifier • Tare/Zero adjust function in the amplifier – First making a measurement of the transducer in the reference condition (typically unloaded), and then subtract this measured value from all subsequent measurements • This is usually taken care of by the measurement software (Catman) • In hydrodynamic model tests, we usually use both options in each experiment 11R-DR R Amplifiers • Many different types: – DC – AC – Charge amplifier (for piezo-electric sensors) – Conductive wave probe amplifier • Provides the sensor with driving current (V ) in • Amplifies the sensor output from mV to (usually) 10V DC • Tare/zero adjust function (bridge balancing) – Adjusting the resistances R , R , R , R in the Wheatstone bridge 1 2 3 4 to get zero V in unloaded condition B G Force K Strain 1 2 gauges Analog signals Digital signals A V B G g +- 10V DC Amplifier Filter A/D C 12 Transducers Side view Front view V in D R+ R RA/D converters • Conversion of analog 10V DC signal to digital • Typically 12 to 20 bits resolution • Typically 8 to several hundred channels • Each brand and model requires a designated driver in the computer, and often a custom data acquisition software • Labview works with National Instruments (NI) A/D converters, but also other brands provides drivers for Labview • Catman is designed to work only with HBM amplifiers Analog signals Digital signals +- 10V DC Amplifier Filter A/D 13 TransducersA/D conversion – sampling of data • The continuous analog signal is sampled at regular intervals - the sampling interval h s – The analog value at a certain instant is sensed and recorded • The analog signal is thus represented by a number of discrete – digital – values (numbers) • The quality of the digital representation of the signal depends on: – The sampling frequency f=1/h Hz – The accuracy of the number representing the analog value • The accuracy means the number of bits representing the number 8 • 8 bit means only 2 =256 different values are possible for the number representing the analog value = poor accuracy 20 • 20 bit means 2 =1048576 different values = good accuracy – The measurement range vs. the range of values in the experiment – High sampling frequency and high accuracy both means large amounts of data being recorded = large data files • The reason not to use high sampling frequency is mainly to reduce file size 14Sampling frequency Nyquist frequency f c 1 f c 2h Means: •You need at least two samples per wave period to properly represent the wave in in the digitized data •You should have more samples per period to have good representation … •Less than two samples per wave period will give “false signals” (downfolding) 15Effect of folding Response spectrum • To avoid folding: S – Make sure f is high enough c that all frequencies are correctly recorded f c or – Apply analogue low-pass filtering of the signal, removing all signal frequency components at frequency above f before the signal is c sampled 16Filters – to remove parts of the signal Amplitude Ideal characteristic Real characteristic Removes high frequency part of signal (noise) Low pass filter Removes low frequency part of High pass filter signal (mean value) Retains only signals in a certain frequency band Band pass filter Frequency Analog signals Digital signals +- 10V DC Amplifier Filter A/D 17 TransducersFiltering – low pass filter Asymmetric filtering (used in real-time) 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Averaging window 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 -2.5 Symmetric filtering (can only be used after the test) 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 Averaging window 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 -2.5 Now Real time filters always introduce a phase shift – a delay 18Data acquisition without filtering • It is OK to do data acquisition without filtering as long as there is virtually no signal above half the sampling frequency – so there is no noise that is folded down into the frequency range of interest • Requires high sampling frequency – (100 Hz, depending on noise sources) • Requires knowledge of noise in unfiltered signal – Spectral analysis, use of oscilloscope • Unfiltered data acquisition eliminates the filter as error source, and eliminates the problem of phase shift due to filtering – Drawbacks: • Must have good control of high-frequency noise • Large sampling frequency means large data files 19Selection of filter and sampling frequency • The problem with high sampling frequency is that result files become large – Double the sampling frequency means double the file size – This is less of a problem for measurement of low-frequency phenomena (ship motions etc.) • Low-pass filter should be set just high enough to let the most high-frequency signal of interest to pass unmodified • Sampling frequency should then be set to at least twice the low-pass filter cut-off frequency, preferably 5-10 times this value – 20 Hz Low-Pass filter  minimum: 40 Hz sampling recommended: 200 Hz sampling 20